One More Wave, the nonprofit that provides wounded and disabled military veterans with customized surfing equipment and community, recently launched Salt Speak, a new space for creative writing. The first installment is an incredibly powerful and poignant poem written and performed by Ranger medic and poet, Leo Jenkins.
“We don’t want to be a Sarah McLachlan charity,” Salt Speak editor-in-chief G.P. Scheppler told Coffee or Die Magazine. “We want people to see what we are doing and say, ‘I want to be a part of that!’”
With a lineup of accomplished veteran poets and writers already in the tube, Salt Speak aims to make waves in the veteran art space.
Jenkins’ ode to One More Wave is overlaid with a gorgeous video edited by Nick Betts, with amazing footage of Jose Martinez, an Army veteran, triple amputee, and adaptive athlete crushing waves with his custom surfboard. We dare you to watch this transcendent production and not be moved.
Marine Corps legend Gen. James Mattis sat down to answer questions about his 40 years of military service with the USMC news service, and his replies should be essential viewing.
He shares personal anecdotes, like how a SAW gunner displayed what is great about the Marine Corps after Mattis was forced to pull him from Fallujah, or why he walked to the opposite side of Camp Rhino in Afghanistan when mortars started coming in during a battle in 2001.
(In true Mad Dog fashion, it turns out that he had walked to that side of the perimeter because he thought there was a good chance of another, potentially larger fight on that side.)
He also reveals that his knifehand can kill enemies within hundreds of miles.
The general describes ways to become a better leader, how to become a better Marine, and what to do to become a better warfighter. It’s a long video, but the entire 16:36 is worthy of your time.
According to the The Milwaukee Journal-Sentinal, American military planners thought the battle would only be a few days. Instead, it dragged on for five weeks, at a cost of more than 6,800 American lives. The Japanese lost more than 18,000.
This Day in Marine Corps History. 19 February 1945: At 08:59, one minute ahead of schedule, the first of an eventual 30,000 Marines of the 3rd Marine Division, the 4th Marine Division, and the new 5th Marine Division, making up the V Amphibious Corps, landed on Iwo Jima The initial wave did not come under Japanese fire for some time, as General Kuribayashi’s plan was to wait until the beach was full of the Marines and their equipment. By the evening, the mountain had been cut off from the rest of the island, and 30,000 Marines had landed. About 40,000 more would follow.
After another week of keeping the barracks secure from enemy attack, Pokemon, and —most importantly—the staff duty NCO, you deserve some funny military memes. Here are 13 of the best that we could find:
1. Wait, you can get out of PT just because you’re already dead?
In the early morning hours of May 7, 1945, the remnants of Nazi Germany’s military leadership signed an unconditional surrender to Allied forces.
When the news broke the next day, soldiers and civilians around the world heralded Victory in Europe Day — the Soviet Union would mark Victory Day on May 9 — exuberant about the end of nearly six years of war that had destroyed much of Europe.
When German and Allied military officials gathered again in Berlin near midnight on May 8 to sign surrender documents, the atmosphere in the room was laden with emotional and political weight.
The Germans, characteristically severe, went through the proceedings in a mix of resignation and resentment, while the Soviets, Americans, and other Allies were relieved at the war’s conclusion.
All of them were uncertain what would come next.
Historian Antony Beevor’s sweeping history of the final months on the eastern front, “The Fall of Berlin 1945,” captured the mood in the room as victors and vanquished gathered to bring their conflict to an end:
“Just before midnight the representatives of the allies entered the hall ‘in a two-storey building of the former canteen of the German military engineering college in Karlshorst.’ General Bogdanov, the commander of the 2nd Guards Tank Army, and another Soviet general sat down by mistake on seats reserved for the German delegation.”
“A staff officer whispered in their ears and ‘they jumped up, literally as if stung by a snake’ and went to sit at another table. Western pressmen and newreel cameramen apparently ‘behaved like madmen’. In their desperation for good positions, they were shoving generals aside and tried to push in behind the top table under the flags of the four allies.”
