The NFL's Combat Losses Show The Playoffs Aren't Really 'Life Or Death' - We Are The Mighty
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The NFL’s Combat Losses Show The Playoffs Aren’t Really ‘Life Or Death’

It’s NFL playoff time — the part of the season that TV sports commentators refer to as “life or death” for teams that still have a chance to win the Super Bowl. But in the league’s history a number of players have learned about real matters pertaining to life and death as a result of serving in the military during wartime.


Also Read: 5 Hollywood Directors Who Served And Filmed Real Wars 

Records show that 638 NFL athletes joined the military during World War II. Of those, 23 died. Over 200 NFL players fought during the Korean War, but there were no casualties. Twenty-eight players fought in Vietnam; two of them were killed in action. And one NFL player — the only one to sign up — was killed during the War in Afghanistan.

Here are details of four of these heroes of the gridiron who sacrificed their lives while answering a call that extended well beyond the lines on the field:

The NFL’s Combat Losses Show The Playoffs Aren’t Really ‘Life Or Death’

1st. Lt. Jack Lummus, Marine Corps, (end, New York Giants, 1941-1942) – Killed on Iwo Jima in 1945

Lummus was a defensive end for the New York Giants before earning his commission in the Marine Corps. In March of 1945 he fought with extreme valor at the Battle of Iwo Jima in the Pacific Theater of World War II, helping his platoon take out well-fortified enemy positions despite being wounded. He was eventually felled by a landmine, and before succumbing to his wounds he famously told the medic that was trying to save his life, “Well, doc, the New York Giants lost a mighty good end today.”

Lummus posthumously received the Medal of Honor for his actions.

The NFL’s Combat Losses Show The Playoffs Aren’t Really ‘Life Or Death’

Major Don Steinbrunner, Air Force, (Cleveland Browns, 1953) – Killed in Vietnam in July 1967

Steinbrunner, who joined the ROTC while in college, was called to active duty following his rookie season with Cleveland in 1953. Upon completion of a two-year tour of duty as an Air Force navigator, he considered returning to the Browns but opted to pursue a military career due to concerns that he would aggravate a knee injury he’d sustained during his first season.

In 1966, Steinbrunner received orders to Vietnam. Not long after his arrival, he was shot in the knee during an aerial mission. Due to his injury, he was offered an opportunity to accept a less dangerous assignment, but declined, preferring to return to his unit. On July 20, 1967, Steinbrunner’s C-123 was shot down over South Vietnam during a defoliation mission that involved spraying Agent Orange on the jungle canopy.

Posthumously, Don Steinbrunner was awarded the Purple Heart and the Distinguished Flying Cross. His citation read in part, “Disregarding the hazards of flying the difficult target terrain and the opposition presented by hostile ground forces, he led the formation through one attack and returned to make a second attack. The outstanding heroism and selfless devotion to duty displayed by Major Steinbrunner reflect great credit upon himself and the United States Air Force.”

The NFL’s Combat Losses Show The Playoffs Aren’t Really ‘Life Or Death’

2nd Lt. Bob Kalsu, Army, (guard, Buffalo Bills, 1968-1969) – Killed in Vietnam in July 1970

Kalsu entered the Army as a second lieutenant following his promising rookie season with the Bills. Unlike many professional athletes who were draft eligible or had ROTC military commitments during those years, Kalsu did not seek the help of the Bills organization to arrange for a non-combat assignment in the reserves.

On July 21, 1970, following eight months of heavy fighting with enemy troops, Lieutenant Kalsu was killed when his unit came under heavy fire while defending Ripcord Base on an isolated jungle mountaintop. Two days later back in Oklahoma City his wife gave birth to their second child.

The NFL’s Combat Losses Show The Playoffs Aren’t Really ‘Life Or Death’

Cpl. Pat Tillman, Army, (defensive back, Arizona Cardinals, 1998-2002) – Killed in Afghanistan in April 2004

Pat Tillman gave up a multimillion-dollar contract to serve his country, motivated by the 9/11 terrorist attacks. When he enlisted and started his training that eventually earned him his Ranger Tab, Tillman was just 25 years old and entering his fifth NFL season with one All-Pro season under his belt.

On April 22, 2004 Tillman was on his second combat tour when he was killed by gunfire in Afghanistan near the eastern border. The incident was originally reported as enemy action but eventually the Army admitted that Tillman had been killed by friendly fire during a patrol where another element of his squad lost spatial awareness and directed fire toward him. Tillman was posthumously awarded the Silver Star (that the Army justified in spite of the fact it was awarded before the facts emerged) and Purple Heart.

NOW: Incredible Photos Of US Marines Learning How To Survive In The Jungle During One Of Asia’s Biggest Military Exercises 

OR: 39 Awesome Photos Of Life In The US Marine Corps Infantry 

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Here’s the difference between special ops and special forces

The NFL’s Combat Losses Show The Playoffs Aren’t Really ‘Life Or Death’
USAF special ops training. (Photo: U.S. Air Force)


Possibly one of the most pervasive yet irritating missteps that the media and public in general makes about the military is the use of the terms ‘Special Operations Forces’ (SOF) and Special Forces (SF) interchangeably. In a day and age where special operations units have a growing presence in the media due to the increase of their importance in the asymmetric, non-conventional combat environment that our country has found ourselves in, the mistake has become all too common in headlines on news channels as well as newspapers and magazines. Consider this article a primer for anyone in the media that even remotely cares about their journalistic accuracy, as well as the curious citizen.

