What it was like in the bunker Hitler died in 72 years ago - We Are The Mighty
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What it was like in the bunker Hitler died in 72 years ago

What it was like in the bunker Hitler died in 72 years ago


While hiding in a fortified two level 3,000-square-foot underground bunker, one of history’s most brutal tyrants promised the world that his empire would reign for 1,000 years.

Hitler’s Third Reich lasted 12 years, and officially ended on April 30, 1945, when the Führer committed suicide in his bunker with his new wife after learning Allied Forces had surrounded Berlin.

Hitler’s last hours

What it was like in the bunker Hitler died in 72 years ago
Hitler with his long-term mistress, Eva Braun.

The day before his death, 56-year-old Hitler married his long-term mistress, 33-year-old Eva Braun.

After his brief wedding ceremony Hitler began preparing his last will and political statement with his secretary Traudl Junge at approximately 4:00 p.m.

“What I possess belongs – in so far as it has any value, to the Party. Should this no longer exist, to the State; should the State also be destroyed, no further decision of mine is necessary,” Hitler’s will stated.

“I myself and my wife, in order to escape the disgrace of deposition or capitulation, choose death. It is our wish to be burnt immediately on the spot where I have carried out the greatest part of my daily work in the course of a twelve years’ service to my people.”

Later on that day Hitler learned his Italian counterpart Benito Mussolini was executed by a mob of anti-fascist partisans.

Here’s a summary of Hitler’s last day as reported by MentalFloss:

1 a.m.: Field Marshal William Keitel reports that the entire Ninth Army is encircled and that reinforcements will not be able to reach Berlin.

4 a.m.: Major Otto Günsche heads for the bathroom, only to find Dr. Haase and Hitler’s dog handler, Fritz Tornow, feeding cyanide pills to Hitler’s beloved German Shepherd, Blondi. Haase is apparently testing the efficacy of the cyanide pills that Hitler’s former ally Himmler had provided him. The capsule works and the dog dies almost immediately.

10:30 a.m.: Hitler meets with General Helmuth Weidling, who tells him that the end is near. Russians are attacking the nearby Reichstag. Weidling asks what to do when troops run out of ammunition. Hitler responds that he’ll never surrender Berlin, so Weidling asks for permission to allow his troops to break out of the city as long as their intention never to surrender remains clear.

2:00 p.m.: Hitler and the women of the bunker—Eva Braun, Traudl Junge, and other secretaries—sit down for lunch. Hitler promises them that he’ll give them vials of cyanide if they wish to use them. He apologizes for being unable to give them a better farewell present.

3:30 p.m.: Roused by the sound of a loud gunshot, Heinz Linge, who has served as Hitler’s valet for a decade, opens the door to the study. The smell of burnt almonds—a harbinger of cyanide—wafts through the door. Braun and Hitler sit side by side. They are both dead. Braun has apparently taken the cyanide, while Hitler has done the deed with his Walther pistol.

4:00 p.m.: Linge and the other residents of the bunker wrap the bodies in blankets and carry them upstairs to the garden. As shells fall, they douse the bodies in gas. Joseph Goebbels, minister of propaganda, will kill himself tomorrow. Meanwhile, he holds out a box of matches. The survivors fumble and finally light the corpses on fire. They head down to the bunker as they burn.

Hitler’s body

What it was like in the bunker Hitler died in 72 years ago
The bloodstained sofa where Hitler and Eva Braun committed suicide.

itting on a sofa next to each other in the living room of the Führerbunker, Hitler and his new bride Braun poisoned themselves with cyanide pills and then for good measure, the Nazi leader reportedly shot himself in the head.

While various historians dispute the scenario of Hitler actually ending his life with a gunshot, the Russian government claimed they had a portion of Hitler’s alleged skull complete with a bullet hole, The Guardian reports.

The fractured skull, which was reportedly taken from the bunker went on public display in Moscow in 2000. Paired with the skull was what Russian intelligence said is Hitler’s jawbone.

Almost a decade later, American researchers claimed by way of DNA testing that the cranial fragment actually belonged to a woman approximately 40 years old, The Guardian reports.

The orders to be “burnt immediately” were reportedly followed when SS officers wrapped the bodies of the Führer and Braun in blankets and then placed them on a small pyre where SS officer Otto Günsche set the remains ablaze.

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How Green Berets earned the nickname ‘snake eaters’ and how it helped them in Vietnam

The U.S. Army’s Special Forces soldiers are some of the most capable troops in the world. They might even be the most capable people. Putting on the coveted green beret means being able to handle yourself in almost any situation at any time, and coming out on top. 

For those working in Special Forces, it comes with varying degrees of difficulty. Today’s Special Forces soldier works in counterterrorism, counter-narcotics, hostage rescue and other potentially classified operations. But the primary mission of those who wear the green beret is to wage unconventional warfare against a hostile, possibly occupied nation. 

This often means turning a population or oppressed minority against its occupiers. They often find themselves training an undermanned, underequipped fighting force. In Vietnam, where the Green Berets cut their teeth, this often meant surviving in the jungles for long periods of time.