The German delegation then entered the room — its members looking both “resigned” and “imperious.”
Field Marshal Wilhelm Keitel, commander of the Nazi armed forces during the final days of the war, “sat very straight in his chair, with clenched fists,” Beevor wrote. “Just behind him, a tall German staff officer standing to attention ‘was crying without a single muscle of his face moving.'”
Gen. Georgy Zhukov, a senior Soviet commander during the war’s final days, stood to invite the Germans “to sign the act of capitulation.” Keitel, impatient, gestured for the documents to be brought to him. “Tell them to come here to sign,” Zhukov said.
Keitel walked over to sign, “ostentatiously” removing his gloves to do so, unaware that the representative for the chief of Stalin’s secret police, the NKVD, was lingering just over his shoulder.
“‘The German delegation may leave the hall,'” Zhukov said once the signing was complete, Beevor wrote, adding:
“The three men stood up. Keitel, ‘his jowls hanging heavily like a bulldog’s’, raised his marshal’s baton in salute, then turned on his heel. As the door closed behind them, it was almost as if everybody would in the room exhaled in unison. The tension relaxed instantaneously. Zhukov was smiling, so was [British Air Chief Marshal Sir Arthur] Tedder. Everybody began to talk animatedly and shake hands. Soviet officers embraced each other with bear hugs.”
“The party which followed went on until almost dawn, with songs and dances. Marshal Zhukov himself danced the Russkaya to loud cheers from his generals. From inside, they could clearly hear gunfire all over the city as officers and soldiers blasted their remaining ammunition into the night sky in celebration. The war was over.”
The chaos of the war had ceased, but for Soviets and Germans other hardships were to come.
Zhukov, long a confidant of Stalin, earned glory for his command during the war, but he would soon find himself on the outs with the mercurial Soviet leader.
Keitel would face war-crimes charges, including crimes against humanity. He was convicted and hanged in October 1946. Like other Nazi leaders who were hanged, Keitel’s body didn’t drop with enough force to break his neck. He dangled at the end of the hangman’s rope for 24 minutes before dying.
Germans, many of them under the yoke of the Soviet Union, would struggle to rebuild both physically from the war and emotionally from their encounter with Allies forces — Soviet soldiers in particular. Berlin, buffered by two weeks of intense urban fighting, was shattered.
The Soviet Union’s drive for political vengeance and economic advantage lead it to hobble or strip much of East Germany’s infrastructure and resources.
Navy Sports and Under Armour just revealed the innovative (and professionally developmental) football uniforms that the Midshipmen of the U.S. Naval Academy will wear for the Army-Navy game on Dec. 12.
According to a press release:
The uniform is inspired by and pays homage to seven of the historic ships that make up the U.S. Naval Fleet. Each ship is detailed on one of seven hand-painted helmets that each player will wear, assigned by position. Additionally, the rally cry “damn the torpedoes!” is featured on the uniform as a nod to Admiral Farragut’s historic Naval victory at the Battle of Mobile Bay in 1864.
• Uniform font replicates the design and font used on Navy ships.
• Battleship gray color featured on the cleats, baselayer sleeves and jersey shoulders.
• Eagle, Globe and Anchor Marine Corps logo highlighted on the uniform pant.
• Baselayer features the overhead sketch of the seven Naval ships featured on the helmets.
• “Damn the Torpedoes!” scripted on the uniform pant and jersey hem as a reminder of the historic battle cry that rallies the U.S. Naval Fleet.
Helmet Details and Position Assignment:
• Linebacker: Cruiser – Provides anti-air defense and packs the biggest punch of Naval surface ships representative of the linebackers on the Navy football team.
• Defensive Back: Destroyer – Known for significant fire power, speed, and anti-missile defense as are Navy’s defensive backs.
• Wide Receiver: Submarine – Predominantly utilized as blockers, wide receivers play a key role in driving the Navy rush attack, taking on a stealth-like persona as they blend into the rhythm of the offense but bring significant fire power when called upon, just like a Naval submarine.
