The US accidentally built a fort to repel Canada... in Canada - We Are The Mighty
MIGHTY HISTORY

The US accidentally built a fort to repel Canada… in Canada

The War of 1812 was a conflict between the United States and Great Britain, though it could be argued that Canadians and Native Americans were most affected by it. The northern theater of the war, especially near the border of Canada and the Great Lakes, saw some of the most intense fighting — so much so that, after the Treaty of Ghent, President James Madison ordered a heavy fortification be built at the northern end of Lake Champlain to prevent future invasion.


The only problem… was that the fort was built on the wrong side of the border.

The Americans didn’t discover the error until two years later, when a surveyor found the fort was being built north of the 45th parallel.

The US accidentally built a fort to repel Canada… in Canada
Oops.

Construction halted on the fort, which earned the moniker “Fort Blunder,” until 1842, when the U.S. moved the boundary line north (see the current boundary in the image above) — because pride.

Also read: This War of 1812 veteran saw the Battle of Gettysburg from his porch – then joined it

The Webster-Ashburton Treaty resolved a number of border issues between what would one day become Canada and the United States, who promptly began to build another fort — this one named for revolutionary war hero General Richard Montgomery. The fort was built from the same limestone slabs that helped raise the Brooklyn Bridge, and, though it was never fully garrisoned, it was armed and ready for action.

As the United States’ relationships with Great Britain and Canada flourished, Fort Montgomery’s function dwindled. In 1926, it was auctioned off by the U.S. government and sold to a private bidder.

War of 1812: This is the only time since the War of 1812 that enemy forces occupied US soil

Today, it’s actually for sale… but no one wants it (except for me — I absolutely want it and I am currently looking for a $3 million donation for this cause. The parties there will be epic. Bring your boat and everyone you know…), though in 2009, it was placed on The Preservation League of New York State’s list of Seven to Save.

MIGHTY HISTORY

World War II vets rebuilt an APC to drive through the Iron Curtain

On July 25, 1953, seven Czechoslovakians rolled across one of the most heavily guarded borders in the world to freedom in the West. They rolled over three rows of barbed wire, land mines, and guard towers on their way into West Germany. The Czech border guards didn’t even try to stop them. No one fired a shot. They all just watched in stunned disbelief as the Nazi armored personnel vehicle just tore its way across the Iron Curtain.


The story of Vaclav Uhlik is a success story for American soft power, specifically the Cold War-era broadcasts of Radio Free Europe. Uhlik was an engineer in the new, Soviet-dominated Czechoslovakia following the end of World War II. He was a concentration camp survivor, a fighter for the Czech Underground, and mechanic who hid a big secret from the new Communist authorities in his country: there was an armored vehicle in his backyard – and he was rebuilding it.

For three years, he listened to the broadcasts of Radio Free Europe as he gathered parts and materials needed to get the APC operational again. The broadcasts gave him hope. His progress gave him patience. He was assisted by former Czech soldiers Walter Hora and Vaclav Krejciri in his efforts, and they were rewarded by riding in the vehicle the night it was to drive to the West.

The US accidentally built a fort to repel Canada… in Canada

The Czech-West German Border in 1980.

(Photo by Alan Denney)

Starting nearly from scratch, the men slowly reconstructed a battered Nazi Saurer RR-7 Artillery Tractor. Vaclav Uhlik, the engineer, rebuilt the vehicle as an armored personnel carrier. He made it large enough to carry himself, his wife and two children, the two veterans, Josef Pisarik, and Libuse Hrdonkova, a Czech woman who married an American after the war. Since he could only stay with her for three months, she decided to come to him in Iowa.

After years of tinkering and preparation, the modified RR-7, covered in the brush and foliage that hid it from Czechoslovakian authorities for so long, rumbled its way to the West German border. They drove through the Bavarian forest to the Wald-München (near Nuremberg) border crossing. And he did cross the border, except he didn’t go through the gates, instead opting to go right through the rows of barbed wire between guard towers and minefields.

The border guards just watched in awe, as they thought the APC was a friendly army vehicle. The Czechs inside had only what they wore with them, but they were on the right side of the Iron Curtain.

The US accidentally built a fort to repel Canada… in Canada

The seven Czechs drove the APC for several miles into West Germany and away from the border until they were stopped by West German police, taken to an American installation to be interviewed by intelligence officers, and then welcomed to their new home in the West. They would eventually be resettled in Springfield, Mass. – all except Hrdonkova. She would move to Sioux City, Iowa, to be with her long-separated husband.

MIGHTY TACTICAL

What the F-22 will do in a war with China

The F-22 Raptor is kind of an underrated badass. Now overshadowed by the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter, the Raptor never really got its chance to stand out on its own. But with the U.S. Air Force increasingly butting heads with other air forces around the world, the real power of the Raptor is starting to show.


General Mark Welsh, then-Air Force Chief of Staff once told the story of a Raptor pilot who snuck up on an Iranian F-4 Phantom who was moving to intercept and shoot down a U.S. drone. After flying below two Iranian planes to check out their armaments, he pulled up to their left wing, surprising them, and told them to go home. They did.

The US accidentally built a fort to repel Canada… in Canada
Kinda like that, except when the Air Force does it, it’s real and not a movie. You’ll always have the sky dick, Navy.

The F-22 was born out of a desire to replace both the F-16 and F-15 with an air superiority fighter unrivaled in air-to-air kills. Even with the development of the F-35, there are those who still believe the F-22 is the superior airframe and that Raptor production stopped too soon.

The US accidentally built a fort to repel Canada… in Canada

They have a valid point.