What it was like in the bunker Hitler died in 72 years ago
U.S. Army

In Vietnam, the Military Assistance Command – Vietnam – Studies and Observations Group (MACV-SOG) was a joint CIA-Army operation used to collect intelligence and fight the covert war happening in the dense jungles of the country. The oppressed minority in this case were the Vietnamese tribes of Montagnards.

The Montagnards’ name comes from the French for “mountaineers” and though they live in Vietnam, they are ethnically and culturally different from the Vietnamese. The 30 tribes of Montagnards live off of the land, growing food and hunting for survival. They were looked down upon by the Vietnamese and didn’t trust either the north or the south. Eventually, they cast their lots with the south – and the reason for that was the Green Berets.

Army Special Forces soldiers worked with the Montagnards (called “Yards” for short) to form a kind of quick reaction force (QRF) that would defend southern villages from attacking bands of Viet Cong (VC). The highland areas occupied by the Yards were prime real estate for moving men and material to the war zones. Isolated villages were easy pickings for the VC. The Green Berets moved in to advise the Yards.

What it was like in the bunker Hitler died in 72 years ago
U.S. Army photo

By the end of 1963, the Yards were organized into a real fighting force of 43,000 men and an 18,000 strong QRF. The Green Berets and the Montagnards gelled instantly. The Yard appreciated the Army’s finest for their help and the green berets appreciated the honest, primal toughness of the Yards – and their resolve to defend what was theirs. 

They were a lot alike in that their ways seemed odd to everyone else. The Montagnards would often find food that seemed unwholesome or unsavory to others. The Special Forces knew what that was like. After displaying their survival skills to President Kennedy, skills where they caught and ate snakes, they were stuck with the moniker “snake eaters.” 

What it was like in the bunker Hitler died in 72 years ago
National Archives

To the rest of Vietnam, the Montagnards were called savages. The similarities didn’t stop there. The U.S. soldiers loved the Yards prowess in combat. They were natural soldiers, brave and trustworthy. They knew they could count on the Montagnards to watch their flanks. 

All good things must come to an end, however. When the United States was forced to leave South Vietnam to its own defense, things didn’t fare so well. The Montagnards fought well, but they couldn’t defend the whole country on their own. When the South Vietnamese government fell, they accepted the result.

But they didn’t fare well. The North Vietnamese did not forget the Montagnards’ work with the U.S. Army Special Forces and the communists made life especially hard for the mountain tribes in the years to come.


Feature image: U.S. Army

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The US needs to react to N. Korea’s nuke program now

North Korea recently doubled the size of its uranium-enrichment plant and pushed through with the testing of rocket engines that could soon power intercontinental ballistic missiles capable of hitting the U.S. with a nuclear payload, analysts say.


The test came one day after U.S. Secretary of State Rex Tillerson told the Independent Journal Review:

“The threat of North Korea is imminent. And it has reached a level that we are very concerned about the consequences of North Korea being allowed to continue on this progress it’s been making on the development of both weapons and delivery systems.”

Nuclear-proliferation experts have told Business Insider that North Korea’s eventual goal for its weapons program is to create an ICBM with a thermonuclear warhead that can reach the U.S. mainland.

What it was like in the bunker Hitler died in 72 years ago
The test-fire of Pukguksong-2. This photo was released by North Korea’s Korean Central News Agency on February 13. (KCNA/Handout)

North Korea does not yet have that capability, and likely won’t for years, but its latest high-profile tests show steady progress in that direction.

Omar Lamrani, a senior military analyst at Stratfor, told Business Insider that the world would change if North Korea achieved its goal of building a weapon that could threaten Americans on US soil.

“North Korea has been perceived in the past as engaging in a nuclear-weapons program as a way to trade for concessions from the U.S. and South Korea,” Lamrani said. “But that paradigm doesn’t hold anymore — North Korea decided to invest in a nuclear-missile program not to trade it away, but as the ultimate security guarantee and the ultimate deterrent against outside attacks.”

As it stands, the U.S. and its allies would face a tremendously difficult task in disabling the North Korean nuclear-weapons program, as hundreds of mobile missile launchers scattered across secret locations in a densely forested, mountainous peninsula would make it nightmarishly complicated to remove in one swift blow.

What it was like in the bunker Hitler died in 72 years ago

But Lamrani said the ability to threaten the U.S. with not just one but a salvo of nuclear missiles would represent a loss for the U.S. and further limit options for outsiders to influence Kim Jong Un’s regime. North Korea’s latest progress toward this feat has deeply troubled U.S. officials and observers.

“North Korea has made such progress now that the U.S. feels that it does not have time anymore,” Lamrani said. He added that an ICBM in the hands of Kim would mean the U.S. could no longer credibly threaten North Korea with nuclear force, representing a “point of no return” in multilateral relations.

But although a war with North Korea would be disastrous and potentially cost millions of lives, the window for U.S. intervention is closing fast.

If North Korea developed credible ICBMs, as it may in coming years, the U.S. would be left with three options, according to Lamrani:

1. Continue with diplomacy and sanctions while building up ballistic-missile defense.

2. Cave to North Korea’s demands to be seen as a viable state, accept its nuclear program, and recognize the regime internationally.