• Lineman: Amphibious Assault Ships – Just as a lineman’s job is the create a hole for a running back or linebacker, these ships are utilized to establish the “beach head” that enables the invading force to gain access and ultimately accomplish their objective.
• Quarterback: Aircraft Carrier – The QB of the Naval Fleet, the aircraft carrier is the ultimate decision maker; the “quick strike” weapon of the Naval fleet.
• Running Back: Littoral Combat Ship – Like running backs, these fast and nimble ships can navigate through both crowded shallow and deep waters.
• Kicker/Special Teams: Minesweeper – Much like the specific task of the Navy special teams, this small ship has a unique mission of identifying and eliminating mines.
What will the Black Knights of Army West Point come up with?
The government’s main auditor wants each of armed service branches to prove how military bands accomplish the stated objectives of inspiring patriotism and raising morale.
Military bands have declined over recent years during funding drawdowns and some attacks from fiscal hawks, but a few of the services have actually increased spending on bands while band rosters shrink, according to the Government Accountability Office.
“The military services have not developed objectives and measures to assess how their bands are addressing the bands’ missions, such as inspiring patriotism and enhancing the morale of troops,” the GAO wrote in a report released August 10.
Military bands have a long and distinct tradition in the US that the GAO admits is difficult to quantify. They are part of the military’s outreach to communities, playing in parades and for patriotic holidays and events. Several recruiters reported an increase in queries about joining the military after a band played for a school.
Bands have a civic function in performing at presidential events, and a diplomatic function in playing for foreign leaders, both in the US and abroad. The Navy told the GAO that bands can also be “an initial step towards improving relationships with foreign nations.”
All those approaches to proving the value and effectiveness of military bands “do not include measurable objectives nor exhibit several of the important attributes performance measures should include,” the GAO said.
The services the GAO contacted for its report stressed the difficulty of creating metrics to measure increased patriotism and troop morale from military bands, but the GAO says that through surveys and focus groups, the military could quantify how military bands achieve their mission.
All that would take resources, the band leaders told the GAO, which is part of why military bands are under fire in the first place.
The Pentagon spends about $437 million a year on the 137 bands throughout the five military branches. Even though that’s a fraction of the military’s $1.11 trillion budget, some in Congress think that money would be better spent elsewhere.
Most of a bands operating cost goes to travel, and the remainder goes to buying top quality instruments. The Air Force found a $75,000 Gagliano cello last fall that it determined was the only acceptable instrument for musical missions.
“After playing over 50 similar instruments, this is the only one that meets the rigorous demands required by USAF band,” the Air Force said in the contract solicitation. “This world-class instrument is an ideal choice for members of The USAF Band and the demanding standards required for our daily mission preparation and execution.”
Military bands have declined in size in every service since 2012, which has mostly led to reduced cost. Overall, the Air Force and the Navy, however, spent more on bands in 2016 than in previous years.
“The Navy and Air Force reported that their total operating costs for bands over this period increased by $4.1 million and $1.6 million” respectively, the GAO reported. Band costs for the Marine Corps, Army, and National Guard decreased during the same period by less than a million for each service.
The Navy attributed the $4.1 million increase to inadequate band funding between 2012 and 2014, and one-time costs like a $749,000 renovation on the band offices in 2016. The Air Force said that local commands are now responsible for their funding, “so bands may have had unique circumstances that led to increases in costs over time.”
Military bands will face more scrutiny for years to come. The defense spending budget for the remaining 2017 fiscal year asked the secretary of defense to “ensure that only the critical functions of military bands are supported while minimizing impacts on funding for essential readiness, military personnel, modernization, and research and development activities,” Military Times reports.
The GAO noted that as it conducted the review, Pentagon officials met with military bands and officials to “establish standard metrics to collect on events performed by bands.”
We all love Rob Riggle. He’s the Marine-officer-turned-comedian who started his military career in aviation, moved over to public affairs then maneuvered himself into a career in show business.
We’ve interviewed him before and got some awesome insight into his career, but he recently sat down with six-time Emmy Award winner John Brenkus to talk about his unlikely path into comedy.