Special Operations, or sometimes referred more accurately to as Special Operations Forces, include any unit that falls under the United States Special Operations Command (SOCOM). Naval Special Warfare, Air Force Special Operations Command, Army Special Operations Command, and Marine Special Operations Command are all included under this umbrella. I won’t go further down the ladder and list every unit under those commands, but they cover everything from the 528th Sustainment Brigade and Civil Affairs to the SEAL Teams and Ranger Regiment.

The shadowy Joint Special Operations Command also falls under SOCOM as a sub-unified command but often reports directly to higher authorities due to their unique and often sensitive missions. Who is not covered by the term Special Operations? Anyone who does not fall under the SOCOM umbrella. For example, although Force Recon companies in the Marine Corps are highly trained and undergo a selection process similar to many SOF units, they are not considered Special Operations as they belong to the Marine Corps, not SOCOM.

Now, what about the term “Special Forces”? Special Forces is not a generic term in the U.S. military and refers to a very specific unit. The 1st Special Forces Regiment falls under the command of the Army Special Operations Command (mentioned above) and includes the 1st, 3rd, 5th, 7th, 10th, 19th, and 20th Special Forces Groups.

They are most often referred to by their distinctive headgear, the Green Beret, or simply as “SF.” The Army’s Special Forces are capable of a wide variety of missions but were designed to be the premiere experts on unconventional warfare and foreign internal defense.

As an example of a classic unconventional warfare mission that happened in recent history, after the terror attacks of 9/11 small elements of the 5th Special Forces Group embedded with indigenous fighters from Afghanistan’s Northern Alliance and lead them into battle. Within a matter of weeks, they had effectively neutralized the Taliban threat – accomplished not with brigades and divisions of soldiers, but with only a couple dozen Special Forces soldiers. This is the capability that the 1st Special Forces Regiment brings to the table, and makes them very unique in the larger SOCOM picture.

To summarize, Special Operations Forces is a generic term that you can use to refer to any and all special operations units. Special Forces is the title of a very specific unit and is not a generic term for other units. If you don’t know what unit did something, refer to them as SOF or Special Operations. If you know for a fact that it was a unit from one of the seven Special Forces Groups, then refer to them as Special Forces.

Simple enough … right?

This article originally appeared at The Havok Journal.

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This is how Marines carve pumpkins in one shot

The Marine Corps has just dropped the greatest pumpkin carving video of this year. Three Marines “carve” three pumpkins in the 20-second clip, and they do it from about 15 meters away.


Check out their explosive techniques in the video below:

(You’ll need to be logged in to Facebook to see the video.)


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This hard-working pup won the Coast Guard’s annual photo contest

A photo of Piper, the famous bird-chasing dog who keeps the runways clear at Michigan’s Cherry Capital Airport, won the 2016 Shutter Shootout and claimed the top prize as the U.S. Coast Guard’s Photo of the Year.


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Drumroll please! After thousands of votes, we’re pleased to announce the 2016 #USCG #ShutterShootout photo of the year: U.S. Coast Guard Great Lakes’s Wildlife Control from Air Station Traverse City!

Posted by U.S. Coast Guard on Tuesday, April 5, 2016

 

Piper and his handler, Airport Operations Supervisor Brian Edwards, work as a K9 Wildlife Control team at Traverse County’s Airport. The pup works in all conditions and recently returned to the job after a foot injury.

The Coast Guard’s Shutter Shootout is a social media-driven online competition to showcase Coast Guard men and women from around the world who captured remarkable photographs of rescues, patrols, operations and training days. The contest is a March Madness-type bracket competition. You can see other entries and previous winners on the Coast Guard’s Shutter Shootout blog.

Piper and Edwards’ work keeping the runways clear is documented on Facebook, YouTube, and Instagram.Piper even has his own website: http://www.airportk9.org/

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This Black Cat was bad luck for the Japanese navy

The fighting in the South Pacific during World War II was vicious. One of the big reasons was how evenly-matched the two sides were. One plane called the Black Cat, though, helped the Allies gain a big advantage – and was an omen of ill fortune for the Japanese navy.


According to the Pacific War Encyclopedia, that plane was a modified version of the Consolidated PBY-5A Catalina. This flying boat was a well-proven maritime patrol aircraft – sighting the German battleship Bismarck in time for the British aircraft carrier HMS Ark Royal to launch the strikes that crippled the Nazi vessel in May, 1941.

The PBY had also detected the Japanese fleets at the Battle of Midway.

