Today in military history: Marine Corps aviation is born - We Are The Mighty
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Today in military history: Marine Corps aviation is born

On May 22, 1912, Marine Corps aviation was born when Lt. Alfred A. Cunningham reported to the U.S. Naval Academy’s aviation camp for instruction.

Cunningham dreamt of the skies since he went aloft in a balloon in 1903 — the same year the Wright Brothers made the first controlled, sustained flight of a powered, heavier-than-air aircraft. 

On May 22, the first of the officers arrived at the aviation camp at the U.S. Naval Academy for training. Cunningham was a former soldier and huge aviation enthusiast who had lobbied for a Marine Corps air arm for months before becoming its first pilot.

Cunningham’s orders were changed soon after his arrival and he was sent elsewhere for “expeditionary duty,” but he returned in July only to find that no aircraft were available for him to train on. 

Undeterred, he got the Corps to give him orders to the aircraft factory and obtained instruction from the civilians there. He obtained less than three hours of instruction before taking off solo on August 20. Improvise, adapt and overcome, right, Marines?

Cunningham thus became the Marine Corps’ first aviator and the fifth pilot in the Department of the Navy. In 1913 he participated in the first Naval Aviation exercises with the fleet in Cuba, demonstrating the first use of airplanes in scouting missions.

As Assistant Quartermaster of the Washington Naval Yard, he recommended the establishment of a Navy Air Department, a Naval Air Station at Pensacola, and the placement of an airplane aboard every battleship. He would also go on to become the first pilot to fly a catapult takeoff from a warship under way.

His actions would lead to the success of early aerial combat during the first World War and his contributions to military aviation remain immeasurable. The First Marine Corps Aviator and First Director of Marine Corp Aviation died May 27, 1939 in Sarasota, Florida. He is buried in Arlington National Cemetery.

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Check out these 17 awesome photos of military working dogs at war

In his new book, “The Mirror Test: America at War in Iraq and Afghanistan” (Knopf), Kael Weston recounts his travels from Twentynine Palms in California to Iraq and Afghanistan, and to the American hometowns of Marines who fell during his watch. Along the way, he introduces American troops, Iraqi truck drivers, Afghan teachers, imams, mullahs and former Taliban fighters, all while grappling with the larger questions these wars pose.


Among the details of military life that “The Mirror Test” highlights are military working dogs and their handlers. As these 17 photos illustrate, these loyal animals have served with valor and distinction alongside their human counterparts.

Today in military history: Marine Corps aviation is born
1. Lance Cpl. Nick Lacarra, a dog handler with Combined Anti-Armor Team 2, Weapons Company, 3rd Battalion, 3rd Marine Regiment, and 20-year-old native of Long Beach, Calif., and Coot, an improvised explosive device detection dog, hold security in a field during a partnered security patrol with Afghan Border Police in Garmsir District, Helmand province, Afghanistan, Jan. 30, 2012. (U.S. Marine Corps photo by Cpl. Reece Lodder)

 

Today in military history: Marine Corps aviation is born
1. A sign hangs on the gate of the improvised explosive device detection Dog (IDD) kennel, 2nd Combat Engineer Battalion (CEB) compound at Camp Leatherneck, Afghanistan, March 19, 2013. IDD dog handlers, often volunteers from their home units, are matched with a dog and work together to perform route clearance and other duties in a combat environment. (U.S. Marine Corps Photo by Sgt. Tammy K. Hineline)

 

Today in military history: Marine Corps aviation is born
Cpl. Sean Grady, a dog handler and pointman with Echo Company, 1st Light Armored Reconnaissance Battalion, and Ace, an improvised explosive device detection dog, pause for a break while sweeping a chokepoint during a patrol in Khan Neshin District, Helmand province, Afghanistan, April 27, 2012. (U.S. Marine Corps photo by Cpl. Alfred V. Lopez)

 

Today in military history: Marine Corps aviation is born
1. Cpl. Danny Reetz (left), 21, from Indianola, Iowa, and Lance Cpl. Jarrett Hatley, 21, from Millingport, N.C., an assaultman and a dog handler with 3rd Platoon, Lima Company, 3rd Battalion, 3rd Marine Regiment, rest next to Blue, an improvised explosive device detection dog, after clearing compounds with Afghan National Army soldiers during Operation Winter Offensive in Garmsir District, Helmand province, Afghanistan, Jan. 4, 2012. (U.S. Marine Corps photo by Cpl. Reece Lodder)

 

Today in military history: Marine Corps aviation is born
1. Lance Cpl. Joseph Nunez from Burbank, Calif., and Viky, an improvised explosive device detection dog, both attached to Fox Company, 2nd Battalion, 2nd Marine Regiment (2/2) search a compound for hidden threats during Operation Grizzly in Helmand province, Afghanistan, July 18, 2013. (U.S. Marine Corps photo by Cpl. Alejandro Pena)

 

