This is why the U.S. military uses 5.56mm ammo instead of 7.62mm - We Are The Mighty
MIGHTY TACTICAL

This is why the U.S. military uses 5.56mm ammo instead of 7.62mm

A common debate among veterans and gun enthusiasts revolves around why the United States chose to implement the 5.56mm N.A.T.O. round into service instead of the 7.62mm.


Size, versatility, lethality, and a plethora of other semantics are usually quoted in bars across the nation. The answer to this question does not lie in the science between these two instruments of warfare but in the politics of the world stage.

Behind closed doors, world leaders are not as concerned with the penetration of a round or the distance between troops and their targets, but whether they have enough weaponry in their depots, enough money in their treasuries, and the commitment of their allies to come to their aid.

This is why the U.S. military uses 5.56mm ammo instead of 7.62mm

Immediately after World War II, tensions began to rise between the east and west over liberated territories and how they would be governed. An arms race of atomic proportions had begun. War-torn Europe faced the problem of depleted weapon stores and the financial inability to repulse the expansion of Soviet Communism.

Also read: Why your next battle buddy might be a robot armed with a railgun

In the wake of World War II, the United States of America commanded over 30,000 overseas bases, marshaled over half of the world’s manufacturing capacity, and owned two thirds of the world’s gold stock. In 1949, the Greatest Generation proposed a strategic solution: The North Atlantic Treaty Organization.

This is why the U.S. military uses 5.56mm ammo instead of 7.62mm

N.A.T.O. was created in response to failing relations between the U.S. and the Soviet Union, especially in the case of the reconstruction of Germany. The countries of Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Great Britain, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, and Portugal banded together with the United States as its chief architect.

Article 5 of the 14 Articles of the ‘N.A.T.O. Treaty of April 4th, 1949’ most clearly defines the intent of the Organization:

“…an armed attack against one or more of them in Europe or shall be considered an attack against them all; and consequently they agree that, if such an armed attack occurs, each o them, in exercise of the right of individual or collective self-defense recognized by Article 51 of the Charter of the United Nations, will assist the Party or Parties so attacked by taking forthwith, individually and in concert with the other Parties, such action as it deems necessary, including the use of armed force, to restore and maintain the security of the North Atlantic area.” – Lillian Goldman Law Library, Yale Law School.

Under the persuasive guidance of the United States, N.A.T.O. slowly standardized armaments best suited for American designs than those resembling the Soviet 7.62mm. Who else could argue the case to finance, produce, and export on a scale to rival the Russians? By the 1980s, the 5.56x45mm was adopted as the standard.

This is why the U.S. military uses 5.56mm ammo instead of 7.62mm

From the sands of the Middle East to the deep jungles of South America, the 5.56mm played an integral role in shaping modern warfare. Decades of proxy wars and economic down turn brought the Soviet Union to its knees. Mikhail Gorbachev, President and leader of the Soviet Union, resigned and declared his office extinct on Dec. 25, 1991.

America had triumphed.

Weapons & Gear: US paratroopers are testing this new tactical chest rig

The 5.56mm never got the chance to sing in the halls of the Kremlin, but it was the round that destroyed an empire.

Currently, the United States stands as one of the top weapons suppliers around the world. Its sales include, but are not limited to, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Turkey, South Korea, Australia, Taiwan, India, Singapore, Iraq, and Egypt.

Our allies could always borrow our rounds in an emergency because they already own the same model guns. That is why the U.S. uses the 5.56mm: it’s a tool to be used to enforce our political intentions — one way or another.

MIGHTY TACTICAL

The A-10 has been bringing the pain for nearly five decades

We all love the A-10 Thunderbolt II, commonly known as the “Warthog.” For years now, this airframe has brought the BRRRRRRT and provided close air support to grunts on the ground. But the A-10 is actually older than many think.

For a combat plane, 46 is pretty old. Now, it’s not the grumpy, “get-off-my-lawn” level of old — the Boeing B-52 Stratofortress claims that honor. It entered service in 1952, making it old enough now to collect Medicare.


This is why the U.S. military uses 5.56mm ammo instead of 7.62mm

A number of A-10 Thunderbolts were painted green, but these days, they’re a plain gray.