Nowadays, the F-22 is mostly being wasted on patrols and alert missions or other exercises that don’t require the Raptor’s particular set of skills, according to a Government Accountability Office report. And since such missions don’t require the F-22 specifically, pilots aren’t able to trained to make use of capabilities unique to the aircraft, meaning it rarely has its full range of abilities realized.

In combat zones, the mere presence of an F-22 commands respect. Currently, Russian, Syrian, and Iranian aircraft are operating in the skies above Syria. In 587 encounters there, the Raptors forced the other aircraft to back off without further aggression.

The US accidentally built a fort to repel Canada… in Canada
A U.S. Air Force F-22 fighter jet (front) taxis past a C17 aircraft after landing at Kadena U.S. Air Force Base on Japan’s southwestern island of Okinawa

The success (though limited) in Syria showcases not only the capability of the Raptors and their pilots, but also what other air forces’ pilots think of the airframe — and the potential for future roles in other battlespaces, specifically China.

The Commander of Pacific Air Forces, Gen. Charles Brown, has an idea of what that role might look like. While the Chinese are certain to try to jam U.S. communications in the event of a conflict, Brown wants the F-22 to frustrate and confuse the Chinese. The idea has been dubbed “Rapid Raptor” and features four escort F-22s and a USAF C-17 transport plane to be deployable within 24 hours to go anywhere in the PACOM area of responsibility.

The “Rapid Raptor” idea calls for the Elmendorf AFB, Alaska-based 3rd Wing of F-22s to quickly disperse in the event of a conflict, being able to refuel from the C-17’s wing tanks wherever they go. The idea quickly spread to the rest of the Air Force’s F-22 fleet, most notably in Eastern Europe where F-22s are a deterrent to Russian aggression. The Air Force even wants to use the Rapid concept on other airframes.

In the event of a conflict, these spread-out fighter formations could more easily communicate through Chinese jamming via the use of satellite communications. They would also receive target orders this way. In the event of the Chinese disabling or destroying satellites, the small formations would have enough information to make informed battlefield decisions and operate independently.

“They get enough direction early enough from me so that they can actually go execute,” Brown told a group of reporters at the Pentagon. “When we look at our pacing threat of China, we got to think differently about how we do things.”

MIGHTY TACTICAL

Sandrin TCK 416 makes a sharp and slim addition

Even before the millions of everyday carry (EDC) pocket dump photos started popping up on social media, knives have been a common everyday tool. Young boys receive their first knife as a rite of passage, and more women are becoming acclimated to carrying knives everyday for protection and necessity.

In my line of work, I’ve handled a variety of knives from many companies. Ranging from truly impressive to mediocre, I’ve gained the hands-on experience to know a good knife when I see one. However, it doesn’t take years of blade enthusiasm or expertise to understand if the knife you’re holding is good enough to “make the cut.” It’s either sharp and durable or it’s just metal taking up space in your pocket.


The US accidentally built a fort to repel Canada… in Canada

The Sandrin TCK 416 is made of tungsten carbide and will retain its sharp edge indefinitely.

(Photo by Karen Hunter/Coffee or Die)

When I receive a new knife, the first thing I do is test for sharpness. A simple paper-cutting test will tell you more than you’d think. Simply take a piece of loose-leaf paper in one hand and cut down the center in one smooth, continuous motion. A sharp knife should cut from top to bottom without catching. If a knife catches or leaves snags/jagged edges, this is an issue.

I recently discovered a knife that not only cut clean through the paper test, it also holds its own among EDC knives: the TCK (Tungsten Carbide Knife) 416 by Sandrin. Sandrin is a division of Cabot Guns and brings innovations to the knife realm just as Cabot does with 1911s. The TCK 416 is incredibly thin (4.5mm) and lightweight (2.18 ounces). Although an ultra-slim gentleman folder is nice, the “cool” factor of the TCK is all in the blade. The blade is perfectly, measurably parallel. The circles on the blade are measured in the Fibonacci sequence (1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8) in both diameter and from the center of one circle to the next. If you’re not a math person, just know that’s actually pretty incredible.

The US accidentally built a fort to repel Canada… in Canada

The TCK 416.

(Photo courtesy of Sandrin Knives)

The TCK is not made of steel or ceramic. Instead, it’s made from a completely new blade material that is superior to both. This is where the fascination lies. You have to wrap your brain around the science — or “magic” — of it all, which began in Italy.

Sandrin is the brand name for knives manufactured by its parent company, Turmond. Turmond is a second generation family business that has been working with tungsten carbide for more than 40 years. They dominate the global cutting blade market and have intensely studied the science of cutting in controlled applications that other knife makers cannot. Allessandro Colombatto, the creator and director of Sandrin Knives, started grinding carbide at the age of 12. By age 24, he started crafting tungsten carbide blades for industrial high-speed cutting applications. Behind the TCK is measurable, proven science.

Tungsten carbide has been used for industrial wear purposes — such as the hulls of ice breakers and seals for oil pipes that sit miles below the ocean — but traditional grades of tungsten carbide will shatter like ceramic. Sandrin uses a patented method of sintering a proprietary grade of polyhedral tungsten carbide from particles of tungsten, carbide, and cobalt, making their blades hard and not brittle. Most steel knives have a hardness from 52 to 57 on the Rockwell scale, which is considered high. The TCK has a hardness of HRC 71.

The Longest Lasting Knife Edge – Sandrin Tungsten on a TCK

www.youtube.com

In addition to superior hardness, polyhedral tungsten carbide doesn’t rust and allows the TCK to retain an edge unlike any other blade — it will never require sharpening. You can, however, sharpen a steel knife with the top edge of a Sandrin blade. Tungsten carbide is the hardest metal on Earth — the only thing harder is the mineral diamond.