Today in military history: Marine Corps aviation is born
1. Lance Cpl. Brandon Mann, a dog handler with Alpha Company, 1st Light Armored Reconnaissance Battalion, and native of Arlington, Texas, and Ty, an improvised explosive device detection dog, hunt and clear a hill for weapons, drugs and IED component caches during a patrol through Sre Kala village in Khan Neshin District, Helmand province, Afghanistan, March 5, 2012. (U.S. Marine Corps photo by Cpl. Alfred V. Lopez)

 

Today in military history: Marine Corps aviation is born
Lance Cpl. Isaiah Schult, a dog handler with Jump Platoon, Headquarters and Service Company, 3rd Battalion, 3rd Marine Regiment, and 20-year-old Indianapolis native, jokes with Afghan children while providing security with Big, an improvised explosive device detection dog, during a shura outside a local residence in Garmsir District, Helmand province, Afghanistan, Nov. 22, 2011. (U.S. Marine Corps photo by Cpl. Reece Lodder)

 

Today in military history: Marine Corps aviation is born
Cpl. Clint Price, a dog handler with 2nd Combat Engineer Battalion (CEB), directs Ace II, an improvised explosive device detection dog (IDD), during a training session at Camp Leatherneck, Afghanistan, March 19, 2013. (U.S. Marine Corps Photo by Sgt. Tammy K. Hineline)

 

Today in military history: Marine Corps aviation is born
1. Cpl. Kyle Click, a dog handler with 3rd Platoon, Kilo Company, 3rd Battalion, 3rd Marine Regiment, and 22-year-old native of Grand Rapids, Mich., shares a moment with Windy, an improvised explosive device detection dog, while waiting to resume a security patrol in Garmsir District, Helmand province, Afghanistan, Feb. 27, 2012. (U.S. Marine Corps photo by Cpl. Reece Lodder)

 

Today in military history: Marine Corps aviation is born
1. Lance Cpl. Joseph Nunez from Burbank, Calif., and Viky, an improvised explosive device detection dog, both attached to Fox Company, 2nd Battalion, 2nd Marine Regiment (2/2) search a compound for hidden threats during Operation Grizzly in Helmand province, Afghanistan, July 18, 2013. (U.S. Marine Corps photo by Cpl. Alejandro Pena)

 

Today in military history: Marine Corps aviation is born
1. Lance Cpl. Brandon Mann, a dog handler with Alpha Company, 1st Light Armored Reconnaissance Battalion, and native of Arlington, Texas, sights in with his infantry automatic rifle while providing security with Ty, an improvised explosive device detection dog, during a patrol in Khan Neshin District, Helmand province, Afghanistan, Feb. 16, 2012. (U.S. Marine Corps photo by Cpl. Alfred V. Lopez)

 

Today in military history: Marine Corps aviation is born
1. Cpl. Kyle Click, a dog handler with 3rd Platoon, Kilo Company, 3rd Battalion, 3rd Marine Regiment, and 22-year-old native of Grand Rapids, Mich., walks past a produce vendor with Windy, an improvised explosive device detection dog, during a security patrol here, Feb. 27, 2012. (U.S. Marine Corps photo by Cpl. Reece Lodder)

 

Today in military history: Marine Corps aviation is born
1. Lance Cpl. Ken Bissonette, a dog handler with 4th Platoon, Kilo Company, 3rd Battalion, 3rd Marine Regiment, and 21-year-old native of Babbitt, Minn., scans a nearby road while halted with Chatter, his improvised explosive device detection dog, on a security patrol with Afghan National Police during the Garmsir district community council elections in Helmand province, Afghanistan, April 17, 2012. (U.S. Marine Corps photo by Cpl. Reece Lodder)

 

Today in military history: Marine Corps aviation is born
Lance Cpl. Joseph Nunez, left from Burbank, Calif., Viky, an improvised explosive device detection dog, and British Royal Air Force Regiment Lance Cpl. Thomas Bailey from Burnley, England, all attached to Fox Company, 2nd Battalion, 2nd Marine Regiment (2/2) search the area for discarded weapons during Operation Grizzly in Helmand province, Afghanistan, July 18, 2013. (U.S. Marine Corps photo by Cpl. Alejandro Pena)

 

Today in military history: Marine Corps aviation is born
Lance Cpl. Jarrett Hatley, a working dog handler with Lima Company, 3rd Battalion, 3rd Marine Regiment, and his dog Blue provide security while clearing two city blocks during Exercise Clear, Hold, Build 1 on Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center Twentynine Palms, Calif., Aug. 4, 2011. (U.S. Marine Corps photo by Cpl. Reece Lodder)

 

Today in military history: Marine Corps aviation is born
1. Lance Cpl. Brandon Mann, a dog handler and infantry automatic rifleman with Alpha Company, 1st Light Armored Reconnaissance Battalion and 21-year-old native of Arlington, Texas, and a policeman with the 2nd Tolai, 1st Afghan Border Police Kandak watch Ty, an improvised explosive device detection dog, roll around in the mud while posting security during a patrol through Sre Kala, Afghanistan, March 23, 2012. (U.S. Marine Corps photo by Cpl. Alfred V. Lopez)

 

Today in military history: Marine Corps aviation is born
1. Yeager, an improvised explosive device detection dog, lies in front of a battlefield cross as Staff Sgt. Derick Clark and Chief Warrant Officer 2 Michael Dale Reeves observe a moment of silence in honor of Lance Cpl. Abraham Tarwoe, a dog handler and mortarman who served with Weapons Company, 2nd Battalion, 9th Marine Regiment, during a memorial service in Marjah District, Helmand province, Afghanistan, April 22, 2012. (U.S. Marine Corps photo by Cpl. Alfred V. Lopez)

“Kael Weston’s The Mirror Test is essential reading for anyone seeking to come to terms with our endless wars…. A riveting, on-the- ground look at American policy and its aftermath.” – Phil Klay, author of Redeployment

Today in military history: Marine Corps aviation is born

For more on this amazing book go here.