During this episode, Riggle talks about his time in elementary and high school — a late bloomer who was bullied and used his whit to joke his way out of trouble — and how he dreamed of being a cast member on Saturday Night Live. Riggle said when he asked his Marine squadron commander to move out of aviation and into the ground side so he would be better set up for a career in show business, his CO gave him a tongue lashing he’d never forget.
“If I saw him today I would tell him he’s a piece of shit,” Riggle tells Brenkus.
That “counseling” became what the podcast host calls a “Brink of Midnight” moment — when one decision, one event changes everything that comes after.
Be sure to find out more about Riggle’s winding path into comedy by listening to the latest episode of the Brink of Midnight podcast.
The Russian Ministry of Defense has started deploying an old kind of military deception: inflatable weaponry.
The Russian government has a growing supply of inflatable military gear, including tanks, jets, and missile batteries, provided by hot-air balloon company RusBal, as detailed by a report by The New York Times.
A demonstration in a field near Moscow illustrated the ingenuity behind the idea.
The inflatables deploy quickly and break down just as fast. They transport relatively easily, providing targets that may not only draw the enemy’s fire but also affect their decision-making process, burdening a rival’s leadership with the task of verifying targets.
“If you study the major battles of history, you see that trickery wins every time,” Aleksei A. Komarov, RusBal’s director of military sales, told The Times. “Nobody ever wins honestly.”
Inflatable weaponry has a history on Europe’s battlefields. Prior to the Allied invasion of Europe in 1944, Gen. George S. Patton was placed in charge of the First US Army Group (FUSAG) — a phantom force housed in cities of empty tents and deployed in vehicles made of wood, fabric, or inflatable rubber.
After Allied forces had a foothold in France, the “Ghost Army,” as it came to be called, continued to serve a purpose, as it was responsible for more than 20 illusions that befuddled German military leadership and disguised actual Allied troop movements in France, Belgium, Luxembourg, and Germany.
Moscow’s modern-day iteration of the inflatable army fits with a distinctly Russian style of subterfuge: Maskirovka, a Russian doctrine that mixes strategic and tactical deception with the aim of distorting an enemy’s conception of reality, bogging down decision-makers at every level with misinformation and confusion.
Maskirovka is a longstanding practice of Russian planners. During the Cold War, maps created for the Russian public were filled with tiny inaccuracies that would make them useless should they fall into the hands of rival military planners. The cartographer who came up with the ruse was given the State Prize by Josef Stalin.
A more recent version of maskirovka was displayed in Ukraine in 2014, when masked or otherwise disguised soldiers showed up in Crimea, and later by other soldiers purportedly “vacationing” in eastern Ukraine.
According to The Times, Russian military leaders were dubious about the inflatable hardware at first, but they appear to have been won over.
“There are no gentlemen’s agreements in war,” Maria Oparina, the director of RusBal and daughter of the founder, told The Times.
“There’s no chivalry anymore. Nobody wears a red uniform. Nobody stands up to get shot at. It’s either you or me, and whoever has the best trick wins.”
When “6 Certified” was launched in 2015 by veteran advocacy group Got Your 6, the idea was to recognize six entertainment projects that responsibly portray veteran characters.
But a year later, the number they actually recognized was more than twice that.
“Some veterans are true heroes, and some are truly continuing to suffer the consequences of war long after they return home,” said Seth Smith, director of campaigns and programming for Participant Media. “But between those two extremes are a wide variety of experiences and emotions – stories that need to be told in order for the full range of the military-veteran experience to be realized in media. That is the purpose of Got Your 6 and the ‘6 Certified’ committee. I commend the 2016 honorees for their honest, accurate, and full portrayals of veterans and members of the military.”
Those honorees are listed below. As veterans, we should try to reward their dedication to shape public perceptions of our small but important community by checking out the work they’ve done.
Set in 1945, Bandstand tells the story of musician Donny Novitski who is about to lead his band of fellow veterans into competition for America’s next swing band sensation. Opening on Broadway April 26, 2107, the writers and producers of “Bandstand” reached out to the Got Your 6 campaign for scripting feedback in order to portray veterans accurately and responsibly.