The NFL’s Combat Losses Show The Playoffs Aren’t Really ‘Life Or Death’
PBY-5A Catalina flying over the Aleutian Islands during World War II. (US Navy photo)

The Catalina had one very big asset: long range. It could fly over 3,000 miles, and was also capable of carrying two torpedoes or up to 4,000 pounds of bombs. The PBY drew first blood at Midway, putting a torpedo in the side of the tanker Akebono Maru. But the long legs came with a price in performance. The PBYs had a top speed of just under 200 mph – making them easy prey if a Japanese A6M Zero saw them.

The planes also were lightly armed, with three .30-caliber machine guns and two .50-caliber machine guns. In “Incredible Victory,” Walter Lord related about how two PBYs were shot up in the space of an hour during the run-up to the Battle of Midway by a Japanese patrol plane. One “sea story” related by Morison had it that one PBY once radioed, “Sighted enemy carrier. Please notify next of kin.”

The NFL’s Combat Losses Show The Playoffs Aren’t Really ‘Life Or Death’
Consolidated PBY-5A Catalina on a patrol during World War II. (US Navy photo)

Planner found, however, that flying PBY missions at night helped keep them alive. During the the Guadalcanal campaign, the first PBY-5As equipped with radar arrived and the first full squadron of “Black Cats” intended for night operations arrived later that year. According to Samuel Eliot Morison’s “The Struggle For Guadalcanal,” the “Black Cats” were a game-changer.

These Black Cats did a little bit of everything. They could carry bombs – often set for a delay so as to create a “mining” effect. In essence, it would be using the shockwave of the bomb to cause flooding and to damage equipment on the enemy vessel. They also attacked airfields, carried torpedoes, spotted naval gunfire during night-time bombardment raids, and of course, searched for enemy ships.

The NFL’s Combat Losses Show The Playoffs Aren’t Really ‘Life Or Death’

Morison wrote about how the crews of the “Black Cats” would have a tradition of gradually filling out the drawing of a cat. The second mission would add eyes, then following missions would add whiskers and other features.

Japan would try to catch the Black Cats – knowing that they not only packed a punch, but could bring in other Allied planes. Often, the planes, painted black, would fly at extremely low level, thwarting the Zeros sent to find them.

The NFL’s Combat Losses Show The Playoffs Aren’t Really ‘Life Or Death’
A PBY Catalina in service with the Japanese Maritime Self-Defense Force. (Photo from Wikimedia Commons)

After World War II, many Catalinas were retired, but some served on. The last military unit to operate them was Brazil’s 1st Air Transport Squadron until they were retired in 1982, according to the website of the Brazilian Air Force Aerospace Museum.

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These British troops launched a ‘proper angry’ bayonet charge during the Iraq War

In May 2004, about 20 British troops were on the move 15 miles south of al-Amara, near the major city of Basra in Iraq. They were on the way to assist another unit that was under fire when their convoy was hit by a surprise of its own.


Shia militias averaged five attacks per day in Basra when the U.K. troops arrived. British soldiers tried to arrest Iraqi cleric Muqtada al-Sadr for supporting the violence and the locals were not happy about it. An unpredictable level of violence broke out. British troops were frequently under assault – an estimated 300 ambushes within three months.

The NFL’s Combat Losses Show The Playoffs Aren’t Really ‘Life Or Death’
UK troops in Southern Iraq (U.S. Army photo)

“We were constantly under attack,” Sgt. Brian Wood told the BBC. “If mortars weren’t coming into our base, then we were dragged out into the city to help other units under fire.”

Wood and other troops from the 1st Battallion of the Princess of Wales’ Royal Regiment were on their way to aid Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders who were attacked by 100 militiamen from al-Sadr’s Mahdi Army when their vehicle struck an IED. The surprise attack actually hit two vehicles carrying 20 troops on a highway south of Amarah. Mortars, rockets, and machine guns peppered the unarmored vehicles.

Rather than drive through the ambush, the vehicles took so much punishment they had to stop on the road. The troops inside dismounted, established a perimeter, and had to call in some help of their own. Ammunition soon ran low.

The decision was made: the British troops fixed bayonets.

The NFL’s Combat Losses Show The Playoffs Aren’t Really ‘Life Or Death’
A Lynx Helicopter of the Army Air Corps ready to touch down on a desert road south of Basra Airport (Wikimedia Commons)

They ran across 600 feet of open ground toward the entrenched enemy. Once on top of the Mahdi fighters, the British bayoneted 20 of the militia. Fierce hand-to-hand combat followed for five hours. The Queen’s men suffered only three injuries.

“We were pumped up on adrenaline — proper angry,” Pvt. Anthony Rushforth told The Sun, a London-based newspaper. “It’s only afterwards you think, ‘Jesus, I actually did that.’ “

What started as a surprise attack on a British convoy ended with 28 dead militiamen and three wounded U.K. troops.

Jihadi propaganda at the time told young fighters that Western armies would run from ambushes and never engage in close combat. They were wrong. Irregular, unexpected combat tactics overwhelmed a numerically superior enemy who had the advantage in surprise and firepower.


Feature image: British MoD photo

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This is why Navy medics get combat first aid training in US cities

They call parts of Chicago “Chiraq” for a reason.