3. Go to war and risk a nuclear holocaust on U.S. soil, while killing people in North Korea with nuclear arms.

What it was like in the bunker Hitler died in 72 years ago
North Korean leader Kim Jong Un speaks to top delegates of the Workers’ Party of Korea in Pyongyang. (KCNA via Agence France-Presse)

The U.S. currently employs the first option simply because it’s the least-worst choice, but Tillerson recently said the US’s “strategic patience” with North Korea had ended.

Additionally, recent reports from Arms Control Wonk and Reuters uncovered a complicated network of businesses and obfuscation that the Kim regime uses to rake in millions by selling military radios and other goods, despite sanctions.

Another Reuters report quoted North Korean officials as saying it did not fear or care about U.S. sanctions and that it was planning a preemptive first strike, while its recent tests suggest it’s closer than ever to being able to overwhelm U.S. missile defenses.

While the U.S. can build up all the defenses it wants, “missile defense is not a surefire way to negate the threat posed by another country’s nuclear-capable ballistic missiles,” Kelsey Davenport, the director of nonproliferation policy and a North Korea expert at the Arms Control Association, told Business Insider in January.

The second option would be to cave to perhaps the most brutal regime on Earth and cement the failure of decades of diplomacy.

The third option is patently unthinkable and unacceptable.

“Every single one of them is not a great option,” Lamrani said.

So as North Korea creeps closer to an ICBM, the U.S. must quickly decide whether to act now or to potentially admit diplomatic defeat down the road.

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Aerial footage of the Abraham Lincoln super carrier drifting

Considered one of the most technologically advanced ships in the Navy’s arsenal, the USS Abraham Lincoln is the fifth ship built in the Nimitz-class of aircraft carriers.


Originally costing nearly three billion dollars in the mid-’80s, the carrier was christened and launched by Newport News Shipbuilding under the command of Capt. J. J. Dantone.

Do you remember when former President George W. Bush gave a speech congratulating America for completing the mission in Iraq back in 2003? That took place aboard the USS Abraham Lincoln (and is probably a moment the former POTUS would probably like to take back for obvious reasons but let’s stay on track here).

 

What it was like in the bunker Hitler died in 72 years ago
The mission hasn’t been accomplished, at least not yet.

In May of 2017, the nuclear-powered aircraft carrier was redelivered back to the Navy after undergoing nearly a four-year mid-life Refueling and Complex Overhaul.

Approximately 2.5 million hours of labor were committed to the overhaul and restoration of this legendary aircraft carrier.

What it was like in the bunker Hitler died in 72 years ago
The Nimitz-class aircraft carrier USS Abraham Lincoln (CVN 72) busting an epic U-turn in the Atlantic Ocean. (Source: Wikipedia Commons)

 

The vessel’s upgrades include various repairs and replacements of ventilation, electrical, propellers, rudders, and combat and aviation support systems.

With the innovated modification to the rudders and propellers, the USS Abraham Lincoln can now tactfully turn around with minimal support.

Check out Ultimate Military Channel‘s video below to watch this impressive aircraft carrier drift for yourself.

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Watch Jordan’s King Abdullah II lead his troops in a live-fire exercise

At age 55, the King of Jordan is still ready to lead from the front — literally, the front of any given war.


A video released by the Royal Court on Apr. 17 shows him leading Jordanian troops in a live-fire exercise, taking down buildings, clearing rooms, and covering his squad’s rear. Military action is nothing new to Jordan’s reigning monarch.

What it was like in the bunker Hitler died in 72 years ago
Hhis Majest King Abdullah II amongst his comrades in arms. (Royal Hashemite Court of Jordan photo)

The King attended the UK’s Royal Military Academy Sandhurst in 1980, entering the British Army as a commissioned second lieutenant. He became a first lieutenant in the Jordanian armed forces after deploying with the British to West Germany. By 1986 he was the captain of a tank company.

He worked his way up the officer’s ranks. By the time he was promoted to general grade, he was in Jordan’s Special Forces Command.

Major General ibn Al Hussein became King Abdullah II in 1999 upon the death of his father. Since then, he has been a liberal reformist, making Jordan an island of stability in a sea of Middle East turmoil. The Jordanian King even introduced governmental reforms that will lead Jordan to a more parliamentary democracy.

What it was like in the bunker Hitler died in 72 years ago
Then-Crown Prince Abdullah with King Hussein of Jordan. (Royal Hashemite Court of Jordan)

His reforms made him a popular figure in his country and around the world. In terms of geopolitics, Abdullah, like his father Hussein, decided to be a peacemaker, maintaining Jordan’s peace with Israel, taking in more than a million Syrian refugees, and keeping Jordan a bulwark against Islamic extremism.

Read Now: The King Of Jordan Sent Out This Badass Photo In Response To ISIL

What it was like in the bunker Hitler died in 72 years ago
King Abdullah II (Royal Hashemite Court of Jordan photo)

The monarch never forgot his military roots. Keeping Jordan secure is something the King has always been ready to fight for — at times, even personally. When ISIS burned a downed Jordanian pilot alive, King Abdullah vowed to bombard the Islamic State until his military runs “out of fuel and bullets.”