I’ve been carrying the TCK 416 for approximately six months, and it lives up to its reputation. This isn’t merely hype, it’s literal science, which is what makes the TCK so fascinating. Rob Bianchin, president and founder of Cabot Guns, echoed the sentiment: “I have been using my TCK for a year, opening boxes on a daily basis, and I can still shave with it. It remains razor sharp!”

Razor sharp is not an exaggeration. Regardless of experience level, handle the TCK 416 with care. This is a seriously sharp knife in a slim, lightweight package. If you remain mindful of its capabilities and level of sharpness, this could be a great EDC — especially with a reasonable MSRP of 9 and a lifetime guarantee.

The US accidentally built a fort to repel Canada… in Canada

(Graphic by Erik Campbell/Coffee or Die. Photo courtesy of Sandrin Knives.)

This article originally appeared on Coffee or Die. Follow @CoffeeOrDieMag on Twitter.

Articles

7 quotes that perfectly capture the US Army

The U.S. Army has been defending our nation for nearly two-and-a-half centuries. Here are 7 quotes that capture the soldier’s spirit:


1. “The soldier is the Army. No army is better than its soldiers. The soldier is also a citizen. In fact, the highest obligation and privilege of citizenship is that of bearing arms for one’s country.” – Gen. George S. Patton Jr.

The US accidentally built a fort to repel Canada… in Canada
(Photo: Public Domain)

The Army, the soldiers, and the citizens are all inextricably linked. The U.S. Army is a reflection of the best that American citizens have to offer.

2. “They’ve got us surrounded again, the poor bastards.” – Gen. Creighton Abrams

The US accidentally built a fort to repel Canada… in Canada
(Portrait: Public Domain/Herbert Abrams)

America’s enemies shouldn’t count the battle won just because they’ve gained the good ground. Gen. Creighton Abrams said this quote while surrounded by Nazis at the Battle of the Bulge. He and his men didn’t die, but many of the German soldiers surrounding them did.

3. “People sleep peaceably in their beds at night only because rough men stand ready to do violence on their behalf.” – Richard Grenier while discussing the works of George Orwell

This quote is often misattributed to George Orwell, but it’s actually a summary written by Richard Grenier of key points made in Orwell’s writings. It is loved by soldiers for how it describes their chosen profession.

4. “Nuts.” – Gen. Anthony MacAuliffe, said while replying to a request for his surrender

The US accidentally built a fort to repel Canada… in Canada
(Photo: Public Domain)

U.S. Army commanders aren’t always great orators, but they get their point across quickly.

5. “No bastard ever won a war by dying for his country. He won it by making the other poor, dumb bastard die for his country.” – Gen. George S. Patton, Jr.

The US accidentally built a fort to repel Canada… in Canada
(Photo: US National Archives)

Dying for your country is noble, but America would much rather let you be noble while its soldiers concentrate on being victorious.

6. “There were only a handful of Americans there but they fought like wildmen.” Antone Fuhrmann of Mayschoss while discussing Americans in World War I

When U.S. soldiers arrive, they do so violently.

7. Front toward enemy

The US accidentally built a fort to repel Canada… in Canada
(Photo: US Army Visual Information Specialist Markus Rauchenberger)

Look, sometimes soldiers need a little help knowing which end of a weapon is the deadly part. Our mines carry instructions that reflect this reality.

MIGHTY TRENDING

US fighters and bombers sent clear warning to Iran

US fighters and bombers conducted a deterrence patrol over the Persian Gulf on May 12, 2019, as a warning to Iran, which the US has accused of plotting attacks on US interests in the region.

During the mission, US Air Force B-52H Stratofortress heavy, long-range bombers were accompanied by F-15C Eagles and F-35A Lightning II Joint Strike Fighters. The bombers and escorts were supported by a KC-135 Stratotanker providing aerial refueling.

US Central Command explained to Business Insider that the flight was intended to send a message to Iran and others that the US military is ready to defend its interests.


The US accidentally built a fort to repel Canada… in Canada

A U.S. Air Force B-52H Stratofortress aircraft assigned to the 20th Expeditionary Bomb Squadron takes off from Al Udeid Air Base, Qatar, May 12, 2019.

(U.S. Air Force photo by Staff Sgt. Ashley Gardner)

The bombers were deployed to the CENTCOM area of responsibility last week after the US reportedly received intelligence showing “clear indications that Iranian and Iranian proxy forces were making preparations to possibly attack US forces in the region,” a US Central Command spokesman said.

Source: US Central Command

The US accidentally built a fort to repel Canada… in Canada

A U.S. Air Force B-52H Stratofortress aircraft assigned to the 20th Expeditionary Bomb Squadron takes off from Al Udeid Air Base, Qatar, May 12, 2019.

(U.S. Air Force photo by Tech. Sgt. Nichelle Anderso)

May 12, 2019’s patrol was the first mission for the four B-52s deployed to the CENTCOM area. “They’re here to defend our forces and interests,” a US Air Forces Central Command spokesperson told Stars and Stripes.

Source: Stars and Stripes

The US accidentally built a fort to repel Canada… in Canada

the USS Abraham Lincoln.

(U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist Seaman Zachary S. Welch)
The US accidentally built a fort to repel Canada… in Canada

A U.S. B-52H Stratofortress aircraft assigned to the 20th Expeditionary Bomb Squadron refuels from a KC-135 Stratotanker assigned to the 28th Expeditionary Air Refueling Squadron, at an undisclosed location in Southwest Asia, May 12, 2019.

(U.S. Air Force photo by Senior Airman Keifer Bowes)

While emphasizing that the US does not seek war with Iran, the White House has stressed that any attack by Iran will be met with “unrelenting force.”

Source: White House

The US accidentally built a fort to repel Canada… in Canada

An Airman piloting an F-35A Lightning II receives fuel from a KC-135 Stratotanker.