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A-10s buzz the Carolina Panthers but spare Charlotte the ‘BRRRRRT’

The sight of a low-flying Warthog — the Air Force’s A-10 Thunderbolt II tank killer — may strike fear into the hearts of ISIS in Syria. But in Charlotte, North Carolina, it just raises questions.


 

 

Air Force blogger JohnQPublic says the A-10s were from Moody Air Force Base in Georgia. The Air Force grounded the pilots after receiving FAA complaints about the August 29, 2016 low-altitude flyover. Regulations say aircraft must be at least 1,000 feet higher than the highest structure.

The Warthogs flew over the stadium in the middle of a practice game August 29. The Panthers were understandably surprised.

The pilots took the time to tilt over the field and give the Carolina Panthers a wave, head coach Ron Rivera told the Charlotte Observer.

“Oh yeah, we most certainly were caught off-guard. You kind of see everybody wondering what’s going on,” Rivera also reportedly said.  

Rivera added it was “pretty awesome.”

Today in military history: Marine Corps aviation is born

It was not so awesome to the citizens of Charlotte, who were perplexed and frightened.

That’s the sound of freedom, Charlotte. If the Panthers win the Super Bowl this year, it will be because they started the season the way the Air Force ends gunfights – with an A-10 flyover.

Moody will likely keep an eye on the mail for its thank you card.

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Two Air Force pilots eject in U-2 crash on West Coast

Today in military history: Marine Corps aviation is born
USAF Lockheed U-2 Dragon Lady | U.S. Air Force photo


Two U.S. Air Force pilots have ejected after a U-2 spy plane crashed around noon local time during a training mission on the West Coast, a service spokesman said.

Lt. Col. Michael Meridith, a spokesman for the Air Force, confirmed the incident on Tuesday at the Air Force Association’s annual conference outside Washington, D.C., but he didn’t know the whereabouts or the condition of the service members. “It did crash,” he said when asked if the plane went down. “Two pilots ejected.”

Meridith said a search and rescue operation for the crew was under way.

The U.S. Air Force press desk later tweeted, “We can confirm a U-2 from @9thRW Beale AFB has gone down in Sutter County, CAA; 2 pilots have ejected; details to follow when available,” referring to the 9th Reconnaissance Wing.

But officials walked back their initial statements on the pilots’ condition as the day went on.

“We have no official confirmation on the pilots’ condition,” Beale Air Force Base tweeted later in the day. “We will provide updates when more information is available.”

Air Combat Command around the same time issued a similar statement to correct a previous one that wrongly stated the pilots had “safely” ejected and were “awaiting recovery with aircraft in isolated area.”

The U-2 Dragon Lady is a Cold War-era surveillance plane based at Beale Air Force Base in California. Trainer models of the aircraft hold two crew members.

This story has been updated.

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This sub sank but came back to terrorize Japanese sailors in World War II

The USS Sailfish was a silent assassin in World War II that struck Japanese military and civilian freight ships. The submarine sent eight of them, including an escort carrier, to the bottom of the ocean. That combat record is impressive on its own and netted the crew a Presidential Unit Citation, but the really surprising thing is that all this happened after the sub sank in a 1939 accident.


Today in military history: Marine Corps aviation is born
The USS Squalus is launched in this 1938 photo. Photo: Office of Naval Research

Originally christened the USS Squalus, SS-192 was a cutting-edge submarine that could dive to a depth of 250 feet and patrol for 75 days and 11,000 miles while hunting enemy ships and subs. Unfortunately, while the Squalus was undergoing a diving test in 1939 it suddenly flooded and sank to the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean.

Twenty-six men were killed in the initial sinking but 33 were able to survive in the stern of the ship by closing the hatches. At the time, no one had successfully rescued submariners from depths of greater than 20 feet. The Squalus was sitting under 240 feet of cold Atlantic waters.

Another submarine, the USS Sculpin, raced to find the lost Squalus and the USS Falcon, a submarine tender, sailed towards the wreck with the new McCann rescue chamber. The McCann was a specialized diving bell that allowed rescuers to descend to a wrecked submarine and create an airlock around the hatch. It could then ferry survivors to the surface.

Today in military history: Marine Corps aviation is born
A diver descends to the McCann Rescue Chamber after the lines are fouled during the rescue of the USS Squalus crew. Painting: US Naval Historical Center, John Groth #7.

Ultimately, the rescue was successful and all 33 people who survived the initial accident were rescued after 39 hours.

