This is how presidents-elect learn about covert operations before they're sworn in
Now that the Republican Party has officially nominated Donald Trump as its candidate for president, briefers from intelligence agencies will soon begin detailing America's current covert operations to both Trump and likely Democratic presidential nominee Hillary Clinton.
So how does a presidential candidate — and later a president-elect — get caught up on everything that's going on in the cloak-and-dagger world of international intelligence?
President Barack Obama receives his daily intelligence briefing. Presidential candidates will not receive his level of information, but presidents-elect do. (Photo: White House Photographer Pete Souza)
Intelligence officials give them a series of briefings that former NSA Director Michael Hayden described as "a college seminar on steroids."
When possible, the briefings take place in secure areas. But more often than not, briefers are sent to meet candidates and presidents-elect where they are.
In 1992, the Deputy Director of the CIA flew to Little Rock, Arkansas, and rented a cheap motel room to inconspicuously brief then-President-elect Bill Clinton.
When candidates are on the campaign trail, the briefers plan spots on the route where they can establish a temporarily secure area to brief.
These initial briefings to candidates are not as in depth as the president's daily brief. The idea isn't to give the candidate a detailed breakdown of each operation and how it works, it's to give them a broad understanding of what America is doing around the world and why.
Director of National Intelligence James Clapper has said that all major candidates for president must receive the same intelligence briefing. (Photo: Kit Fox/Medill)
Director of National Intelligence James Clapper has said that each candidate receives the exact same briefing. But this wasn't always the case.
For instance, the intel briefings were first given to Dwight Eisenhower and Adlai Stevenson during the 1952 election. During the run-up to Election Day, Eisenhower was receiving more sensitive information than Stevenson. This was because Eisenhower had extensive experience with intelligence from his command time in World War II, while Stevenson did not.
Once a candidate is selected, though, the briefings become more detailed and some of them become decision briefs. Even though the president-elect is not yet in charge, the intelligence agencies have to be prepared to immediately execute his or her orders on Inauguration Day.
The president-elect receives a roughly complete copy of the president's daily brief — sometimes as early as election night. The only information omitted is operational information that isn't useful to the president-elect.
President John F. Kennedy was a war hero and senator before campaigning for the presidency. But he didn't gain access to America's top intelligence until after winning the election. (Photo: National Archives)
For presidents-elect who need a primer on intelligence, such as John Kennedy, there will also be a series of general briefings to provide context and understanding. For those with an extensive intelligence background, such as former Vice President and Director of Central Intelligence George H.W. Bush, the general briefings are skipped.
Once the president-elect has a base of knowledge about the situation, senior intelligence officials begin coming to him or her for their expected orders on Jan. 20. If the president-elect wants to cancel a covert operation or change its course, the decision is made ahead of time so the agency can prepare.
In 2000, then-President-elect Barack Obama made it clear that the detention and interrogation program would cease the moment he was in charge. That allowed Hayden to prepare to cut that program while keeping most other covert operations going full-bore.
You can learn a lot more about these briefings and their history in former-CIA Analyst John L. Helgerson's book, Getting to Know the President. The book is available for free on the CIA's website.