Check out his room clearing skills in the video below, and contemplate what it must be like for junior enlisted Jordanian troops to fight alongside their freaking king.

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This French general escaped an ‘inescapable’ Nazi prison

When the Nazi forces captured French Gen. Henri Giraud in World War II, they knew they had to put him somewhere truly secure. So they took him to Konigstein Castle, a prison they were sure was completely inescapable. He broke out in two years. In broad daylight. Wearing a comical hat and glasses as a disguise. On Hitler’s birthday weekend.


What it was like in the bunker Hitler died in 72 years ago
Gen. Henri Giraud conducts his daily walk while a prisoner of the Third Reich. Photo: National Archives and Record Administration

Giraud was a popular general when World War II broke out. He was a hero of World War I for leading a bayonet charge against machine guns at the Battle of St. Quentin in Aug. 1914. He was wounded in the battle and left for dead before being captured by the Germans. It only took the severely wounded officer two months to escape that time, a feat he pulled off by acting like he was a laborer in a traveling circus.

Between the wars, he upped his notoriety factor by earning France’s Legion de Honneur in combat with Moroccan rebels and holding a series of high-profile military positions through the French empire.

In World War II, he fought the Nazis in a string of battles in an attempt to keep his country free. In May 1940, he led a reconnaissance patrol in Northeastern France and was captured at a machine gun nest after a heavy exchange with German artillery.

The Nazis knew they had a problem. Capturing a general is great, but then you have to hold him, and this general was famous for being a hero in two wars and had already escaped a German prison camp once. So they took him to Konigstein Castle, a prison with on a high hill that featured tall walls, few windows, and constant nighttime patrols. The Germans called it inescapable.

Festung-Konigstein-castle-prison Konigstein Castle looms over the surrounding countryside. Photo: Creative Commons/Fritz-Gerald Schröder

In the castle, Giraud quickly began a long-term plan to escape. He learned German by convincing the prison to offer classes. Then he stole a map and began studying potential routes and pitfalls. He also figured out a method of communicating with his wife and others through coded messages that would get past the censors. For an entire year, he slowly built a rope out of twine.

The Germans had good reason to believe that Konigstein was inescapable. Between the high walls and the fact that the prison was built on a hill, Giraud would need to descend 150 feet of wall and cliff face before reaching the ground. The twine was to help with that.

Because the prison was patrolled at night and not during the day, he descended hand-under-hand to the ground in broad daylight on Apr. 17, 1942, and jumped onto a passing train. He put on some glasses and a hat he acquired and shaved his mustache.

For those who don’t know, Hitler’s birthday is Apr. 20 and he was not happy that his weekend was spoiled by Giraud’s escape. He immediately ordered that Giraud be recaptured and assassinated.

The train took Giraud to the border between France and Germany and he was able to get in touch with resistance forces. Since Germany had held France for nearly two years at this point, Giraud had to stay one step ahead of Vichy officials who were eager to hand him over to the Nazis.

What it was like in the bunker Hitler died in 72 years ago
Gen. Henri Giraud hangs out with President Franklin D. Roosevelt after his successful escape. Photo: Roosevelt Library

Wearing women’s garb, he escaped Vichy France to the southern coast where a submarine was waiting for him. Because Giraud really hated the British, he had demanded an American sub.

Since there were no American subs nearby, the British had loaned the U.S. the HMS Seraph, redubbed the USS Seraph. An American officer temporarily took command and the crew faked American accents.

The general quickly saw through the ruse but allowed himself to be taken to North Africa anyway. As a five-star general, he had hoped to take over all French and possibly all Allied forces but accepted command of a division of Free French Forces instead. He fought on the side of the allies until retiring to private life after the liberation of France in 1944.

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The top 5 weapons the US Navy needs right now

What it was like in the bunker Hitler died in 72 years ago


As weaponeers, budgeteers, and lawmakers wage their annual death match over the defense budget, here’s some input from the margins of Fight Club. And yes, I know the first and second rules of Fight Club. But no one obeys them inside the Beltway, and they yield to the seventh and eighth rules anyway.

It’s tough to winnow the U.S. Navy’s priorities list down to five weapon systems. However, I applied a secret method to come up with the definitive, incontrovertible list of the Top 5 Weapons the U.S. Navy Needs Now. The list employs such metrics as a system’s national-level importance, its capacity to multiply the fleet’s offensive and defensive fighting power, and its ability to exploit enduring enemy weaknesses at manageable cost to the United States. This is science, remember. Don’t be a science denier!!!

One caveat: exotic weaponry like lasers and railguns is conspicuously absent from this list. These prospective game-changers will doubtless qualify—once they stop hovering along the frontiers of science fiction and start fulfilling their promise at fleet air and missile defense. It feels a wee bit premature to jump on that bandwagon—the potential of ray guns and other golly-gee armaments notwithstanding. Now, onward. In reverse order:

5. Offensive minelayers. We make much of the U.S. Navy’s vulnerability to sea mines, but rivals are acutely vulnerable as well. As mine-warfare expert Scott Truver aptly notes, mine countermeasures is an orphan in want of a champion. Offensive mine warfare is an orphan of an orphan. That’s a shame, as the option of closing straits, harbors, and other narrow seas at low cost could come in handy in a host of contingencies. Manifold airborne, surface, and subsurface platforms can lay mines. Mine warfare should find its champion soonest—and provide that champion with the implements to make life tough for prospective foes.