The Navy took another look at the wreck and realized that SS-192 could likely be salvaged, so they raised it from the deep, rinsed it out, and repaired it.

Today in military history: Marine Corps aviation is born
The USS Squalus breaches the surface during one of the attempts to raise it. Photo: courtesy Boston Public Library

Re-christened the USS Sailfish, the submarine was sent to the Asiatic Fleet. Sailfish was operating out of Luzon in the Philippines when the Japanese struck Pearl Harbor and America was dragged into the war. Sailfish began conducting wartime patrols the same day.

The sub struggled to find and engage enemy ships on the first few patrols. But, on Feb. 28, 1942, Sailfish was operating out of a Dutch base in Java when it spotted a Japanese aircraft transport escorted by four destroyers. Sailfish fired four torpedoes and landed two hits on the transport, destroying it.

Sailfish went on to destroy seven more Japanese ships over the course of the war and damage another. A few of the kills were cargo and transport ships, relieving a little of the pressure on Marines and soldiers fighting ashore.

Today in military history: Marine Corps aviation is born
The USS Sailfish crew pose on the conning tower. Their Presidential Unit Citation Flag is visible flying behind the American flag. Photo: US National Archives

The crew’s greatest achievement came on their 10th wartime patrol. Just before midnight on Dec. 3, the Sailfish spotted Japanese warships in a severe storm. Four ships, including an escort carrier, were sailing together. Sailfish fired a four-torpedo spread at the carrier and scored two hits.

As the Japanese ships counterattacked, Sailfish dove for safety but didn’t leave the battle. Five hours later, Sailfish fired a three-torpedo spread at the damaged carrier and scored two more hits. Finally, at 9:40 that morning, Sailfish hit the ship with two more torpedoes and the escort carrier Chuyo sank into the Pacific.

The crew received a Presidential Unit Citation for this engagement, but they later learned that American POWs had been aboard the Chuyo. Unfortunately, 21 American submariners from the USS Sculpin, the submarine that helped rescue the crew of the Squalus, were aboard and 20 died when the Chuyo sank.

After the war, the Sailfish was decommissioned and sold for scrap.

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Russia is designing a transformer to sucker punch the US

After having success with unmarked trailer trucks in Ukraine, Russia is looking to exploit its incognito strategy even further. The Russians have come up with a weapons concept reminiscent of Optimus Prime from Transformers.


It’s designed to surprise the U.S. military by sneaking up under the cover of an inconspicuous semi-trailer truck. When the weapon is close enough to strike, the trailer disconnects from the truck and transforms into a nasty helicopter drone with missiles and a Gatling gun.

In keeping with Hollywood’s depiction of Russian bad guys, the trailer also includes two get-away motorcycles. Seriously, it looks like something you’d expect to see in a ‘Die Hard’ flick.

Here’s how it works:

The trailer pulls up within striking distance of its target.

Today in military history: Marine Corps aviation is born
YouTube: ArmedForcesUpdate

One soldier in civilian clothes scopes out the area while another soldier stays behind to monitor the transformation.

Today in military history: Marine Corps aviation is born
YouTube: ArmedForcesUpdate

Most of the transformation is self automated.

Today in military history: Marine Corps aviation is born
YouTube: ArmedForcesUpdate

A final weapons check is done with an iPad before the nasty payload is deployed.

Today in military history: Marine Corps aviation is born
YouTube: ArmedForcesUpdate

The drone surprises the target by rising from the tree line.

Today in military history: Marine Corps aviation is born
YouTube: ArmedForcesUpdate

It is designed to attack targets on land …

Today in military history: Marine Corps aviation is born
YouTube: ArmedForcesUpdate

… or at sea.

Today in military history: Marine Corps aviation is born
YouTube: ArmedForcesUpdate

Watch:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PXWJrpA8FnE

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17 reasons why the M1 Abrams tank is still king of the battlefield

Today in military history: Marine Corps aviation is born
US Air Force photo by Tech Sgt John Houghton


Since first coming into service in 1980, the M1 Abrams tank has become a staple of US ground forces. The 67-ton behemoth has since made a name for itself as an incredibly tough, powerful tool that has successfully transitioned from a Cold War-era blunt instrument to a tactical modern weapon.

Also read: The US Army is testing a faster and more lethal variant of the Abrams tank

In the slides below, find out how the M1 Abrams became, and remains, the king of the battlefield.

Here is one of the first M1 Abrams in 1979. The Abrams entered service in 1980, but didn’t see heavy combat until Desert Storm in 1991.

Today in military history: Marine Corps aviation is born
DoD photo by Eddie McCrossan

The Abrams was the first tank to incorporate British-developed Chobham composite armor, which includes ceramics and is incredibly dense.

Today in military history: Marine Corps aviation is born
Ultimate Factories/National Geographic Television And Film

Despite the British-designed armor, the Abrams tanks were made in Ohio and Michigan.

Today in military history: Marine Corps aviation is born
Ultimate Factories/National Geographic Television And Film

Source: GlobalSecurity.org

The Abrams is highly mobile, with a top speed of more than 40 mph and an impressive zero-turn radius.

via GIPHY

Source: Federation of American Scientists

Also, in special conditions like loose sand, dirt, or packed snow, the Abrams can actually drift.

via GIPHY

The M1 Abrams sports a 120 mm smooth-bore cannon capable of firing a variety of rounds.