2. “Cast Me!”
“Cast Me!” reveals the day-to-day work at LA-based agency DK Casting, owned by U.S. Marine Corps veteran David Kang. As an official partner of the Got Your 6 campaign, Myx TV ensured “Cast Me!” was crafted at every stage of production with positive veteran messaging. In addition to one of the four casting directors on the show being a veteran, this reality series also makes it a point to look to the veteran population for their casting needs. Myx TV
3. “Citizen Soldier”
“Citizen Soldier” is a film told from the point of view of a group of soldiers from the Oklahoma National Guard’s 45th Thunderbirds Brigade. The project tells the true story about their life-changing tour of duty in Afghanistan, offering a personal look into modern warfare, brotherhood, and patriotism. Using real footage from multiple cameras, including helmet cams, these citizen soldiers endeavor to extend their ideals of service into their reintegration at home. Strong Eagle Media
4. “Hacksaw Ridge”
This is the true story of Private First Class Desmond T. Doss, played by Andrew Garfield, who received the Congressional Medal of Honor during WWII despite refusing to bear arms on religious grounds. Doss was ostracized by fellow soldiers for his pacifism, but went on to earn respect and accolades for his bravery, selflessness, and compassion after he risked his life to save 75 men in the Battle of Okinawa. Doss’ father, played by Hugo Weaving, is a WWI veteran who provides a sobering speech on his personal motivation to serve. Lionsgate’s Summit Entertainment
5. “Hap and Leonard”
Set in the late 1980s, “Hap and Leonard” is a darkly comic swamp noir story of two best friends, one femme fatale, a crew of washed-up revolutionaries, a pair of murderous psycho-killers, some lost loot, and the fuzz. The series follows Hap Collins (James Purefoy), an East Texas white boy with a weakness for Southern women, and his best friend Leonard Pine (Michael K. Williams), a gay, black Vietnam vet. When Hap’s seductive ex-wife Trudy (Christina Hendricks) resurfaces with a deal they can’t refuse, a simple get-rich-quick scheme snowballs into bloody mayhem. Leonard is portrayed as a skilled and resourceful problem solver in this dark comedy. SundanceTV
6. “Invictus Games Orlando 2016”
The Invictus Games is an international sporting event, created by Britain’s Prince Harry, for wounded, injured, or sick armed services personnel and veterans. The Invictus Games harness the power of sport to inspire recovery, support rehabilitation, and generate a wider understanding and respect for those who serve their country. Following the inaugural event in London in 2014, the Invictus Games came to Orlando, Florida where 500 competitors from 14 nations inspired the world with their Invictus spirit. First Lady Michelle Obama attended the Opening Ceremony.
“Justified” is an American crime drama based on Elmore Leonard’s novella “Fire in the Hole.” For all six seasons, series regular Deputy U.S. Marshal Tim Gutterson (Jacob Pitts), a former U.S. Army Ranger Sniper, displayed his wry understanding of Deputy U. S Marshal Raylan Givens’ (Timothy Olyphant) unconventional law enforcement methods. FX
8. “Marvel’s Luke Cage”
Mike Colter stars as former U.S. Marine Carl Lucas/Luke Cage. When a sabotaged experiment gives him super strength and unbreakable skin, Luke Cage becomes a fugitive attempting to rebuild his life in Harlem and must soon confront his past and fight a battle for the heart of his city. Luke is portrayed as a tough, resourceful character whose heart is in the right place despite his flaws. Netflix
9. “No Greater Love”
This documentary explores a combat deployment through the eyes of a U.S. Army chaplain who carried a camera in Afghanistan, capturing the gritty reality of war as well as the bond that is made among troops. The film depicts the experience of war and, more importantly, helps viewers understand the personal struggles of reintegrating soldiers. The chaplain discusses his own depression after his service and reunites his battalion to examine the reintegration process with the men he served alongside. Atlas House Productions
10. “Power Triumph Games”