4. Long-range combat aircraft. We may exaggerate the range problem, whereby shore-based aircraft can smite aircraft-carrier strike groups long before these groups close within reach of enemy shores. No one assumed carrier task forces would pound away at the Japanese home islands during World War II while remaining safely out of harm’s way. U.S. forces had to fight their way into the theater, wresting control of sea and sky from Japan before exploiting that control to strike at the island empire.

Still, long range opens up new tactical and operational vistas for American commanders while attenuating the effectiveness of enemy counterbattery fire. Maximum effective firing range isn’t the same as maximum firing range. Weapons typically start to lose accuracy at extreme range. The capacity to operate around the outer limits of, say, Chinese anti-access weaponry would buttress deterrence in peacetime and combat power in wartime—a net bonus for U.S. commanders.

Long range also lets airmen turn geography to advantage. If U.S. Navy and Marine warbirds can operate from temporary “lilypad” airfields erected on islands around the Asian periphery, they can convert these islands into unsinkable—though also immobile—aircraft carriers. Let’s harness maritime geography for operational gain.

3. More attack submarines. This one may seem like a cop-out, but the undersea fleet desperately needs more attack boats. Joseph Stalin isn’t one of my go-to sources of strategic wisdom, but he was correct to note that quantity boasts a quality all its own. A simple differential equation tells the tale: Cold War-era Los Angeles-class subs are being retired faster than new-build Virginia-class boats replace them. As a result the submarine fleet may dwindle to as few as 41 boats in the coming years. That may sound like a lot, but under the prevailing maintenance and training cycle, it means commanders can count on something like 28 boats at any time…to police the entire globe and face down aggression.

That’s a serious shortfall. Like mine countermeasures, antisubmarine warfare is an enduring weakness of potential antagonists like China’s navy. By all means let’s build more Virginias. Or, let’s go back to the U.S. Navy’s conventional submarining past. Japan’s navy operates a fleet of diesel boats acclaimed the world’s finest. They’re eminently suitable for patrol grounds in crucial theaters like, well, Asia. To add numbers of hulls, why not buy some of these relatively inexpensive craft and use them to constitute a permanent, forward-deployed allied squadron alongside Japanese boats. Let’s buy American—and Japanese.

2. Modern anti-ship cruise missiles. Our navy suffers from a severe deficit of cruise-missile firepower. Cruise missiles of the anti-ship variety, I mean. The navy ditched an anti-ship variant of the Tomahawk cruise missile two decades ago, going all-in on land attack, while the elderly Harpoon missile finds itself outranged by virtually every serious foe out there. That means missile-armed enemy ships, subs, and planes can lob missiles at U.S. naval task forces long before American units can reply. U.S. forces will have to close to missile range under fire, in all likelihood taking losses as they do. That’s a perilous position for any fleet—and one that demands to be remedied.

Surface-fleet chieftains are saying the right things. They’ve started talking about “distributed lethality,” meaning arming as many ships as possible—not just cruisers and destroyers but amphibious transports, and even logistics vessels—for defensive and offensive purposes. A fine aspiration—provided we have something to arm surface vessels, subs, aircraft and even bodies of Marines ashore with. Distributed lethality is a worthy concept. Whether it’s a neo-Tomahawk anti-ship missile, a newfangled long-range anti-ship missile, or something else, fielding a new “bird”—and thus righting the range imbalance—must top fleet designers’ tactical to-do list.

1. Replacement ballistic-missile subs. Which leaves top honors on this list to a replacement for navy’s aging Ohio-class nuclear-powered ballistic-missile submarines (SSBNs). Nuclear deterrence is a matter of national survival, and the undersea component of the U.S. “second-strike” capability remains its most survivable—and thus credible—component. SSBNs are strategic assets of utmost importance.

Small wonder top navy leaders have designated the replacement “boomer” now on the drawing board the nation’s foremost shipbuilding priority. They have warned, moreover, that all other procurements may have to yield to submarine construction unless Congress funds the new SSBNs through a special account outside the normal shipbuilding budget. Yet anchoring the nuclear deterrent is that critical. That makes the Ohio successor #1 on my—and probably anyone’s—list of U.S. Navy acquisitions.

James Holmes is Professor of Strategy at the Naval War College and coauthor of Red Star over the Pacific, an Atlantic Monthly Best Book of 2010. He is RCD’s new national security columnist. The views voiced here are his alone.

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This article originally appeared at Real Clear Defense Copyright 2015. Follow Real Clear Defense on Twitter.

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Check out an inverted F-35 firing off a missile to test performance under negative G forces

As the F-35 marches closer to full combat readiness, pilots test the jet in ever more challenging environments, most recently by firing a AIM 9x air-to-air missile while flying upside-down.


“This unique missile launch is a situation we don’t expect a pilot to be in very often,” read a release. Firing a missile upside-down is nothing new. Fighters have had this capability for decades, and the stealth F-35 shouldn’t often find itself in a turning fight with adversaries.