The Chicago Tribune tracks the insane number of shooting victims in the area, broken down by year, month, and location.

And the numbers are staggering.

As gangs inflict casualties on other gang members and innocent bystanders in cities like Chicago, it’s tragically similar to a war zone — so similar, U.S. military medics have been training in the most dangerous parts of America’s cities since at least 2003.

Many of the armed forces’ medical personnel just do not get trauma training they need on the battlefields overseas, so they get it working the battlefields at home.

The NFL’s Combat Losses Show The Playoffs Aren’t Really ‘Life Or Death’
U.S. Navy corpsmen from 1st Medical Battalion rush a casualty during a simulated combat-related trauma at Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center Twentynine Palms, California. (U.S. Marine Corps photo by Pfc. Nadia J. Stark)

“It’s important to get them this kind of training here, so they can see how to stop that bleeding and save that life,” Lt. Cmdr. Stan Hovell, a Navy nurse who worked at Chicago’s Cook County hospital, told the Chicago Tribune. “They pick up those skills and carry it back to the Navy.”

Gangland violence is keeping up with the times when it comes to wounds of warfare. Gang members sometimes even use military-style rifles in their assaults, according to Dale Smith, the chair of the Medical Military History Department at the Uniformed Services University in Bethesda. And they’ve inflicted bayonet-like stabbing wounds.

Hector Becerra of the LA Times wrote in 2003 about the “Juke” – a stabbing move “patented by gangs” that entered below the collarbone, then thrust down into the belly in a twisting motion.

“The first night I took calls here, it was unbelievable,” Navy Cmdr. Peter Rhee, director of the Trauma Training Center at the Los Angeles County-USC Medical Center emergency room told the LA Times. “We ended up opening five chests; we had 10 people shot in the chest. We were operating all night long. It was truly as bad as any kind of wartime experience you could have.”

The NFL’s Combat Losses Show The Playoffs Aren’t Really ‘Life Or Death’
U.S. Navy corpsmen from 1st Medical Battalion assess the extent of injuries on a victim of simulated combat-related trauma aboard Camp Pendleton. (U.S. Marine Corps photo by Pfc. Nadia J. Stark)

The doctors, nurses, and administrators love having medics and corpsmen rotating through their staff because U.S. military personnel are fearless.

“Some of them are very experienced,” Faran Bokhari, the head of Chicago’s Stroger Hospital trauma department told the Chicago Tribune. “They’re not green medical students out of la-la land. They’ve seen the blood and guts.”

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Global Strike Command marks Women’s History Month with all-female crews

On March 22, 2016, all of the United States’ alert intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) missileers and B-52 Stratofortress crews within the United States were crewed by women as part of Air Force Global Strike Command’s recognition of Women’s History Month.


The NFL’s Combat Losses Show The Playoffs Aren’t Really ‘Life Or Death’

Air Force Global Strike Command is the direct descendant unit of the Cold War-era Strategic Air Command (SAC). It holds the lineage, history and honors of SAC. Its mission is to develop and provide combat-ready forces for nuclear deterrence and global strike operations. The SAC was deactivated in 1992.

The NFL’s Combat Losses Show The Playoffs Aren’t Really ‘Life Or Death’
All women missileer crews from Malmstrom Air Force Base, Mont., gather for a pre-departure briefing before heading in the 13,800 square mile missile complex to complete their 24-hour alert. (U.S. Air Force photo by Airman Collin Schmidt)

Following two nuclear weapons-related incidents in 2007 , former Secretary of Defense James R. Schlesinger (who served under Presidents Nixon and Ford) recommended a single major command under which all Air Force nuclear assets should be placed for better accountability. That new command was the Air Force Global Strike Command.

The NFL’s Combat Losses Show The Playoffs Aren’t Really ‘Life Or Death’
Second Lt. Alexandra Rea, 490th Missile Squadron ICBM combat crew deputy director, left, and 1st Lt. Elizabeth Guidara, 12th Missile Squadron combat crew deputy director, perform training at the Malmstrom Air Force Base, Mont. Building 500 Missile Procedures Trainer March, 21, 2016. (U.S. Air Force photo by Airman Collin Schmidt)

The Global Strike Command began operations in August 2009, combining the nuclear-capable strategic bomber force previously operated byAir Combat Command (ACC) and the land-based ICBM force previously operated by Air Force Space Command (AFSPC).

The all-female nuclear force is to honor Women’s History Month. 90 female missileers based out of Minot Air Force Base, North Dakota, F.E. Warren AFB, Wyoming and Malmstrom AFB, Mont. completed a 24-hour alert. In addition, B-52 aircrews from Minot and Barksdale AFB, Louisiana participated by fielding all-female flight crews.

The NFL’s Combat Losses Show The Playoffs Aren’t Really ‘Life Or Death’
Second Lt. Alexandra Rea, 490th Missile Squadron ICBM combat crew deputy director, left, and 1st Lt. Elizabeth Guidara, 12th Missile Squadron combat crew deputy director, perform training at the Malmstrom Air Force Base, Mont. Building 500 Missile Procedures Trainer March, 21, 2016. (U.S. Air Force photo by Airman Collin Schmidt)

During their assignment, the all-female crews of missileers maintained a 24-hour alert shift to sustain an active alert status of the U.S. intercontinental ballistic missile force.