The “Power Triumph Games” is a multi-round sports competition that challenges world-class military veteran athletes who have overcome catastrophic injury to step outside their comfort zones. Their goal is to showcase veteran’s unique ability to adapt, overcome and thrive. With the United States Military Academy as a backdrop, athletes face eight challenges that are required of cadets to graduate. The games challenge all who see it to raise their own bar of gratitude and achievement. The 2016 games are a three-hour miniseries on CBS Sports Network and a one-hour sports special broadcast on CBS Sports, featuring personal stories of service, character, and
triumph. OurVetSuccess and ITN Productions
Winner of 11 film festival awards, “Reparation” is a psychological thriller that centers around Bob Stevens (Marc Menchaca), a small-town farmer with a three year hole in his memory. When Jerome (played by real life veteran Jon Huertas), his best friend from the U.S. Air Force shows up, Bob’s peaceful existence begins to unravel from the outside in. Co-written by an Air Force veteran, the film takes the audience on a thrilling ride through the mind of a veteran confronting psychological issues, while avoiding the stereotype of the combat-damaged veteran, and echoing the call of duty to watch your buddy’s back. Red Dirt Pictures
12. “Roadtrip Nation: The Next Mission”
“The Next Mission” showcases the trials and triumphs of post-military transition through the stories of Helen, Sam, and Bernard – three transitioning service members who set off on a road trip across the country to discover their purpose in the civilian world. As they interview fellow veterans who have found fulfilling work beyond service, the team learns that the skills cultivated in the military aren’t limited to the battlefield; they can be applied to any number of exciting careers. Roadtrip Nation, American Public Television
Directed by Clint Eastwood, “Sully” tells the real story of the “Miracle on the Hudson,” when commercial pilot and U.S. armed forces veteran Chesley “Sully” Sullenberger became a hero after performing an unprecedented forced water landing on New York’s Hudson River. Played in the film by Tom Hanks, Sully puts his military training and experience to good use, saving 155 lives by gliding the commercial plane to safety, but even as he was being praised by the public and the media, an investigation was unfolding that threatened to destroy both his reputation and career. Warner Bros. Pictures and Village Roadshow Pictures
It was a movement that shocked the post-war world. A spontaneous uprising of democratic forces within Soviet-occupied Hungary that briefly put the mighty Red Army on its heels.
While the Hungarian Revolution of 1956 was swiftly crushed by Soviet tanks and secret police — the rebellion’s leaders executed or sent to labor camps — the insurgents’ early success exposed a crack in the Iron Curtain that would force the Soviets into a program of firmer control over its client states and deeper repression of its people.
And in one of history’s greatest ironies, some of the most diabolical tactics used by the Hungarian militants to cripple the Soviet war machine were the same ones they’d been taught by Moscow to resist the Nazis during World War II.
Though the revolution lasted just a few days in late October, 1956, before the Soviets mobilized 60,000 troops to crush resistance, nearly 700 Red Army soldiers were killed, including hundreds of tanks and armored personnel carriers destroyed.
According to multiple reports at the time, in several battles between the Hungarians and Soviet tanks in Budapest, the rebels poured liquid soap on the streets of Moricz Zsiground Square to bog the armor down before disabling it. Rebels would then attack the tank with Molotov cocktails (another insurgent tool with Soviet origins) and put it out of commission.
In an attack on Red Army armor in Szena Square, Hungarian rebels reportedly used pilfered bales of silk to coat the road and covered it in oil to create an improvised tank trap.
Then the insurgents would use items from their breakfast tables to confuse the tank gunners.
“As the tanks became immobilized, daring youngsters darted forward below the arc of fire and daubed jam over the tanks glass panels,” one account said.
Despite the nearly 13 days of fighting and a brief Soviet withdrawal, a reinforced Red Army descended on Budapest and drove the rebels into retreat. An estimated 3,000 Hungarians were killed in the 1956 revolution, with 12,000 arrested and nearly 450 executed.