(U.S. Air Force photo by Senior Airman Keifer Bowes)

The fifth-generation F-35As were moved into the theater for the first time in April to support ongoing operations. These stealth fighters have already conducted strikes in the region.

Source: US Air Forces Central Command

The US accidentally built a fort to repel Canada… in Canada

An Airman piloting an F-15C Eagle receives fuel from a KC-135 Stratotanker.

(U.S. Air Force photo by Senior Airman Keifer Bowes)

The F-15Cs were already in theater but were moved last week “to be best positioned to defend U.S. forces and interests in the region.”

Source: US Air Forces Central Command

The US accidentally built a fort to repel Canada… in Canada

F-15C Eagle refueling during deterrence patrol.

(U.S. Air Force photo by Senior Airman Keifer Bowes)

As CENTCOM bolsters its firepower, Iran has issued several warnings, at one point calling the USS Abraham Lincoln aircraft carrier a “target” rather than a threat. Iran has not yet, it appears, escalated beyond rhetoric though.

This article originally appeared on Business Insider. Follow @BusinessInsider on Twitter.

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This Navy ‘ace of aces’ shut down a 60-plane attack

Navy pilot David S. McCampbell, a commander at the time, set the single mission aerial combat record when he led a two-plane flight against a 60-plane Japanese attack and shot down at least nine of the enemy himself, forcing the Japanese forces back before they could fire on a single American ship.


The US accidentally built a fort to repel Canada… in Canada
Navy Capt. David McCampbell as a pilot in World War II. (Photo: U.S. Navy)

McCampbell was the commander of the Navy’s Air Group Fifteen, often known as the “Fabled Fifteen,” on Oct. 24, 1944, when a large Japanese force was spotted near the USS Essex during the Battle of Leyte Gulf. The Japanese would have been nearly guaranteed a victory against the Essex since no aircraft were ready to defend the carrier.

Crews rushed to prepare McCampbell’s Hellcat and the commander jumped into his bird before it could even be entirely filled with fuel. McCampbell took off with just one other fighter to face approximately 60 Japanese planes.

In the air, McCampbell proved his reputation as one of the Navy’s fiercest pilots. He was able to engage the Japanese out of range of the carrier and shot down nine of them while disrupting the formations of the rest. The Japanese eventually turned back without firing a single time on the Essex.

The pilot would later receive the Medal of Honor for his actions. His nine aerial victories that day are believed to have taken place in 95 minutes, meaning he averaged about one enemy plane shot down every 10 minutes.

The US accidentally built a fort to repel Canada… in Canada
Navy Capt. David McCampbell’s plane undergoes maintenance on board USS Essex off Saipan on July 30, 1944. (Photo: U.S. Navy)

Then, the very next day, McCampbell and the Fabled Fifteen went on the attack. McCampbell acted as the targeting coordinator and piloted one of the planes in a massive assault with planes from three task groups. The American formation destroyed an aircraft carrier, a cruiser, and two destroyers while also damaging five other large ships. He later received the Navy Cross for this engagement.

McCampbell’s reputation as a feared pilot was earned well before Oct. 1944, too. In June of that year, he led a flight of U.S. defenders against an 80-plane attack by Japanese forces, disrupting the attack and shooting down seven of the enemy. In September, he led an attack on Japanese ships, shot down four enemy planes, and heavily damaged a merchant ship.

The US accidentally built a fort to repel Canada… in Canada
Navy Commander David S. McCampbell’s plane had 34 Japanese flags to represent his victories over that many Japanese planes. (Photo: U.S. Navy Photographer’s Mate Second Class Paul T. Erickson)

By the end of the war, McCampbell was credited with 34 victories over enemy planes and went down in history as being the only man to earn a Medal of Honor and a Navy Cross in two days. He was promoted to the rank of captain before his retirement.

MIGHTY HISTORY

This is what it was like to be marooned in the age of sail

Marooned. Left on a sandbar or other island in the middle of nowhere with just a little food, water, and a loaded pistol to end your suffering. In the world of pirates, it was a punishment for breaking the pirates’ code – and was usually fatal. But the real-life Robinson Crusoe survived his marooning and lived to tell the tale of life on an island in the middle of nowhere, completely alone.


The US accidentally built a fort to repel Canada… in Canada

Not a Wilson in sight.

Alexander Selkirk was a Scottish sailor with William Dampier’s second expedition to circumnavigate the globe while privateering; legally pirating Spanish ships. Selkirik was aboard a 16-gun ship named Cinque Ports, a ship that was rather unseaworthy. When Selkirk repeatedly complained to Dampier and the captain of the Cinque Ports, the men decided to maroon him on an island off the coast of Chile.

Selkirk didn’t die there, however. While the Cinque Ports later sunk with almost a total loss of her crew, Selkirk survived and was rescued by English privateer Woodes Rogers… four years later. All that for wanting to make repairs to the ship – a ship he was right about needing repairs. The crew that did survive the ships founding off of Colombia were captured by the Spanish and imprisoned.

The US accidentally built a fort to repel Canada… in Canada

Which, historically, does not end well.

The islander spent much of his time at first at the shoreline, scanning for ships and eating seafood. But eventually, the sounds of mating sea lions drove him further inland. Despite suffering from crippling loneliness, he managed to domesticate the island’s wild goats and cultivate the local vegetation. He was eventually attacked by the island’s wild rat population, but simply domesticated feral cats to stave off the attackers. He even built two huts from the trees that grew pepper plants.

He soon began to hunt by hand and spear, as his gunpowder was in limited supply anyway. He also began to make new clothes from the skins of his goats. The only ships that stopped on his island were Spanish. Not only did he not get a rescue, he had to hide lest the men torture and imprison him. But eventually, he was rescued by British seamen.