(USAF)

At the time of the A-10’s introduction, NATO nations had half the tanks of signatories of the Warsaw Pact. The Warthog was intended to fight off those huge, armored hordes. The A-10’s GAU-8 30mm Gatling gun (that provides its signature BRRRRRT), was only part of the solution. The plane is also able to haul over eight tons of bombs, rockets, and missiles.

One missile is of particular note: The AGM-65 Maverick. The A-10 has been loaded up with several variants of this powerful weapon, mostly the AGM-65D and AGM-65G. These variants use imaging infra-red seekers and are able to hit targets in any condition, day or night, clear skies or bad weather.

This is why the U.S. military uses 5.56mm ammo instead of 7.62mm

The A-10 has been in service for over 40 years and, still, no plane has been able to truly replace it.

(U.S. Air Force photo by Staff Sgt. Melanie Norman)

The Maverick has a maximum range of 17 miles and packs either a 125-pound, shaped-charge warhead or a 300-pound, blast-fragmentation warhead. With this missile, the A-10 can pick off enemy anti-aircraft guns, like the ZSU-23, before closing in to drop bombs and give enemy tanks the BRRRRT.

Despite its age, the A-10 is slated to remain in service for a while. The Air Force is currently running the OA-X program in hopes of finding a true replacement, but the real solution may be to simply build more of this classic plane.

See how the Air Force introduced the A-10 back in ’72 in the video below.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-q2T6M_pzes

www.youtube.com

popular

This music legend stole a helicopter and landed it at Johnny Cash’s house

For country music fans there are few names that so completely embody the Country and Western genre as Kris Kristofferson.


Check out this video for the full story:

 

Rolling Stone called him “one of America’s finest songwriters.”

“Kris Kristofferson ruined my education” Turk Pipkin wrote proudly in Esquire in 2014.

But before he was a recording artist, Kristofferson, under pressure from his family and following in the footsteps of his Air Force General father before him, joined the U.S. Army.

Kristofferson trained as a Ranger and a helicopter pilot, eventually reaching the rank of Captain while stationed in Germany. But then he received orders to West Point to teach English.

This is why the U.S. military uses 5.56mm ammo instead of 7.62mm

A Rhodes Scholar educated at Oxford, Kristofferson was more interested in creative writing and music than the military, so, rather than accept orders to West Point, Kristofferson chose to leave the Army.

The move allegedly caused his family to sever ties with him, and he is rumored to not have spoken to his mother for over twenty years as a result.

Leaving the Army did not immediately pay off for Kristofferson. He found himself struggling to make ends meet in Nashville and working as a janitor at a recording studio. It was there that Kristofferson first came across June Cash. He gave her a demo tape and asked her to pass it on to Johnny Cash, which she did…but the tape went unheard.

Kristofferson, struggling to support his growing family, then briefly served in the Tennessee National Guard.

That’s when Kristofferson did something that would land most service members today in the brig:

He stole a helicopter.

“I flew in to John’s property,” Kristofferson recalls. “I almost landed on his roof.”

This is why the U.S. military uses 5.56mm ammo instead of 7.62mm

The country music legends Kris Kristofferson (left) and Lyle Lovett (right) performed in the East Room of The White House for D.C. schoolchildren on Nov. 22, 2011. (Image by Flickr user John Arundel | (CC BY-NC 2.0)

Kristofferson notes that he was lucky Johnny Cash didn’t shoot down the old helicopter with his shotgun.

The risk payed off, though, as Johnny Cash wound up recording the song Kristofferson was trying to get him to listen to: “Sunday Morning Coming Down.” That recording “lifted me out of obscurity,” Kristofferson admits.

Cash was a fan of Kristofferson’s bravado, and the two would go on to work together many times. With publicity help from Cash, Kristofferson penned dozens of hits, including “Vietnam Blues,” “Help Me Make it Through the Night,” and “Me and Bobby McGee.” Together with Willie Nelson and Waylon Jennings, Cash and Kristofferson completed the group “Highwaymen.”

Kristofferson wrote songs for the likes of Waylon Jennings, Jerry Lee Lewis, Johnny Cash, Sammi Smith, Ray Price, and Janis Joplin (with whom he had a brief relationship before her death).