Most accounts claim over 200,000 Hungarians fled the country as the Soviet Union strengthened its hold on the East European nation and never let go until the Berlin Wall fell in 1989.
The Battle of Okinawa, known as Operation Iceberg by the Allies, eventually consisted of 306,000 service members assaulting fierce defenses manned by 130,000 Japanese troops and an unknown number of local civilians, including children, drafted into the defenses.
The island was critical for the planned invasion of Japan, but the losses were enormous.
Here are 33 photos that give a look inside of one of America’s most costly battles of World War II:
1. For days before the invasion, Navy ships bombarded the island with naval artillery and rockets. This photo was taken five days before the amphibious assault.
2. A Navy Corsair fires a salvo of rockets during Operation Iceberg, the Allied effort to capture Okinawa, the largest of the Ryukyu Islands.
3. The USS Idaho shells the island of Okinawa on April 1, 1945.
4. Marines land on the beachhead already secured on the island. These infantrymen will continue pressing the attack against approximately 130,000 defenders.
5. U.S. landing ships sit beached and burning on May 4 near the mouth of the Bishi River after a Japanese air attack.
6. Famed war correspondent Ernie Pyle speaks with U.S. Marines a short time before his death on the island.
7. A long exposure photograph shows the crisscrossing lines of Marine anti-aircraft fire over the U.S. airfield established on Okinawa.
8. A May 11, 1945, morning artillery barrage kicks off an all-out offensive.
9. Japanese rockets rain down on and near U.S. positions during heavy fighting on Okinawa.
10. The infamous battleship Yamato, sent to Okinawa to attempt to beach itself and act as a shore battery until destroyed, is sank at sea on April 7 before it can reach the island.
11. Army Lt. Gen. Simon Bolivar Buckner Jr., at right, surveys fighting just a few hours before Japanese artillery killed him.
12. A Sherman tank drives past a burning home. The structure was set on fire to prevent its use by snipers.
13. Marines attempt to extinguish the flames on an overturned Sherman tank. The ammo later exploded before the Army crew could be rescued.
14. Engineers construct a causeway from the island to the sea to allow supplies to be trucked from ships to shore.
15. American service members move supplies by horse in areas where the mud was impassable for vehicles.
16. Okinawan civilians hired to carry supplies line up to receive their loads.
17. A flamethrowing tank attacks Hill 60 during the Marine assault on the mound.
18. A Japanese plane goes down in flames over the ocean.
19. The HMS Formidable of the Royal Navy burns after a May 4 Kamikaze attack. Eight crew members were lost and 55 injured, but the Formidable survived the war.
20. Marine Corps infantrymen ride a tank to the town of Ghuta on April 1 to occupy it before Japanese defenders can.
21. A Marine sprints across the “Valley of Death,” a draw covered by Japanese machine guns that caused 125 casualties in eight hours.
22. Marines explode dynamite charges to destroy a Japanese cave on the island.
23. The USS Bunker Hill burns after two Kamikaze strikes in less than a minute. At least 346 sailors were killed and 43 went missing.
24. The Bunker Hill survived and returned to the U.S. for repairs. It served as a troop transport after the war before it was sent to the fleet reserve.
25. Wounded sailors are moved from the Bunker Hill to the USS Wilkes Barre.
26. Army soldiers move forward during the 82-day battle.
27. A private cuts a sergeant’s hair in the Japanese city of Shuri on the island. A medieval castle in the city survived the battle.
28. Marines rest on the side of a hill as Japanese fire prevents their further advance.
29. A tank crewmember is relocated after suffering injuries.
30. Wounded troops await transport to a ship hospital.
31. Marine Lt. Col. R.P. Ross, Jr. places an American flag on Shuri castle on May 29, 1945. Ross was under sniper fire at the time.
32. The American flag is raised over the island June 22 in a ceremony marking the end of organized Japanese resistance.
33. A U.S. servicemember visits an American cemetery. The U.S. suffered over 12,000 killed and 50,000 wounded during the battle. Japan suffered over 150,000 soldiers and civilians killed or committed suicide.