Today in military history: Marine Corps aviation is born
US Army photo by Maj. Adam Weece

Like with any armored unit, their success depends partly on the hardware and partly on the crew. Here, a loader expertly queues up a round capable of melting through an enemy tank’s armor.

via GIPHY

Source: YouTube

In addition to the main cannon, the Abrams sports a M2H Browning .50-caliber machine gun, a staple of the US military since World War II. In some cases, the guns can be remotely fired.

Today in military history: Marine Corps aviation is born
US Marine Corps photo by Cpl. Cody Haas

The M1 Abrams is just plain tough. Watch it roll over a car bomb without even closing the hatch. This would tear a lesser tank to shreds.

via GIPHY

Source: YouTube

The US as well as Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, and Australia use the Abrams as their main battle tank.

Today in military history: Marine Corps aviation is born
US Army photo by Sgt. Marcus Fichtl, 2nd ABCT PAO, 4th Inf. Div.

When the Abrams finally saw combat in 1991, it impressed operators with it’s effective rounds and virtual invulnerability to Iraqi tank fire. No Abrams was destroyed by Iraqi tank fire during the Persian Gulf War.

Today in military history: Marine Corps aviation is born
PHC D. W. HOLMES II, US Navy

Source: US General Accounting Office

In fact, the only Abrams lost during the Persian Gulf War were destroyed by friendly fire, sometimes on purpose so they couldn’t be reclaimed by Iraqi forces.

Today in military history: Marine Corps aviation is born
US Department of Defense

The Abrams benefited from having superior range and night-vision abilities compared to their Soviet-made counterparts.

Today in military history: Marine Corps aviation is born
Ultimate Factories/National Geographic Television And Film

During the 2003 invasion of Iraq, the Abrams became involved in urban warfare while clearing cities. Urban warfare is the worst situation for tanks, as their range is limited by buildings and they can be attacked from above, where their armor is weakest.

Today in military history: Marine Corps aviation is born
US Army, Staff Sgt. Aaron Allmon II

Source: USA Today

Today in military history: Marine Corps aviation is born
US Military

Source: USA Today

In his book “Heavy Metal: A Tank Company’s Battle to Baghdad” Maj. Jason Conroy reports a lopsided victory where an Abrams unit destroyed seven Soviet-made T-72 tanks at point-blank range with no losses on the US side.

Today in military history: Marine Corps aviation is born
M1 Abrams tanks conduct a live fire range day. | U.S. Army photo

Today, the Abrams remains the US’s main battle tank, one of the most successful tanks of all time, and the king of the battlefield.

Today in military history: Marine Corps aviation is born
US Marine Corps photo by Cpl. Justin T. Updegraff

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Watch the F-22 take on 5 F-15s — and dominate

The F-22 Raptor is an expensive plane. While some critics pegged its cost at over $300 million a plane, the actual fly-away cost could go down to $116 million per Raptor, according to a 2006 Air Force release.


Today in military history: Marine Corps aviation is born
An F-22 deploys flares. (U.S. Air Force photo)

The F-22 was slated to replace the F-15A/B/C/D Eagles as the premier air-superiority fighter. But the Raptor’s production was halted at 187 airframes. Let’s go through a tale of the tape on these planes, before we see what happens when five Eagles jump a Raptor.

According to Joe Baugher, the F-15 has a top speed of Mach 2.5, a cruising speed of 570 knots, can carry eight air-to-air missiles (usually four AIM-120/AIM-7 and four AIM-9), and has a 20mm M61 cannon with 940 rounds. It has a range of 3,450 miles.

Today in military history: Marine Corps aviation is born

Baugher notes that the F-22 has a top speed of Mach 2.2 slightly slower than the F-15. But the F-22 cruises at Mach 1.6. It carries four AIM-120 and four AIM-9 missiles. It also has a 20mm M61 cannon. It has a combat radius of up to 800 nautical miles.

Here’s the video showing how the five Eagles fared against the Raptor. Warning: This was not a fair fight.

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7 rules of medieval knighthood that will make you re-think chivalry

People say “chivalry is dead” like that’s a terrible thing.

In the popular imagination, chivalry seems to harken back to some mythical era when armored knights rode about the land going on quests, saving maidens, and fighting evildoers.

But chivalry is really a word “that came to denote the code and culture of a martial estate which regarded war as its hereditary profession,” Maurice Keen writes in “Chivalry.”

He argues that medieval chivalry had a major part in molding “noble values,” and, as a result, has had an impact felt long after troubadours and jousting tournaments fell out of fashion. The romantic notion of the daring, pure-hearted knight errant lingers on, even today.

Today in military history: Marine Corps aviation is born

It’s difficult to speak broadly about the medieval era in Europe, given that it encompasses several centuries and an entire continent. Generally speaking, however, in many cases, knights and medieval warriors served as a local lord’s private military. That meant that sometimes, regional conflicts set a group of armed toughs tearing through the countryside and doing whatever the heck they wanted.