The NFL’s Combat Losses Show The Playoffs Aren’t Really ‘Life Or Death’
An all-female alert missile crew from Malmstrom Air Force Base, Mont., poses for a photograph March 22, 2016, after a pre-departure briefing at the base. (U.S. Air Force photo by Airman Collin Schmidt)

 

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Watch how many rounds it takes to melt a suppressor

The U.S. Armed Forces widely uses the M249 SAW light machine gun, as it’s tried and tested on the battlefield — but all weapons have limitations, as a new video from West Coast Armory shows.


To test the durability of a suppressor, a device used to mask muzzle flash and muffle sound from firearms, the guys at West Coast Armory, a Washington state-based gun range, set up the M249 on a bipod and fed a belt of 700 rounds through it.

To be clear, this qualifies as ridiculously overdoing it and is not advisable in any but the most controlled scenarios.

In the clip below, watch the suppressor get utterly destroyed and the M249’s barrel become red hot.

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Air Force kills the lights at Hawaii station to save endangered birds

The U.S. Air Force will reduce exterior lighting at a Hawaii facility to help protect endangered and threatened seabirds there.


The Air Force agreed to reduce lighting at a mountaintop radar facility on the island of Kauai, The Honolulu Star-Advertiser reports. After the announcement, the Center for Biological Diversity said it no longer intends to sue the Air Force.

The nonprofit conservation group says the threatened Newell’s shearwater and Hawaiian petrel are attracted to bright lights at night, which can cause crashes onto the ground and sometimes death.

The center believes lights at the Kokee Air Force Station caused more than 130 birds to fall out of the air in 2015, including Hawaiian petrels, endangered band-rumped storm petrels and Newell’s shearwaters. Most of them died, the center said.

The NFL’s Combat Losses Show The Playoffs Aren’t Really ‘Life Or Death’
Exterior lighting at Kokee AFB. (Photo by USFWS)

The Kokee Air Force Station was founded in 1961 to detect and track all aircraft operating near Hawaii.

The Air Force has taken steps to try to reduce the bird losses over the years, including switching from white and yellow exterior bulbs to green ones in 2013, according to the Fish and Wildlife Service.

The Air Force also said in June 2016 that it had agreed to turn off outside lights from April through December, when birds are going to and from colonies.

But the Center for Biological Diversity threatened legal action at the end of June 2016, saying the Air Force was violating the Endangered Species Act by not updating its formal consultation about seabirds with the Fish and Wildlife Service.

The center said the Air Force reinitiated the consultation and agreed to ongoing protective measures in response.

The Air Force is “committed to protecting the threatened and endangered bird species that frequent the area around Mt. Kokee Air Force Station,” Col. Frank Flores wrote in an email to The Star-Advertiser.

Flores is the commander of the Pacific Air Forces Regional Support Center, which provides oversight for Kokee Station.

“We have collaborated closely with U.S. Fish and Wildlife Services over the years on this issue. We take environmental stewardship very seriously and will continue to partner with USFWS to protect these species,” Flores wrote.

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Here are the best military photos for the week of Mar. 4

The military has very talented photographers in the ranks, and they constantly attempt to capture what life as a service member is like during training and at war. Here are the best military photos of the week:


AIR FORCE:

A U.S. Air Force B-1B Lancer assigned to the 9th Expeditionary Bomb Squadron approaches the boom pod of a KC-135 Stratotanker assigned to the 909th Aerial Refueling Squadron to receive fuel during Cope North 2017, Feb. 22, 2017. The exercise includes 22 total flying units and more than 2,700 personnel from three countries and continues the growth of strong, interoperable relationships within the Indo-Asia-Pacific region through integration of airborne and land-based command and control assets.

The NFL’s Combat Losses Show The Playoffs Aren’t Really ‘Life Or Death’
U.S. Air Force photo by Senior Airman Keith James

Staff Sgt. Todd Hughes checks the anti-ice detector during an intake inspection on a Thunderbirds F-16C at Daytona Beach, Fla., February 24, 2017. The Thunderbirds will be performing the flyover during the opening ceremonies of the Daytona 500 race on Sunday. Hughes is a dedicated crew chief assigned to the team.

The NFL’s Combat Losses Show The Playoffs Aren’t Really ‘Life Or Death’
U.S. Air Force Photo by Tech. Sgt. Christopher Boitz

ARMY:

1st Sgt. Erik Carlson, Headquarters Troop, 1st Squadron, 40th Cavalry, 4th Infantry Brigade Combat Team (Airborne), 25th Infantry Division awaits transportation at an extraction point after a successful airborne operation in Deadhorse, Alaska, February 22. The battalion’s Arctic capabilities were tested as temperatures with wind chill reached as low as 63 below zero.