The US accidentally built a fort to repel Canada… in Canada

Which, historically, does not end well.

The British sailors were astonished at the life Selkirk made for himself. He had survived an accidental fall from a cliff, learned to hunt and clean the wild animals of the island, and was the picture of physical fitness. Selkirk was even able to address the ships’ illnesses and clear its sailors of scurvy. Selkirk was able to maintain his sanity because the captain of the Cinque Points left him a bible to read and entertain himself. By the time the English came for him, he was still of sound mind, able to command a prize ship and even returned to privateering against the Spanish.

Selkirk was even one of Daniel Defoe’s inspirations for the title character of Robinson Crusoe. The story of the marooned sailor just goes to show no matter how tough things might seem, a little perseverance might see you through. Alexander Selkirk became a national hero while the people who marooned him died tragically, despite his warnings.

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This simple exercise will help determine if you really want to be a sniper

Quora is the ultimate resource for crowdsourcing knowledge. If you’re unfamiliar, you ask the Quora world a question and anyone with expertise (and some without it) will respond. One user asked the world what service he should join if he wanted to be a sniper. One Marine veteran gave him some necessary information.

Choosing what branch to join can be tough for anyone. Different branches have different lifestyles, they come with different job opportunities, and they each have their own difficulties. If you’re 100-percent sure you want to be a sniper, that doesn’t narrow your selection. At all.

The US accidentally built a fort to repel Canada… in Canada
Yes, the Air Force has snipers.

To be fair, the asker asked, “Which branch is better?” Many users thoughtfully answered his question with answers ranging from the Coast Guard’s HITRON precision marksmen to arguing the finer points about why Army snipers are superior to SEALs and Marine Scout Snipers (go ahead and debate that amongst yourselves).


Many answering users wondered if the original asker really wanted to be a sniper. Some answers were condescending, some were went as far as accusing him of simply wanting to kill people (this is still the internet, after all). But one Marine veteran gave the young asker an exercise. One that would help him see if it was something he really wanted to do.

The US accidentally built a fort to repel Canada… in Canada
Gunny Hathcock approves.
(Hathcock Family photo)

That Marine was a trucker, an artilleryman, and a Desert Storm veteran. He “wasn’t a sniper, but I served with them, and listened in awe to how they train.” He then gave the asker a 15-step exercise to see if sniper training was something he really wanted to do:

  1. Wait until the middle of summer.
  2. Get a wool blanket and three quart-size ziplock bags.
  3. Fill the bags with small meals.
  4. Get two one-quart canteens and plenty of water purification tablets.
  5. Locate a swamp that is adjacent to a field of tall grass
  6. Before the sun comes up on day one, wrap yourself in the wool blanket.
  7. Crawl through the swamp, never raising any part of your body above the one-foot level.
  8. Lay all day in the field with the sun bearing down on you.
  9. Eat your food while never moving faster than a sloth.
  10. If you need water, crawl back to the swamp, fill the canteens, and use your water purification tablets to hopefully not get sick.
  11. Put any bodily waste in the zip-lock bags as you empty them of food. This includes any vomit if you didn’t decontaminate your water well enough.
  12. Bees, fire ants, and any predatory animals are not a reason to move faster than a sloth or move any part of your body above the one-foot level.
  13. Sleep there through the night.
  14. When the sun rises crawl back through the swamp.
  15. Just before you stand up and go home, ask yourself if you want to be a sniper.

Always remember: If you use the Quora world for advice, be sure to consider your source.

MIGHTY HISTORY

The most dangerous club for World War II Civil Air Patrol pilots

Americans today would have a hard time recognizing the all-out war effort citizens of the United States made during World War II. The idea of government dictating what and how much big business could produce, restricting the use of civilian products available to the public, and the mobilization of civilians in a war effort are all things that we just haven’t faced in the generations since. During World War II, these civilians were putting their lives on the line to hunt submarines. The Civil Air Patrol was born of that mobilization.


Civilian pilots and their resources were marshaled by the military to support the war effort here at home, even before the war began. Some 200,000 men and women of all races served in CAP in every state during World War II. After Nazi submarines sunk more than 400 ships off the U.S. Atlantic coast in the first six months, these civilian pilots took to the skies in their private planes to help hunt them down.

Civil Air Patrol pilots who were forced to bail out of their planes into the sometimes icy water below joined an exclusive club: the Duck Club.

The US accidentally built a fort to repel Canada… in Canada

The Civil Air Patrol was open to all races and genders from the get-go. All you needed was a radio and a plane you could fly.

(Civil Air Patrol)

The single-engine civilian aircraft flown by CAP volunteers in those days weren’t nearly as reliable as ones they depend on these days. CAP pilots would fly up to 50 miles off the U.S. coast, looking for enemy submarines in planes with engines that could quit at any given moment. Maybe this isn’t so bad for the pilot if their mission takes them into the Gulf of Mexico, but in the North Atlantic, having to bail could be deadly.

Even wearing their rubber “zoot suits,” designed to protect them from frigid northern waters, was no guarantee of survival in case of a bail out. These civilian pilots lost 59 of their own during the course of the war — 26 of whom were simply lost at sea. Maybe they survived the elements, maybe they didn’t. Being adrift in the middle of nowhere in the 1940s was tantamount to a death sentence.

The US accidentally built a fort to repel Canada… in Canada
Protection from the elements did these pilots no good if they were never found.
(Civil Air Patrol)

 

For those who bailed out, each CAP station had amphibian planes who would attempt to come to the rescue. But even those were susceptible to being lost at sea – and some were. If a CAP pilot was successfully recovered after a bailout, he became a member of “The Duck Club,” those who were forced to ditch their planes by taking a dip in the ocean.