Codes of chivalry didn’t take hold in vacuum. There was no uniform “code of chivalry,” and those codes that existed were often far more religious in nature than our modern concept of “hold the door for ladies.” They also cropped up in part to keep knights and warriors from acting on their worst impulses and attacking or extorting weaker individuals.

Starting in the late 900s and lasting till the thirteenth century, a movement known as the Peace and Truce of God rose in Europe. Basically, the Church imposed religious sanctions in order to halt the nobility from fighting among themselves at certain times and committing violence against local noncombatants. You can think of these as rules for knighthood.

Today in military history: Marine Corps aviation is born

One 1023 oath, suggested by Bishop Warin of Beauvais for King Robert the Pious and his knights, gives us a good sense of some of the unexpected rules warriors might be asked to adopt, in response to their often violent behavior.

It includes some rather unusual injunctions and “illustrates the kind of oath that parties were expected to swear after having been caught breaking the peace,” according to Daniel Lord Smail and Kelly Gibson, who edited the sourcebook “Vengeance in Medieval Europe.” A main idea behind the movement was to use spiritual sanctions to give people a break from all the conflict and fighting that plagued certain areas at some points during the Middle Ages.

With that in mind, here are some of Bishop Warin of Beauvais’ proposed rules for knights, which indicate some truly bad and largely unchivalrous behavior on the part of medieval warriors:

1. Don’t beat up random members of the clergy

Bishop Warin of Beauvais barred knights from assaulting unarmed clerics, monks, and their companions, “unless they are committing a crime or unless it is in recompense for a crime for which they would not make amends, fifteen days after my warning.”

Today in military history: Marine Corps aviation is born
Image by kollynlund from Pixabay

Gunald of Bordeaux also condemned anyone who “attacks, seizes, or beats a priest, deacon, or any other clergyman who is not bearing arms — shield, sword, coat of mail, or helmet — but is going along peacefully or staying in the house,” according to Fordham University’s medieval sourcebook.

Instead of formally cursing the offenders, Gunald vowed to excommunicate any attackers “unless he makes satisfaction, or unless the bishop discovers that the clergyman brought it upon himself by his own fault.”

2. Don’t steal livestock or kill farm animals for no reason

The oath includes an injunction against making off with bulls, cows, pigs, sheep, lambs, goats, donkeys, mares, and untamed colts.

Today in military history: Marine Corps aviation is born

Photo from Wikimedia Commons

It also came out against seizing mules and horses at certain times of the year: “I will not exact by extortion mules and horses, male and female, and colts pasturing in the fields from the first of March to All Souls’ Day, unless I should find them doing damage to me.”

However, the bishop of Beauvais allowed that knights could kill villagers’ animals if they needed to feed themselves or their men.

In Gunwald’s proclamation, he also announced that any knight who robbed a poor person of a farm animal would be formally cursed.

3. Don’t assault, rob, kidnap, and torture random people

This rule should have probably gone without saying, but Bishop Warin of Beauvais felt that he needed to include it in the oath.

The bishop wanted knights to swear against mistreating male and female villagers, sergeants, merchants, and pilgrims. This abuse he cited included robbery, whipping, physical attacks, extortion, and kidnapping for ransom.

4. Don’t burn down or destroy houses unless you have a good reason

Arson was a big no in the bishop of Beauvais’s oath — for the most part.

Exceptions were made in the event a knight discovered “an enemy horseman or thief within” a certain house.

That sounds harsh, but Kaeuper writes that, while wrath was a sin, “vengeance is a cornerstone of the chivalric ethos, the harsh repayment justly given for an dimunition of precious honor.”

Today in military history: Marine Corps aviation is born“Nocturnal fire” by Egbert van der Poel (1621–1664)

Knights were also warned against plundering and stealing from the poor, even “at the perfidious instigation” of a local lord.

Kaeuper cite’s Alan of Lille’s declaration that knights achieved the “highest degree of villainy” by supporting themselves by looting from impoverished people.

5. Don’t assist criminals

Knights had a bad rap in certain parts.

Kauper writes that Alan of Lille once said that knights had the “cruel nature of marauders” and that “soldiers have been made the leaders of pillaging bands; they have become cattle-thieves.”

Today in military history: Marine Corps aviation is born
Image by Clarence Alford from Pixabay

Considering such a borderline criminal element, it’s not surprising that the Bishop Warin of Beauvais wanted knights to swear not to harbor and assist any “notorious public robber.”

He allows that, if a criminal comes to a knight for protection, that the knight should either make amends for the wrongdoer, force him to make amends within fifteen days, or deny him protection.

6. Don’t attack women — unless they give you a reason

The oath included a stipulation telling knights not to assault noblewomen traveling without their husbands. It also expanded protection to those attending them, along with widows and nuns, in general.

However, this shield was revoked if a knight “should find them committing misdeeds against” him.

7. Don’t ambush unarmed knights from Lent to Easter

A major part of the Peace and Truce of God movement was declaring that fighting should not take place during certain parts of the year.

