CSI Battlefield: 7 ways forensic science is used in war
Forensic science is associated with hit TV shows and catching criminals at home, but it's also used by the military. Here are 7 ways it is:
1. Crater analysis
Photo: US Air Force Senior Airman Christopher Gross
Crater analysis is the study of holes caused by explosions and incoming rounds. It has two major uses. For decades, experts have looked at craters to determine what caliber weapon an artillery attack used and where it was fired from. Since the invention of IEDs, it has also been used to determine what size and type of explosive charge was used in the device.
2. Swabbing for explosives
Photo: US Army Sgt. James Bunn
Determining what type of explosives were used in an IED allows military intelligence to determine what methods insurgents are using to create or smuggle explosives. Tactical site exploitation teams swab IED components and test the residue to learn what the explosive is and how refined it is.
Troops can also swab suspected bombmakers hands or homes to prove insurgent activity, allowing U.S. forces or local military personnel to arrest probable insurgents.
3. Fingerprinting and DNA
Photo: US Army SPC Chenee' Brooks
Fingerprint and DNA collection help commanders track the movement of people around the battlefield and aid in the prosecution of insurgents. Investigators grab fingerprints and DNA from inside known areas of enemy activity, from weapons and material, and from suspected insurgents.
Where each matching sample appears on the battlefield will let commanders know if a known bomb maker is in a certain region and will increase the chance that an insurgent is caught at a checkpoint where troops have a fingerprint reader.
Army scientist can even detect explosive materials in the fingerprints found at a site.
4. Testing for chemical and biological deployments
Photo: US Navy Photographer's Mate 1st Class Timm Duckworth
When troops come under biological or chemical attack, it's obviously best if the military can quickly determine what agents were used against them. The U.S. has chemical warfare experts in most units who can quickly determine what threat is in the area with special collection papers that test chemical reactions.
The military has also developed an automated tool that automatically tests the environment all the time. The Joint Chemical Agent Detector (M4A1) alerts troops to the presence of an agent, tells them what level of protection is likely required, and identifies the most likely agent being used against them.
5. Searching combat camera, public affairs, and satellite imagery for clues
Photo: US Marine Corps Master Sgt. Paul D. Bishop
Investigators and forensic technicians on the battlefield get precious few opportunities to collect data from many battlefields, especially if their side isn't holding the ground at the end of the day. So they often collect data from military photographs and other imagery.
Photos from during the battle can give up clues like which side was where when a war crime was committed, and satellite imagery has already been used to prove the location and scope of mass killings by ISIS. Digital information collected from ISIS social media postings has given Air Force commanders enough information to target a strike.
6. Searching for hidden graves or other evidence
After massacres and other war crimes, criminals often hide all the evidence they can including the bodies of their victims. To bring closure to families and to aid in prosecution down the line, experts hunt out likely mass graves or other caches of hidden evidence.
Iraqi forensic teams have been following the front line as Iraqi and international troops push back ISIS. In Tikrit and other cities hit hard, they've found evidence of large executions and exhumed mass graves.
7. Scanning the atmosphere to detect nuclear detonations and materials
After nuclear tests by foreign countries like North Korea, America and other countries use particle detectors to see how much nuclear material might have been detonated and to prove a detonation took place. During the Cold War, U-2 flights collected particles to learn what weapons the Cold War had in development.
Research is underway to help detect nuclear materials or weapons in transit to shut down smuggling routes and protect population centers.