CAP pilots who joined this elite club earned a special badge: a patch featuring Donald Duck, his eyes crossed by the red propellers that symbolized the Civil Air Patrol. The Congressional Gold Medal the CAP received came much later, signed not by President Roosevelt, but President Obama. Their recognition came decades too late.

The US accidentally built a fort to repel Canada… in Canada
The Civil Air Patrol “Duck Club” Patch.

The history of the Civil Air Patrol is such a big deal because these were volunteers who put their life and property on the line to protect the liberties of their fellow citizens. They would not receive the GI Bill benefits received by veterans who fought overseas, despite finding Nazi subs operating in American water, rescuing airmen adrift at sea, reporting mines, distressed vessels, escorting convoys, and, in some cases, sacrificing their lives.

That’s just the history of the CAP and the tip of the iceberg. Their mission also extended along the southern border, in the wild forests, and elsewhere. Today, the Civil Air Patrol is an auxiliary of the United States Air Force, and an underrated, oft-forgotten total force partner in U.S. air defense. More than 60,000 civilian airmen still dedicate their time, energy, expertise, money, and personal property to the defense of the U.S. homeland and supporting aerospace education.

Military Life

These are the 10 best duty stations for beer lovers

Writer and documentary filmmaker Bill Carter was once quoted, saying, “There’s no such thing as bad beer. It’s that some taste better than others.” We couldn’t agree more. Sure, almost anywhere the military sends you, you’re going to be able to find beer. But if you’re like a few of us on the MILLIE team, drinking just any type of beer won’t do.


In the interest of our fellow beer-enthusiast military members, we’ve come up with a list of the top 10 duty stations (or areas with several duty stations) that are your best option for finding a local brewery. Our criteria for selecting these top duty stations were 1) the size of the base or area, and 2) number of breweries in the area. We kept it simple so you can decide on your own which brewery in these areas is “the best.” (This list is as of 2018).

10. San Antonio – 11 breweries

The Alamo city, home to Joint Base Fort Sam Houston, Lackland AFB, and Randolph AFB, has a total of 11 breweries within the confines of this sprawling Texas city. While the Blue Star Brewing Company is the only one accessible on the famous Riverwalk, other breweries like the Alamo Beer Company, Southerleigh Fine Food & Brewery, and Freetail Brewing Co., all have great beers and even better tasting rooms. Go for the beer, but stay for the atmosphere, the food, and the laid back vibe.

9. Anchorage – 12 breweries

The US accidentally built a fort to repel Canada… in Canada
When you’re running out of the cold after hours of shoveling, you really want that heater to start. (Photo: U.S. Army National Guard Sgt. David Bedard)

Do people in Alaska still enjoy a beer, even when the temperatures are sub-zero? The answer is “yes.” And that goes for folks stationed at Joint Base Elmendorf-Richardson, too! Military families stationed here can enjoy suds from 12 local breweries. A popular option that includes reportedly fantastic food is Midnight Sun Brewing Co., which is located right off the Seward Highway. If you’re looking for something outside the gate (without the notorious reputation), try 49th State Brewing Co. Enjoy one of their eight signature beers or one of their many beers on rotation.

8. Camp Pendleton – 20 breweries

We’ve got a three-way tie for 6th through 8th place between Camp Pendleton, JBLM, and Hampton Roads. We know, we know: Camp Pendleton is so close to San Diego…so shouldn’t it be considered part of San Diego? Maybe. But in all of our research, people stationed at Camp P typically like to stay in the area and avoid the San Diego traffic. So if you’re stationed at this Marine Corps base, you can rejoice knowing there are 20 breweries to enjoy here that aren’t in San Diego. Bagby Brewing Company comes highly rated and is a short ways from Camp Pendleton South. Plus, its only a few blocks from the ocean!

7. Joint Base Lewis-McChord – 20 breweries

We probably don’t have to tell you there are a lot of breweries in Washington state. But you might not realize there’s a good handful of them right around Joint Base Lewis-McChord! We found a total of 20 local breweries that aren’t in the greater Seattle area. Narrows Brewing Company is right on the waterfront of the Carr Inlet in Tacoma, providing beautiful views while you sip your suds. Top Rung Brewing Company, located in Lacey, is a bit closer to base and has a reputation for being family friendly. Curious what the Pacific Northwest would taste like if it were captured in a bottle? Top Rung offers several beers that capture the essence of the area.

6. Hampton Roads – 20 breweries

Hampton Roads, which has one of the highest concentrations of duty stations in the U.S., is a great place for any beer lover. One of your first stops needs to be Young Veterans Brewing Company, which resides right outside of Naval Air Station Oceana and is….you guessed it….owned and run by veterans. If you’re looking for a brewery along the beautiful coastline, try Commonwealth Brewing Company located right outside of Joint Expeditionary Base Little Creek (we hear they have great sours) or Pleasure House Brewing near Joint Expeditionary Base Fort Story (where you can bring your own food).

5. Hawaii – 26 breweries

The US accidentally built a fort to repel Canada… in Canada
Photo: Mass Communication Specialist 2nd Class Daniel Barker/USN

We have another tie, and it’s for 4th and 5th place between Hawaii and Colorado Springs. Aloha beer drinkers! If you’ve received orders to Hawaii, the good news is your options of craft beer won’t diminish when you move to this tiny Pacific island. Right outside of the Hanauma Bay Nature Preserve is the well-known Kona Brewing Co., whose beers you can get in stores across the upper 48. Otherwise you’ll have to venture down into Honolulu to try most of the breweries closest to Joint Base Pearl Harbor-Hickam. But if you’re stationed at Marine Corps Base Hawaii, there are two great little brewing companies nearby, Stewbum & Stonewall Brewing Co., and Lanikai Brewing Company, that come highly recommended.