What it was like in the bunker Hitler died in 72 years ago
Photo from F-35 Lightning II Joint Program Office

But now they know that if they need to fire a missile while experiencing negative G forces and inverted, they can.

“We want to provide the maximum capability of the F-35 to the fleet to get them where they need to be for training and operational use,” said James Shepherd, the flight test engineer for the missile test at Patuxent River Navy Base. “This will ensure we meet our promises to deliver the most advanced fifth generation fighter in the world.”

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These are the new missiles the US Navy wants to keep Russia and China in check

A series of troubling reports have been coming out from the U.S. military asserting that decades of U.S. military supremacy has eroded in the face of a resurgent Russia and a booming China, but the US Navy has conceived of some new technologies that they say can restore the U.S. to its former glory.


“We face competitors who are challenging us in the open ocean, and we need to balance investment in those capabilities— advanced capabilities — in a way that we haven’t had to do for quite a while,” Secretary of Defense Ash Carter said in a statement.

As it is, Russia and China can effectively deny US forces access to militarily significant areas, like Eastern Europe and the South China Sea.

In response, the U.S. Navy ran a “rigorous program of analytics and wargaming,”  and came up with a bold new strategy to turn the tables on these rising powers—distributed lethality.

Simply put, distributed lethality means giving every ship, from the smallest to the biggest, a range of advanced weapons that can destroy targets dependably, accurately, and without interference from enemy missile defense.

In the future, ships “will be equipped with the weapons and advanced capabilities that it will need to deter any aggressor and to make any aggressor who isn’t deterred very much regret their decision to take us on,” Carter said.

In the slides below, see the new munitions the US Navy wants to put aggressive authoritarian regimes in check.

The Block IV anti-ship Tomahawk missile.

What it was like in the bunker Hitler died in 72 years ago
defenseimagery.mil

A Tomahawk missile launches from the USS Farragut.

The Tomahawk land attack missile (TLAM) missile has been around since the 70s, and has seen use in Afghanistan, Iraq, and Syria, but a new anti-ship version of the missile with a 1,000 nautical mile range could be deployed onboard Navy ships of all types within a decade.

In February of 2015, the USS Kidd fired a Block IV anti-ship Tomahawk variant that successfully hit a moving target at sea from long range, immediately drawing praise from top naval brass.

“This is potentially a game changing capability for not a lot of cost. It’s a 1000 mile anti-ship cruise missile,” said Deputy Secretary of Defense Robert Work after the successful testing. “It can be used by practically by our entire surface and submarine fleet,” Work added.

Length: 20 feet long

Weight: 3,000 pounds

Range: 1,000 nautical miles

Speed: subsonic

Navy plans to acquire: 4,000 Tomahawks over five years for $2 billion

Source

Watch the successful test of the newly improved Tomahawk missile. Keep in mind that to keep the cost of testing down, the missile was not meant to sink the ship.

“[Along with] our surface brothers and sisters, we got to get the long-range missile so we’re not held out by that A2/AD (anti-access/area denial) bubble and we have the stick to hit inside,” said Vice Adm. Joseph Tofalo, commander, Naval Submarine Forces said.

The SM-6 Dual I

What it was like in the bunker Hitler died in 72 years ago
USS Dewey test-fires the Navy’s first SM-6 missiles, March 31. 2011 | U.S. Navy

The SM-6 interceptor may be the first missile capable of intercepting both ballistic missiles, which fall from the sky, and cruise missiles, which fly along the surface of earth, sometimes even snaking through mountains.

In the past, these two distinct types of missiles, ballistic and cruise, have required different missiles to stop them, but the SM-6’s advanced signal processing and guidance control capabilities make it a useful defense against both types.

Length: 21 feet long

Weight: 3,300 pounds

Range: unspecified

Speed: supersonic

Role in 2017 budget plan: $501 million to acquire 125 SM-6s

Source

Watch the SM-6 intercept both a ballistic and a cruise missile.

“It’s the only missile now out there that has what we call dual-mission capability,” Raytheon program manager Mike Campisi told BreakingDefense.com.

“That allows the combatant commanders to have choice. Instead of having separate boutique missiles for each mission… they can put SM-6s,” Campisi continued.

AGM-158C LRASM (Long Range Anti-Ship Missile)

What it was like in the bunker Hitler died in 72 years ago
U.S. Navy

An anti-ship missile LRASM in front of a F/A-18 E/F Super Hornet on 12 August 2015 .

The LRASM is a precision-guided anti-ship standoff missile with a penetrator and blast fragmentation warhead. The Navy wants the LRASM to replace the harpoon, which has been in service since 1977, and is easily foiled by today’s modern defenses.

The LRASM on the other hand, is stealthy due to it’s angular shape, making it hard for enemies to detect.  Also, in the case of electronic interference, the LRASM has advanced anti-jamming GPS guidance.

Additionally, the LRASM can be fired from ships and planes, like the F/A-18 pictured above.