(Johnny Cash & Kris Kristofferson — “Sunday Morning Coming Down” | YouTube)

His bravado served him well on screen, too, and Kristofferson has enjoyed a long running acting career in addition to his music career.

He appeared with Wesley Snipes in the “Blade” movies and even had a song on “Grand Theft Auto.” Kristofferson worked alongside Martin Scorsese, starring in “Alice Doesn’t Live Here Anymore,” and with Barbra Streisand in “A Star is Born,” for which he won a Golden Globe for Best Actor.

Kristofferson went on to work with Matthew McConaughey, Mel Gibson, and Tim Burton.

In 2014, Kristofferson received a Lifetime Achievement Grammy Award to go along with his many awards, gold records, and top 40 hits.

Also in 2014, Kristofferson’s son, Jesse Kristofferson, enlisted in the Coast Guard.

To think, it all happened because he bucked his family military tradition, got disowned, and stole a military helicopter.

MIGHTY TRENDING

B-1 Bomber may become the new face of US military power in the Pacific

The Air Force‘s B-1B Lancer bomber is about to move front and center in the U.S. military’s power-projection mission in the Pacific.

As part of its mission “reset” for the B-1 fleet, the Air Force is not only making its supersonic bombers more visible with multiple flights around the world, it’s also getting back into the habit of having them practice stand-off precision strikes in the Pacific, a dramatic pivot following years of flying close-air support missions in the Middle East.


The “nice thing about the B-1 is it can carry [the Long-Range Anti-Ship Missile], and that’s perfectly suited for the Pacific theater,” Maj. Gen. Jim Dawkins Jr., commander of the Eighth Air Force and the Joint-Global Strike Operations Center at Barksdale Air Force Base, Louisiana, said in an interview Tuesday.

“Not only are we resetting the airplane’s mission-capability rates and the training done for the aircraft, we’re also resetting how we employ the airplane to get more toward great power competition to align with the National Defense Strategy,” added Dawkins, who supports the warfighting air component to U.S. Strategic Command, as well as operations within Air Force Global Strike Command.

According to the 2018 NDS, “China is a strategic competitor using predatory economics to intimidate its neighbors while militarizing features in the South China Sea.”

Former Air Force Secretary Heather Wilson stated that China has become “a pacing threat for the U.S. Air Force because of the pace of their modernization” in the region.

The Pentagon’s strategy prioritizes deterring adversaries by denying their use of force in the first place.

That’s one reason four bombers from Dyess Air Force Base, Texas, have been launching from Andersen Air Force Base, Guam, for patrols across the East and South China Seas since May 1, according to Air Force social media posts. The bombers deployed to Andersen after the service suspended its continuous bomber presence mission in the Pacific for the first time in 16 years.

During a simulated strike, crews “will pick a notional target, and then they will do some mission planning and flying through an area that they are able to hold that target at risk, at range,” Dawkins said.

Close-air support, the B-1’s primary mission in recent years, is a much different skill set than “shooting standoff weapons like JASSM-ER and LRASM,” he said, referring to the Long-Range Anti-Ship Missile and Joint Air to Surface Stand-Off Missiles-Extended Range.

While Dawkins wouldn’t get into specifics of how crews are conducting the practice runs in the Pacific, the non-nuclear B-1s have been spotted recently carrying Joint Air to Surface Stand-Off Missiles.

Photos recently posted on DVIDS, the U.S. military’s multimedia distribution website, show Dyess’ 9th Expeditionary Bomb Squadron Aircraft Maintenance Unit weapons crew members loading a JASSM into the belly of a plane. The B-1 is capable of carrying 75,000 pounds — 5,000 pounds more than the B-52 Stratofortress — of both precision-guided and conventional bombs.

The JASSM’s newer variant, JASSM-ER, has a higher survivability rate — meaning it’s less likely to be detected and shot down — due to low-observable technology incorporated into the conventional air-to-ground precision-guided missile. It is said to have a range of roughly 600 miles, compared with the 230-mile reach of JASSM, according to The Drive.

The LRASM, a Navy missile integrated on both the B-1 and F/A-18 Super Hornet, is able to autonomously locate and track targets while avoiding friendly forces.