Today in military history: Marine Corps aviation is born

Photo from Public Domain

Yale Law School’s Avalon Project features a 1085 decree from Emperor Henry IV, which declares that peace should be observed every Thursday, Friday, Saturday, and Sunday, on apostles’ feast days, and from the ninth Sunday before Easter until the eighth day after Pentecost, among other times.

In a similar vein, Bishop Warin of Beauvais ordered medieval warriors not to attack unarmed knights “from the beginning of Lent until the end of Easter.”

Feature image: Roman Paroubek from Pixabay

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This is what South Korea is threatening if Kim ‘crosses the line’

South Korean President Moon Jae-in took office hoping to engage diplomatically with North Korea, but as tensions soar between the two countries, he’s considering his offensive options.


Moon called for South Korea to prepare to “immediately switch to offensive operations” if North Korea makes a “provocation that crosses the line,” according to NK News.

Moon told his top military officers they should “strongly push ahead with a reform of the military structure to meet [the requirements] of modern warfare so that it can immediately switch to offensive operations in case North Korea makes a provocation that crosses the line or attacks a metropolitan area,” NK News notes.

Additionally, South Korea is developing a three-axis system to respond to a North Korean attack that contains preemptive strikes on North Korea’s missile systems, air and missile defenses, and something called the “Korea Massive Punishment and Retaliation system.”

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South Korean President Moon Jae-in. Photo from official South Korea Flickr.

Moon has tried to engage closely with North Korea, even going as far as suggesting the country host some of South Korea’s 2018 Winter Olympics, but to no avail as of yet.

At the same time, South Korea is building up a “decapitation force” meant to kill Kim Jong Un and other key North Korean leaders while building up missile defenses. Under Moon, the country has also developed an impressive ballistic-missile fleet that can drill deep underground to hit high-value targets in bunkers.

South Korean Vice Minister of National Defense Suh Choo Suk told reporters the country hoped to have perfected its offensive and defensive plan to win a war against North Korea by the early 2020s.

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FOX News all in to honor Independence Day with weekend-long ‘Proud American’ special

The signing of the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776 isn’t the main reason our country should dive into this weekend’s 4th of July festivities. Abby Hornacek, FOX Nation’s travel and lifestyle host, reminds us it’s really for all of the courageous Americans who willingly raise their right hand to serve and for the fallen lost to the never ending pursuit of securing our freedoms. 

This weekend Hornacek will be broadcasting live from the Airshow in New Century, Kansas, and the World War I Museum and Memorial in Kansas City, Missouri. 

Her journey to the poppy fields at the memorial honoring the heroes of World War I would be a somber reminder of the importance of recognizing the meaning behind the 4th of July. “It’s incredible because it really gives context to what our men and women in the military throughout history have done to set up our freedoms to live in today’s world,” she explained. 

Hornacek touched on the recent tragedies with COVID-19 and the strife seen and heard throughout the country due to ideological differences. “It’s really special to me to come to a place like this [Kansas City] and witness firsthand how they honor our flag and the United States. They honor the fact that all of this wasn’t given to us,” she said. “It was earned on the hard work and sacrifices of human beings.”

She is also planning a lot of fun and interesting stops to celebrate the day.

“There’s a really big jazz tradition here in Kansas City so we went to a jazz club in a historic building and went to get barbecue at Joe’s Kansas City. I found that to be the biggest conversation starter with anyone,” she said with a laugh. 

Another part of the weekend that she said she is really excited about is the truck giveaway for a wounded warrior. You’ll also get to see her jumping out of a plane and it won’t just simply be the average skydiving experience because she’ll be doing it with the Navy Leap Frogs. 

“To be able to celebrate not only them [service members] but the families involved is such an incredible honor. I am really happy that on 4th of July we [FOX] highlight patriotism because it takes a lot of sacrifice,” she said. 

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Photo provided by FOX News

Beginning on Friday, July 2, 2021, Fox and Friends will kick off the 4th of July Proud American programming with a morning interview and performance with country singer Toby Keith. Viewers will get to see some of Hornacek’s adventures, too. “I think the whole goal of our proud American coverage is just to again highlight what 4th of July is really all about,” she shared. 

On Saturday, July 3, 2021, Griff Jenkins will co-anchor FOX News Live from the Eisenhower Memorial in Washington, D.C.,12-2pm Eastern. Then for the big day, Hornacek shared how FOX has a full 24 hours of what she called “extraordinary programming dedicated to highlighting the importance of Independence Day and its history.”

Hornacek ended with sharing her hope of this day bringing the country together in a shared sense of appreciation for where we as a nation came from and the lives we are able to live because of the sacrifices of so many following that fateful declaration.

As the country gathers together to celebrate with friends and loved ones with barbecues and fireworks, the Proud American programming produced by FOX News Channel aims to reinforce the deep meaning behind this important American holiday. 

It isn’t about debating the current division of opinion regarding protesting anthems or our flag for social justice, either. The 4th of July should be a reminder that though we are still imperfect as a young nation, part of the greatness in our country is in the ability to continue to fight and strive toward the best version of what we know we are and absolutely can be. And it’s because of the hard work and sacrifice of so many lives in the past, today and in the future, that we can do it at all. 