Length: 14 feet

Weight: 2,100 pounds

Range: more than 200 miles

Speed: high subsonic

Navy plans to acquire: $30 million for the first 10 missiles

Source

For an in depth rendering of how the LRASM works, watch the video from Lockheed Martin below.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LvHlW1h_0XQ

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These were America’s colorful plans for war with the rest of the world

At of the turn of the 20th Century, America was coming into its own as a world power. In preparation for its new place in the world, the Joint Planning Committee, predecessor to the Joint Chiefs of Staff, drew up plans for war with likely opponents of the United States. Those plans went through numerous iterations and eventually became known as the Rainbow War plans because all the countries in question were assigned a specific color. The U.S. was then, as now, colored blue. What was started as a way to organize conops in the early 1900s became the basis for many of the decisions made during World War II.


The color plans ranged from small and unlikely to global and insightful. War plans such as Purple, Violet, and Grey covered American operations in Central and South America. War Plan Tan involved an intervention in Cuba. War Plan Brown was a plan for suppressing insurrection in the Philippines. There were also war plans Green and Yellow which dealt with Mexico and China respectively. They planned for domestic uprisings overseas that would have to be quelled by the U.S, like a repeat of the Boxer Rebellion in China.

America’s World War I allies, Britain and France, were also covered. War Plan Gold was America’s contingency for dealing with a belligerent France or her Caribbean colonies. The threat from French Caribbean colonies even led to the U.S. Army creating two special units, the 550th Airborne Infantry Battalion and the 551st Parachute Infantry Battalion. These were tasked with taking the island of Martinique in the event that the island became hostile. War Plan Red and its sub-plans Crimson (Canada), Scarlet (Australia), Ruby (India), and Garnet (New Zealand), were the American plans for war with the British Empire.

What it was like in the bunker Hitler died in 72 years ago
War Plan Red, explained in a later film.

The U.S. also had plans for domestic conflicts, called War Plans Blue and White. War Plan Blue was the preparation the United States needed to take during peace time in order to defend itself in war. A sub-plan of this was War Plan Indigo which called for the occupation of Iceland in order to defend the Eastern seaboard. Parts of this plan were put into effect early in World War II as part of the Battle of the Atlantic. War Plan White was drafted to quell domestic uprisings in the United States itself. The planners feared an attempt by communists to overthrow the government. Portions of War Plan White were put into action in 1932 against the Bonus Army – World War I veterans who had marched on Washington.

There were also a number of other plans that would be folded into the Rainbow plans, which guided U.S. military in World War II. The most famous of these is War Plan Orange – the U.S. contingency for fighting the Japanese in the Pacific. According to the U.S. Army’s official history, Orange had the longest history as planners anticipated a possible confrontation with Japanese imperialism in the Pacific since the early 1900’s. This proved to be prophetic.

Orange established the concept of ‘island-hopping’ that would be seen in action in later in the war. It also recognized forces in the Philippines would have “the basic mission ‘to hold the entrance to MANILA BAY, in order to deny MANILA BAY to ORANGE [Japanese] naval forces,’ with little hope of reinforcement.”

What it was like in the bunker Hitler died in 72 years ago

As war approached, U.S. military planners abandoned the plans for unilateral American action and decided the U.S. “should support or be supported by one or more of the democratic powers” of Europe. This decision led to the development of the aforementioned Rainbow War plans.

What it was like in the bunker Hitler died in 72 years ago

The Rainbow Plans had two components. First, it planned for the U.S. to have allies. Second, the U.S. would “prevent the violation of the letter or spirit of the Monroe Doctrine by protecting that territory of the Western Hemisphere.” Based on these premises five Rainbow plans were developed.  Plans 1, 3, and 4 were designed to protect the Western Hemisphere without the commitment of American forces to offensive operations and varied only in their scope of the projection of forces for the defense. Plan 2 called for supporting Great Britain and France against Germany with minimal American forces while the bulk of American forces carried out what was essentially War Plan Orange in the Pacific against the Japanese. Plan 5, the plan ultimately adopted with the addition of War Plan Orange, was a contingency for rapidly deploying American forces to Africa and Europe to defeat the Axis in concert with the Allied powers of Europe.

After Pearl Harbor, U.S. forces were deployed to both theatres as a reassurance to America’s allies despite a ‘Europe First’ strategy developed in 1940. It was not until the buildup of forces for the invasion of Normandy that the majority of U.S. forces were in Europe. Eventually, over 75 percent of the American military was deployed to Europe, with only one quarter deployed to the Pacific.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oRiIrVRCb8s

Despite extensive planning, there were many developments that changed the course of the war in the Allies’ favor. Germany’s loss in the Battle of Britain caused the cancellation of Operation Sea Lion, the planned invasion of the British Isles. The dissolution of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact gave the Allies an advantage in Europe. Japan’s insistence on destroying the U.S. Navy in a decisive battle led to decisions that allowed the U.S. to destroy more Japanese ships and be safer in their own movements. Planners did not foresee just how effective aircraft carriers would be in modern naval warfare, though they had correctly anticipated the prominence of submarines.

Ultimately, the version labeled ‘Rainbow Plan 5’ proved the right choice for an Allied victory in World War II.