The NFL’s Combat Losses Show The Playoffs Aren’t Really ‘Life Or Death’
U.S. Army photo by Staff Sgt. Daniel Love

Members of the Drug Enforcement Administration’s special response team prepare to board a UH-60 Blackhawk helicopter crewed by Soldiers with the 185th Aviation battalion, Mississippi Army National Guard before conducting airborne insertion training Feb. 14, 2017 in Jackson, Mississippi. The Soldiers are assisting the DEA train for interdiction and disaster response operations.

The NFL’s Combat Losses Show The Playoffs Aren’t Really ‘Life Or Death’
Mississippi National Guard photo by Staff Sgt. Shane Hamann, 102d Public Affairs Detachment

NAVY:

SOUTH CHINA SEA (Feb. 21, 2017) Naval Aircrewman (Helicopter) 1st Class Derik Richardson, right, and Naval Aircrewman (Helicopter) 2nd Class Kevin Brodwater, both attached to Helicopter Sea Combat Squadron (HSC) 23 embarked aboard the littoral combat ship USS Coronado (LCS 4), conduct a live-fire exercise aboard an MH-60S Sea Hawk helicopter.

The NFL’s Combat Losses Show The Playoffs Aren’t Really ‘Life Or Death’
U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 2nd Class Amy M. Ressler

SOUTH CHINA SEA (Feb. 23, 2017) Sailors assigned to the littoral combat ship USS Coronado (LCS 4) swim in the South China Sea. Coronado is a fast and agile warship tailor-made to patrol the region’s littorals and work hull-to-hull with partner navies, providing the U.S. 7th Fleet with the flexible capabilities it needs now and in the future.

The NFL’s Combat Losses Show The Playoffs Aren’t Really ‘Life Or Death’
U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 2nd Class Amy M. Ressler

MARINE CORPS:

U.S. Marines and Sailors with Alpha Battery, 1st Battalion, and 12th Marines attached to Alpha Battery, 3D Battalion, make final preparations before heading to the field in the Hijudai Maneuver Area, Japan, Feb. 24, 2017. Marines and sailors participate in the artillery relocation training program to provide timely and accurate fires to sustain military occupational specialty skills, train Marines/sailors in common skills, and promote professional military education for the overall goal of enhancing combat operational readiness and international relationships.

The NFL’s Combat Losses Show The Playoffs Aren’t Really ‘Life Or Death’
U.S. Marine Corps photo by MCIPAC Combat Camera Lance Cpl. Christian J. Robertson

Sri Lankan Marines assault a beach as part of an amphibious capabilities demonstration during the Sri Lanka Marine Corps Boot Camp graduation at Sri Lankan Naval Station Barana in Mullikulum, Sri Lanka, Feb. 27, 2017. The SLMC will be an expeditionary force with specific missions of humanitarian assistance, disaster relief and peacekeeping support.

The NFL’s Combat Losses Show The Playoffs Aren’t Really ‘Life Or Death’
U.S. Marine Corps photo by Lance Cpl. Robert Sweet

COAST GUARD:

Pictured here is Boomer, the mascot of Coast Guard Station Crisfield, Maryland, sitting on the deck of a 45-foot Response Boat-Medium Feb. 28, 2017. Boomer was rescued from a shelter and reported to Station Crisfield as the mascot in December 2013.

The NFL’s Combat Losses Show The Playoffs Aren’t Really ‘Life Or Death’
U.S. Coast Guard photo by Petty Officer 3rd Class Jasmine Mieszala

Petty Officer 3rd Class Dakota Crow and Fireman Cody Rogers of the Coast Guard Cutter Liberty fire a .50 caliber machine gun during a practice fire exercise at the Juneau Police Department firing range in Juneau, Alaska, Feb. 24, 2017. Strict safety guidelines are practiced by all Coast Guard members when it comes to operating any firearms.

The NFL’s Combat Losses Show The Playoffs Aren’t Really ‘Life Or Death’
U.S. Coast Guard photo by Chief Petty Officer Shawn Eggert.

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The SR-71 Blackbird was almost the most versatile fighter plane ever

Have you ever looked at the old SR-71 Blackbird and wondered how awesome it would be as a fighter jet? So did the United States Air Force (for the most part). The SR-71 is based on the super-secret CIA’s A-12 reconnaissance plane. When the Air Force got a glimpse of the A-12 and its capabilities, their minds got to work. 

The first idea to come from the A-12 design was the YF-12, a single-seat interceptor aircraft that closely resembled the A-12 but came packing with guns and missiles instead of photographic and signals intelligence monitoring equipment. 

Lockheed’s YF-12 first took off in August 1963 and unlike its predecessor, the A-12, or its successor, the SR-71, there was nothing really secret about it. The President of the United States first revealed its existence but that might have been a strategic move. It covered up the CIA’s super-secret aircraft and provided enemies a window into the advancements Air Force fighters were making.

The NFL’s Combat Losses Show The Playoffs Aren’t Really ‘Life Or Death’
“Hey, you guys know that whole strapping some guys to some giant rockets and shooting them into space? What if we did that, but a fighter jet?” (U.S. Air Force photo by Don Popp)

The YF-12 was every bit as great as expected, and every bit as great as both the A-12 and the SR-71. It could fly at supersonic speeds of more than 2,000 miles per hour and at altitudes of more than 80,000 feet. It is still the largest and fastest interceptor aircraft ever built. 