If nothing else, there is one unarguable reason we should rejoice together as free American citizens on Independence Day. Because we can. 

You can learn more about the history of the 4th of July by clicking here

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SOCOM Chief: Yemen raid wasn’t hastily planned

Reports that the Jan. 19 special operations intelligence-gathering raid in Yemen that left a Navy SEAL and 30 local civilians dead and six more troops injured was a result of hasty planning are “absolutely incorrect,” the head of U.S. Special Operations Command said Tuesday.


Army Gen. Raymond Thomas briefly addressed reporters after speaking at the National Defense Industrial Association’s Special Operations/Low Intensity Conflict conference outside Washington, D.C. He declined to go into operational details but emphasized that such raids are common and infrequently reported.

Related: How SEALs were caught in ‘ferocious’ firefight during Yemen counter-terrorism raid

The White House has maintained that the raid, which resulted in the first military casualty of President Donald Trump’s administration, was well-planned and executed, but multiple news outlets have cited military sources complaining that the raid was hastily assembled and poorly planned.

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General Raymond A. Thomas III | Creative Commons photo

Thomas told Military.com he does not categorize such operations as successes or failures, a hotly debated question surrounding the Yemen operation. He said discussion of the raid lacked the context of the frequency of such U.S. operations around the world.

“I don’t think that there’s awareness in the great American public that we’re a country at war, that ISIL and al-Qaida are in countless countries,” he said, using an acronym for the Islamic State. “That an operation like Yemen is what goes on any given night out there. And unfortunately it wasn’t in that context.”

Instead, he said the operation has only been reported and considered in terms of the death of Chief Special Warfare Operator Ryan Owens and the loss of an MV-22 Osprey that suffered a hard landing while transporting troops.

“But in context, I think America needs to know we’re in a tough fight right now,” Thomas said. “We’re making progress, but unless we get governance on the backside of our military efforts, this is going to be a long struggle.”

Thomas, who replaced Army Gen. Joseph Votel as head of SOCOM last March, repeatedly declined to comment on the workings and decision-making of the Trump administration.

But, speaking just hours after news broke late Monday night that retired Army Gen. Michael Flynn had resigned as national security adviser after 24 days in the position, he gave a nod to the tumult at the highest levels of leadership.

“Our government continues to be in unbelievable turmoil. I hope we sort it out soon, because we’re a country at war,” he said.

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These tactical weathermen predict the rain and can bring the pain

Special operations forces are a diverse lot.


The Green Berets can bring in engineers, comms specialists, and even weapons specialists. The Navy SEALs bring their own lethal skills, as do Navy EOD personnel. The Air Force, though, has shown it can deploy surgical teams that can operate in remote conditions, combat controllers, pararescuemen, and other specialists.

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A Special Operations Weatherman with the 125th Special Tactics Squadron takes readings during training at Fort Carson, Colo., April 21, 2012. (U.S. Air Force photo by Tech. Sgt. John Hughel, 142nd Fighter Wing Public Affairs)

Perhaps the most interesting of those other specialists are the Special Operations Weathermen. Yeah, that’s right – the Air Force has trained meteorologists who can go in with other special operations personnel. Now, you can understand a unit like a special operations surgical team, but why a weatherman? At first glance, that doesn’t make a lot of sense.

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Members of Air Force Special Operations weather teams participate in a training scenario on a CH-47 Chinook during Emerald Warrior at Hurlburt Field, Fla., on March 7, 2012. (USAF photo)

Believe it or not, weather matters in military operations. Air drops in Sicily in 1943 and during the invasion of Normandy on D-Day were greatly affected by the wind. Today, even with GPS, air-dropping supplies depends on knowing what the wind will be like. While the “little groups of paratroopers” are legendary, the better outcome is to have most of the troops and supplies land together.

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Staff Sgt. Stephen Petche, 10th Combat Weather Squadron, takes observations after releasing a weather balloon during a training exercise July 31, 2013 at the Eglin Range, Fla. SOWTs provide immediate and accurate weather information and forecasts deep behind enemy lines. (U.S. Air Force photo by Capt. Victoria Porto)

These “weather commandos” need to attend eight schools from across the country to earn their gray beret, and spend 61 weeks in training. This involves everything from learning how to forecast the weather and to take the observations to learning small unit tactics to handling both water survival and underwater egress training. These personnel even attend the Airborne School at Fort Benning.

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Staff Sgt. Christopher Allen, a special operations weather specialist from the 320th Special Tactics Squadron, scans Sendai Airport prior to conducting a weather observation here March 16. Sudden snow and low visibility threatened to prevent aircraft from landing at the airfield. A team from the 320th Special Tactics Squadron out of Kadena Air Base, along with Japanese emergency management organizations, cleared a section of the runway and re-established the control tower to direct flights in and out of the airfield. (U.S. Air Force photo/Staff Sgt. Samuel Morse)

Even after those 61 weeks, when they become Special Operations Weathermen, these “Weather Warriors” will spend a year in further training before they deploy.

They will head out, not only to help predict the wind and rain, but to help bring the pain on the bad guys.

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