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Marines avoided killing officers because of this symbol

The Marine Corps hosts countless customs and courtesies that dates back hundreds of years that are reflected in the way they conduct business today.


Their uniform is intended to display courage (their prideful history), commitment (years of service), and self-achievements (medals and ribbons).

To the untrained eye, it’s difficult to pick out a particular individual from a sea of Marines — especially amidst the chaos of war.

Related: This is why some Marines wear the ‘French Fourragere,’ and some don’t

Can you spot the Marine officer in the image below? If so, could you identify them from above with one-eye closed?

What it was like in the bunker Hitler died in 72 years ago
These Marines prepare to get into the sh*t after exiting an Osprey helicopter.

Back in the 1800s, it was a common practice for Marines and sailors to patrol up to an enemy vessel and forcefully board the ship while under heavy fire.

The Marine and Navy sharpshooters would position themselves high up in the ship’s riggings, providing overwatch as their brother-in-arms moved in.

What it was like in the bunker Hitler died in 72 years ago
A replica of a U.S. Marine officer’s uniform during the mid-1850s. (Source: Pinterest)

During the confusion of war, the sharpshooters would occasionally fire their weapons and kill friendly forces, including officers, as they fought the enemy in clusters.

Also Read: This is why sailors have 13 buttons on their trousers

According to popular legend, in 1859, “the quatrefoil” design was added and stitched onto the top of Marine officer’s cover to help identify them from the rest of the personnel.

The quatrefoil — adapted from the French — is a cross-shaped braid with many different symbolic interpretations. Some think of it as representing the four cardinal directions, while in architecture it is an icon of design (and it’s fancy).

What it was like in the bunker Hitler died in 72 years ago
The Marine quatrefoil

Whether or not this origin story is true remains ambiguous, but the quatrefoil nonetheless remains part of the officer uniform today.

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These 14 photos of this teddy bear on patrol are as classic as they are cute

Reddit user admonishment, a British soldier who served in Helmand, Afghanistan, uploaded a set of photos of his mates and him on deployment with “Billy the Teddy Bear” in 2010.


“Our Media Officer made me take a teddy bear on a patrol (Helmand 2010)” by admonishment in Military

Billy kept a Brit-style stiff upper lip even when an IED struck the vehicle he was riding in. Click through the photos above to see Billy’s deployment. And check out the original reddit post to see a ton of bear puns about warfare.

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Canadians honor their fallen troops by lining the ‘Highway of Heroes’

When a Canadian soldier is killed in action, the remains are repatriated to Canadian Forces Base Trenton, near Trenton, Ontario, operated by the Royal Canadian Air Forces. From there, they are driven to the coroner’s building in Toronto for examination before being released to the families.


Part of the 401 Highway connecting CFB Trenton and the Don Valley Parkway in Toronto is now called the “Highway of Heroes” in honor of the Canadian Forces who gave their lives to Canada’s military missions. This is also the stretch of road the remains of the fallen take in funeral convoys on the way to Toronto.

The funeral processions are marked by a ceremony at CFB Trenton before the 100 mile drive to the morgue. When this process first started, something extraordinary happened: Canadians spontaneously started to line the route, waving flags and rendering salutes in a grassroots phenomenon to remember their country’s sons and daughters.

What it was like in the bunker Hitler died in 72 years ago
(Flickr Christina Matheson)

Pete Fisher is a photographer who first saw the procession in 2002, when his father tipped him off that four soldiers would be driven that day. He petitioned the government for a formal name change for the stretch of highway. He now has a 185-page book featuring every Canadian soldier whose remains traversed the road.

What it was like in the bunker Hitler died in 72 years ago
The body of Cpl. Steve Martin, a Canadian soldier killed in Afghanistan, is returned to Canada. Martin, a member of the Canadian Forces, was killed by a roadside bomb in the Panjwaii district of Kandahar province. Ontario Provincial Police vehicles lead the procession to the coroner’s office in Toronto. Martin is the 154th Canadian soldier to die in Afghanistan. (photo by Robert Taylor)

“Each picture means so much,” Fisher told Canada’s CTV News. “All these families were so amazing… In their worst moment of sadness, there they are in these limousines screaming ‘thank you’ to the people on these bridges. But it was reciprocal. The people on these bridges were thanking them.”

What it was like in the bunker Hitler died in 72 years ago
(Flickr, Christina Matheson)

What it was like in the bunker Hitler died in 72 years ago
(Creative Commons)

Most recently, Sgt. Andrew Doiron of Moncton, New Brunswick, was repatriated on the Highway. Doiron was a Canadian Forces special forces advisor in Iraq, killed by Kurdish Peshmerga in a friendly fire incident. His death is the first Canadian fatality of the new phase of the Iraq War.

Thousands of people — firefighters, policemen, civilians — line the bridges and overpasses on the stretch of highway waiting for hours to pay tribute to the soldiers and remind the families their grief and sacrifice is not forgotten.

What it was like in the bunker Hitler died in 72 years ago
(Flickr, Robert Taylor)

What it was like in the bunker Hitler died in 72 years ago
(flickr, Robert Taylor)

What it was like in the bunker Hitler died in 72 years ago
(Creative Commons)

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