4. Colorado Springs – 26 breweries

We certainly shouldn’t have to tell you there are A LOT of breweries in Colorado. But if you’re lucky enough to get stationed in Colorado Springs, you actually don’t have to leave the city to find excellent local breweries. We found 26 breweries in the greater COS area, but that number is growing every day so keep your eyes peeled! As soon as you’re able, head over to Red Leg Brewing Company, which is owned and run by a veteran. The theme is Civil War Battlefields and features brews like Doolittle IPA and Howitzer Amber. It’s not to be missed. But if you’re looking to get away from the military theme, then it’s paramount you visit Bristol Brewing Company. This brewery is located in a renovated school (a local hotspot in the Springs with weekly events and a farmers market) and their flagship brewskis Beehive and Laughing Lab won’t disappoint.

3. Washington D.C. – 70 breweries

Getting stationed in the Washington D.C. area can bring about a mixture of emotions, but you can relax knowing you have a wide selection of breweries to check out here. Veteran-owned and operated Fair Winds Brewing Company is north on I-95 from Marine Corps Base Quantico and is almost right outside of the gate of Fort Belvoir! (If traffic along I-95 is particularly bad after work, some people stop here for a brew instead of sitting in their car for hours). If you’re a home brewer, this is a great place to bring in the recipe for your latest creation and enter it in a larger competition. Bluejacket is located in a century-old factory and is a stone’s throw away from Fort McNair, Joint Base Anacostia-Bolling and the Washington Navy Yard (we’re serious!). It regularly comes up in lists for “Best Breweries in Washington D.C.” so we recommend checking it out! Two other veteran-owned breweries in the greater D.C. area are Heritage Brewing Company and Honor Brewing Company (both of which are a hike from most area installations, but totally worth the drive).

2. Tampa – 85 breweries

It surprised us, too, when we learned there are 85 breweries in the greater Tampa area. And many of them are close to MacDill AFB. So there’s no way you won’t find at least one beer you love. If you want to grab a beer right after work off-base, then 81Bay Brewing Company is a great option (it’s right down the road and they offer 25 percent off for military in the tap room!). Their huge space is decorated with eclectic underwater themes, and they regularly have food trucks outside to accompany your beer selection. While stationed at MacDill you must visit one of the oldest and first breweries in Tampa, Cigar City Brewing Company. Their Jai Alai IPA and Cubano-Style Espresso Brown Ale come highly recommended and give you an authentic taste of Florida.

1. San Diego – 135 breweries

The US accidentally built a fort to repel Canada… in Canada
Get your nautical themed pashmina afghan ready. (U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 2nd Class Timothy M. Black/Released)

It shouldn’t come as a surprise that San Diego tops our list. This craft-beer mecca is considered by some to be the craft-brewing capital of the world. There are tons of breweries to try, but we recommend checking out some of the brands you can get across the country who got their start in this California city — places like Green Flash Brewing Co., Mission Brewery, Stone Brewing Company and Ballast Point Brewing.

Once you’ve stopped by the big hitters, award-winning Karl Strauss has multiple locations, one of which is located close to Naval Base Point Loma, NAS North Island, NAB Coronado, and Naval Medical Center San Diego. If you’re stationed at Marine Corps Air Station Miramar you’ll be pleasantly surprised with the number of breweries right next to base! AleSmith Brewing Company has several award-winning beers and is known for its highly sought-after brews.

While this list isn’t comprehensive (mainly because there are new breweries popping up all over the U.S. every month) we hope it inspires you to get into your community and try a local ale. Or gun for one of the above places as your next assignment! Cheers!

This post originally appeared on Millie.

MIGHTY HISTORY

The Japanese office worker who fought the Soviets in Afghanistan

Remember when 13 Hours: The Secret Soldiers of Benghazi came out and everyone joked that Jim Halpert (John Krasinski) got bored of his office job at Dunder Mifflin so he left and became an operator? Well, that’s basically what Koshiro Tanaka did in 1985. He hated communists, so he went to Afghanistan to fight them.

After WWII, the Soviet Union retained the historically Japanese Kuril Islands, a major point of contention for Tanaka against both the Soviet and Japanese governments. He believed that Japan should have fought to at least preserve its cultural land. By the 1980s, he saw the growing Soviet presence as an existential threat to his country. Because Japan only had a 250,000-strong Self Defense Force, not a military, Tanaka feared the result of a possible Soviet invasion. “If Japan started fighting a war now, 50 million Japanese would die,” he said. “They [the Soviets] don’t want peace, they want land.”

The US accidentally built a fort to repel Canada… in Canada
A Japanese office worker fighting with Afghan guerrillas using U.S.-supplied weapons against Soviet troops (Koshiro Tanaka)

Tanaka worked in a typical office job in Tokyo’s Shinjuku district when he decided to take up arms against the Soviets in Afghanistan. However, the 44-year-old was not without any training. Though he never served in the JSDF, Tanaka was a sixth-degree black belt in Kyokushin Karate and an instructor in the martial art. He brought his skills with him to Afghanistan and taught hand-to-hand combat to the U.S.-backed mujahideen.

Though he fought alongside them, Tanaka did not adopt the tenets of Islam that the Afghan guerillas fought under. Rather, he went into battle with the mindset of a samurai. Tanaka found that there were parallels between the two cultures. Where a mujahideen fighter could earn a spot in Heaven through martyrdom in the holy war, Tanaka sought glory and honor in combat like the samurai warriors of old. “I hope in my mind that I will have the samurai spirit when it is time to die,” he said. He even carried an extra grenade at all times to martyr himself rather than suffer the shame of capture.