It also had an advanced fire control radar system to operate the AIM-47 missiles that could be mounted under its wings. Unlike other missile systems at the time, the AIM-47 was much more accurate and reliable in air-to-air combat. This would have made the YF-12 the deadliest aircraft in the world at the time. 

The Air Force was understandably excited at the prospect of integrating such a fighter aircraft into its air defense network. After successfully testing the AIM-47 missile integration, the USAF placed an order for more than 90 of these flying behemoths, ready to implement them into the defense of the United States. It was a little war brewing in Vietnam that would be the program’s demise. 

As the intensity of the fighting in Southeast Asia increased, so did the American commitment to South Vietnam. Spending on the war increased along with it. Concerned about the cost of the YF-12 program, Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara declined to support the interceptor program and it was ultimately cancelled in 1968. 

The NFL’s Combat Losses Show The Playoffs Aren’t Really ‘Life Or Death’
Buzzkill…
(Defense Intelligence Agency)

All was not lost for the unique airframe, however. Though there was no need for a supersonic, high-altitude interceptor for airspace defense in the U.S., there was a need for an ultra-fast, high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft to fly over places other aircraft wouldn’t dare. The SR-71 Blackbird was born from this need. 

The Blackbird looks exactly like its predecessors but outperforms both of them. It has a greater operational range than the YF-12 and is still the fastest air-breathing manned aircraft ever built, a record set in 1976. 

The NFL’s Combat Losses Show The Playoffs Aren’t Really ‘Life Or Death’
U.S. Air Force

SR-71s were a brief view of what the YF-12 could have been: a fighter aircraft so accurate, it could hit a target on the ground while flying at three times the speed of sound. If another fighter or a surface-to-air missile came up at it, all the pilots had to do was hit the throttle and outrun it. The A-12s, YF-12s and SR-71s were titanium masterpieces of Cold War technology.

Articles

9 reasons why military camouflage works — or doesn’t

Sun Tzu once said that he who is prudent and lies in wait for an enemy who is not, will be victorious.


To be honest, in a way, that is exactly what camouflage is all about. It is not about colors, shapes, or ninja stuff. It is about knowledge, patience, and the manipulation of anything anywhere.

All to achieve one goal: to become the environment. In this article, I am going to give you a small, bitter taste of the art of camouflage.

When I was in the Israeli Airborne SF, I served with one of the SR groups. My secondary specialty in my team was what we call in the IDF, a ‘builder.’ Basically, someone who is capable of concealing anything, from one man to an entire team or vehicles in any environment.

The NFL’s Combat Losses Show The Playoffs Aren’t Really ‘Life Or Death’
Eliran Feildboy. Photo courtesy of Breach Bang Clear.

What is camouflage?

Back in the days, when I used to assist as an instructor for the next generation of builders, one of the first questions I asked the young soldiers in every introduction lesson was, ”What does the word ‘camouflage’ mean to you?”

The majority of the answers were split into two: hiding or disappearing.

While both might sound correct, those two words describe a long-living misconception that one experiences when he gets involved with task-oriented concealment work.

Long story short, the majority of the time camouflage begins with understanding the nature of observation.

The NFL’s Combat Losses Show The Playoffs Aren’t Really ‘Life Or Death’
Applying standard camo. Army photo by Sgt. Michael J. MacLeod.

The purpose of it is not only to hide, but to make you part of the environment, allowing you to safely observe, document, and, when necessary, respond.

Being a master of camouflage means being able to live off nature’s hand for 72 hours (or more), being just hundreds of meters away from the objective, and being able to observe the point of interest all the while.

Let’s say camouflage is the art of manipulation–the controlling of reality.

Fundamentals of Camouflage

There are three fundamental camouflage actions. These are the main principles that are found in any concealing construction.

  • Hiding: The action of hiding is setting a barrier that separates you physically, and often visually, from the surrounding environment and its unfolding reality.
  • Blending: Resembling your surroundings by combining different, like elements into a single entity. The main difference between success to failure lays in properly blending subtle details.
  • Disguising: In short, disguising is an action we perform to alter an existing shape or form. We do that to eliminate or create intentional target indicators, such as smell, shape, or shine. Disguising, for example, is adding vegetation to a Ghillie suit or collecting branches to conceal my hide side.

The NFL’s Combat Losses Show The Playoffs Aren’t Really ‘Life Or Death’
Photo courtesy of Breach Bang Clear.

Target Indicators

Knowledge is power. One of the keys to perfect camouflage at the tactical level is the ability to understand what kind of X or Y signatures my presence creates that will lead to my exposure.

TI, or target indicators, are about understanding what signatures my enemy creates in a specific environment. Those target indicators suggest presence, location, and distance in some cases.

There are two dimensions to consider when detecting and indicated presence. The first–and oldest–dimension is basic human sense. The other is technological.