Tanaka’s first combat experience in Afghanistan was a shock. He accompanied a mujahideen raid on a communist Afghan government post near Jadladak, 25 miles east of Kabul. “I didn’t know how to fight, how to move,” he recalled. “I felt a bullet go by my ear. I got a shot of adrenaline.” After that experience, Tanaka applied the same discipline he used in karate to learning how to fight with a Kalashnikov. He developed a reputation as a foreign fighter and even had numerous propaganda reports of his death published by the Afghan government. During his time in Afghanistan, Tanaka endured malaria, jaundice, kidney stones, and a broken foot bone.

The US accidentally built a fort to repel Canada… in Canada
Tanaka in Afghanistan in 1987 (Koshiro Tanaka)

Between 1985 and 1987, Tanaka made at least seven trips to Afghanistan. However, his actions were frowned upon by his own government and were denounced. “His characteristics are beyond our understanding,” said a Japanese Foreign Ministry representative. “He is kind of strange as a Japanese.” Though Tanaka’s views were shared by some of his countrymen who donated funds to his mercenary trips, he largely paid for them out of his own pocket.

In 1987, Tanaka wrote a book detailing his experiences in Afghanistan called Soviet Soldiers in a Gun Sight, My Battle in Afghanistan. He used the proceeds from the book to fund another trip to Afghanistan and purchased supplies for the mujahideen. “[They] need help, any kind of help,” Tanaka said in a plea for Japanese support. “They need weapons, bread, food, anything.”

The US accidentally built a fort to repel Canada… in Canada
Tanaka with Mujahideen fighters (Koshiro Tanaka)

Tanaka’s next trip took him to the Panjshair Valley where he linked up with the famous Afghan commander, Ahmad Shah Massoud. The mujahideen leader had taken up karate, but Tanaka reported that, “he’s not so good.” Massoud became a military and political leader in the Northern Alliance alongside Abdul Rashid Dostum of 12 Strong fame, but was assassinated two days before 9/11 in an al-Qaeda/Taliban suicide bombing.

Tanaka’s fight in Afghanistan ended with the Soviet withdrawal in 1989. He returned to karate and has taught in Pakistan, Afghanistan, Tunisia, Hawaii, and Germany. He remains an outspoken supporter of a democratic Afghanistan, often sporting a pin of the Japanese flag alongside the Afghan flag.

The US accidentally built a fort to repel Canada… in Canada
Tanaka hosted two members of the Afghan Olympic Committee in Tokyo in February 2020 (Koshiro Tanaka)
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This pilot defected with the Soviet Union’s most advanced plane

The US accidentally built a fort to repel Canada… in Canada
(Photo: U.S. Air Force)

 


Lieutenant Viktor Belenko decided he had had enough. Despite being considered an expert fighter pilot with one of the Soviet Union’s elite squadrons, with all the perks that went with it, Belenko was tired of the shortages and propaganda that defined much of life in the USSR. He feared that reports of plenty in the U.S. were also exaggerated, but he decided to take a chance. On September 6, 1976 during a routine training mission, he switched off his radio and bolted to Hakodate airport in Japan. After nearly running out of fuel, barely avoiding a civilian jetliner, and overshooting the runway, he set down in Japan with only a busted landing gear. It turned out to be one of the great intelligence coups of the Cold War.

Given this gift, including a flight manual that Belenko had helpfully brought along, Western intelligence agencies proceeded to tear the plane to bits analyzing the fighter whose capabilities up until now were only an assumption. When the Soviet Union demanded its return, Japan agreed on the condition that they recoup shipping costs. The plane showed up at a docked Soviet vessel in dozens of crates, and when the Soviets realized at least 20 key components were missing, they demanded $10 million in compensation. As befitted the Cold War, neither ever paid.

The MiG-25 “Foxbat” was the newest and most advanced fighter the Soviet Union possessed. The United States and its allied NATO countries were genuinely concerned over its capabilities, and it was generally assumed to be an advanced fighter bomber that could outfly anything NATO had. Nothing could be farther from the truth. The Mig-25 was very cutting edge in its way. It was one of the fastest fighters ever produced, with a theoretical top speed of mach 3.2 at the risk of engine damage, putting it near the vaunted U.S. SR-71 spy plane. It’s radar was one of the most powerful ever put on a plane of its size.

 

The US accidentally built a fort to repel Canada… in Canada
Viktor Belenko

 

But those strengths were where it ended. The MiG-25 was built around its extremely heavy engines, and it showed. It had a ridiculously short combat range, and even its unarmed cruising range was too short, as Belenko’s journey could attest. It was so specialized in high-altitude interception that flying it at low altitude and speed could be very difficult. It could not carry weapons for ground attack, did not have a integral cannon, and the large wings NATO interpreted as making it a formidable dogfighter were simply meant to keep its heavy airframe in the air. In reality, it was maneuverable and would be mincemeat in a conventional dogfight once it closed to short range. Its electronics were still vacuum tube technology, and its airframe would literally bend itself out of shape if the pilot was not careful. It was made to be a high speed missile carrier targeting bombers or U.S. high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft like the U-2 inside Soviet airspace, and not much more.

Despite its flaws, the Soviet Union built over a thousand of them, and it was widely exported to a number of countries, where its combat record in several wars was mixed at best. An updated version called the MiG-31 was later built that shared aspects with the original, including many of its shortcomings.

Belkov, for all his doubts, received a welcome beyond his skeptical hopes. In an old saw that applied to many Soviet visitors, he was flabbergasted by his first visit to an American supermarket, and wondered if it was a CIA hoax. He was granted citizenship by an act of Congress in 1980, and he co-wrote an autobiography called MiG Pilot that had some success. He reportedly works as an aerospace engineer to this day. His daring escape still stands as one of the defining moments of the Cold War.