Human Sense

While smelling, hearing, and touching are obvious senses, but those senses normally only come into play in short distance.

Let’s focus on ‘seeing.’

The NFL’s Combat Losses Show The Playoffs Aren’t Really ‘Life Or Death’
Snipers with 1st Sapper Company, Burundi National Defense Force, observe enemy movement, donning field-made ghillie suits. USMC Photo by 1st Lt. Dominic Pitrone

The visual sense is, by far, the most reliable sense for humans. We use it up to 80% of the time to collect information and orient ourselves. So, what kind of visual signatures could I leave that may lead to my exposure? In short:

  • Shape – The perfectly symmetrical shapes of tents or cars, for example, don’t exist in nature. Those, and the familiar shape of a human being, are immediate eye candy.
  • Silhouette – Similar to ‘shape,’ but with more focus on the background. A soldier walking on top of the hill or someone sneaking in the darkness with dark clothes against a white wall–the distinction of a foreground element from its background makes a target indicator sharp and clear.
  • Shine – Surface related. Radiance or brightness caused by emitted or reflected light. Anything that my skin, equipment, or fabrics may reflect. Popular examples would be the reflection of sunlight on hand watches, skin, or optics for example.
  • Shadow – Shadows are very attractive and easy to distinguish for human eyes, depending on a shadow’s intensity. For example, caves in open fields stand out for miles and are very easy to recognize. As a result, we never use caves for hiding, as they’re a natural draw to the eye.
  • Color – Let’s make it sure and simple–wearing a pink hoody to a funeral is a good way to stand out. Match your environment.

The NFL’s Combat Losses Show The Playoffs Aren’t Really ‘Life Or Death’
Army photo by Pfc. Dixie Rae Liwanag/Released

Technology-Based Target Indicators / Multi-Spectral Awareness

Oh boy, this is where the real challenge begins! I’m actually going to risk it and say that ghillie suits are becoming less and less relevant today due to increases in technology.

Before we will dive into all that Einstein stuff, these are the main wavelengths used by different devices to find your ass:

  • Infra-Red / NIR – Used in NVGs, SWIR cameras, etc. Night-vision devices, for example, use active near-infrared illumination to observe people or animals without the observer being detected.
  • UV – UV radiation is present in sunlight. UV-capable devices are excellent, for example, in snowy environments for picking up differences undetectable by the naked eye.
  • Thermal – Your body generates a temperature different from any immediate background, such as the ground in the morning or a tree in the evening. Devices tend to set clear separations between the heat or cold of different objects, resulting in pretty nice shapes that are easy to distinguish for the observer.
  • Radar (radio)– A radar system consists of a transmitter producing electromagnetic waves, an emitting antenna, and a receiving antenna to capture any waves that return from objects in the path of the emitted signal. A receiver and processor then determine the properties of the object. While often used to detect weather formations, ships, structures, etc., there are numerous devices that can give you an accurate position of vehicles and even humans. It’s a long story, hard to manipulate. Such devices exist already in the tactical level.

It is nearly impossible to eliminate your signature against devices who work within the wave length. The only solution is to understand what the human being sees through advanced optics and manipulate the final result.

The NFL’s Combat Losses Show The Playoffs Aren’t Really ‘Life Or Death’
Army photo by Andrew Zimmer

Buckle up and get your aspirin – we’re moving into the science stuff.

The human and its environment emits different signatures that can be picked up by different technological devices that make use of different types of waves.

Cones in our eyes are the receivers for tiny visible light waves. The sun is a natural source for visible light waves and our eyes see the reflection of this sunlight off the objects around us.

The color of an object that we see is the color of light reflected. All other colors are absorbed.

Technically, we are blind to many wavelengths of light. This makes it important to use instruments that can detect different wavelengths of light to help us study the earth and the universe.

The NFL’s Combat Losses Show The Playoffs Aren’t Really ‘Life Or Death’
Army photo by Sgt. Jeffrey Alexander

However, since visible light is part of the electromagnetic spectrum that our eyes can see, our whole world is oriented around it.

Until recently.

With the advancement of technology, humanity slowly cracked and understood the existence of other light waves.

We began to see those dimensions through different devices.

Since the visual camouflage has foiled many plans throughout a history of wars and conflicts, militaries around the world began researching the possibilities of using non-visible wavelengths in detecting the signature of specific objects in specific environments.

Summary

Camouflage is not about hiding and it’s definitely not only about wearing a ghillie suit or digging deeps foxholes.

The NFL’s Combat Losses Show The Playoffs Aren’t Really ‘Life Or Death’
Soldiers with the Estonian Defense Force defend their position May 12, during Operation Siil in Oandu, Estonia. Army photo by Sgt. Juana Nesbitt.

It’s an involved, looping process that starts with understanding how humans detect and continues with manipulating this detection.

The old standards, such as ghillie suits, are becoming less and less relevant to the modern battle space as detection technologies advance.

New predators such as SWIR or advance thermal cameras are hard to beat unless you know the device, the interface, and the humans who use it.

As Albert Einstein once said, technology has exceeded our humanity–so get creative.

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