This is why the U.S. military uses 5.56mm ammo instead of 7.62mm

Joint air-to-surface standoff missiles are loaded into a 9th Expeditionary Bomb Squadron B-1B Lancer on the flightline at Andersen Air Force Base, Guam, May 9, 2020. The B-1Bs carry the largest conventional payload of both guided and unguided weapons in the Air Force inventory. (U.S. Air Force photo by Senior Airman River Bruce)

The precision-guided, anti-ship standoff missile was first tested on a B-1 in August 2017. A single B-1 can carry up to 24 LRASMs, or the same number of JASSM-ERs. The LRASM missile achieved early operational capability on the bomber in 2018.

The vast expanses of the Pacific are well-suited for training with these kinds of missiles, Dawkins explained. Stateside ranges, which may lack surface waters or enough distance between two points, depending on location, cannot always accommodate the needs of bomber crews training with these long-range weapons.

Also, “[when] we deploy, for instance to Guam, taking off from [the U.S.] and going to the Pacific, it allows us to do some integration with our allies, as well as exercise the command-and-control … and also allows us to practice our long-duration flights and work with the tankers,” he said.

Prior to the Dyess deployment, a B-1 from the 28th Bomb Wing at Ellsworth Air Force Base, South Dakota, flew a 30-hour round-trip flight to Japan in late April. There, it operated alongside six U.S. Air Force F-16 Fighting Falcons, seven Japan Air Self Defense Force F-2s and eight JASDF F-15s over Draughon Range near Misawa, Pacific Air Forces said in a release.

The flight was part of the Air Force’s new unpredictable deployment experiment to test crews’ agility when sending heavy aircraft forces around the world, since the need to improve the bombers’ deployability rate is also crucial, Dawkins said.

Mission-capability rates refers to how many aircraft are deployable at a given time. The B-1 has been on a slow and steady track to improve its rate — which hovers around 50% — after being broken down by back-to-back missions in the desert, officials have said.

The B-1 could become the face of the Pacific for the foreseeable future, Dawkins said.

“We want … to be the roving linebacker, if you will, particularly in the Pacific,” he said, adding the mission could also pave the way for incorporating hypersonic weapons into the bomber’s arsenal.

In August, the Air Force proved it can transform the Lancer to hold more ordnance, a first step toward it carrying hypersonic weapons payloads.

Gen. Tim Ray, head of Air Force Global Strike Command, has expressed support for the B-1 as a future hypersonic weapons platform.

“Basically, the configuration we’re seeking is external hardpoints that can allow us to add six Air-Launched Rapid Response Weapons [ARRW, pronounced “Arrow”], and then you still have the bomb bay where you can carry the LRASM or the JASSM-ER,” Ray told reporters last month. LRASM or JASSM-ER could also be carried externally, he added.

“They’re not doing any testing with the hypersonic on the B-1, but that’s definitely in the mix,” Dawkins said.

If configured with that payload in the future, that would be “quite a bit of air power coming off that airplane, whether it’s JASSMs, JASSM-ERs or some combination of those, and hypersonics,” he said.

This article originally appeared on Military.com. Follow @militarydotcom on Twitter.

popular

Here’s how this Air Force vet and doctor got her abs competition-ready

Tears welled up in my eyes as I looked down at the blurry 23. Twenty-three inches. Sweat dripped down onto the measuring tape as I had just finished round two of cardio. In 48 hours I’d step on stage to fight for my professional athlete status as a figure competitor. And in this sport, the waist-to-shoulder ratio (also called the V-taper) is the money maker! As an average-sized athlete, who’s played sports all her life, and even had my waist measured for the Air Force Physical Fitness Test, I had never seen my waist this small.


Whether you want washboard abs or to melt away your love handles, the execution plan is the same. This measurement is very important, and not just to look sharp in uniform. Waist girth is more directly correlated to medical problems than most PFT measurements, so as I doctor, I always encourage fat loss around the belly. I know there are others of you not worried about the PFT or doctor recommendations. You just want that 6-pack for summer! Whatever your motivation is I can assure you the first step is to realize this takes patience and persistence.

The secret to a smaller, more cut waist can be broken into two points of execution: The right nutrition, and the correct exercises.

Nutrition for 6-Pack Abs

  • Drink 3 liters to 1 gallon of water per day. This will help flush your body’s toxins that can accumulate in the fat tissues and cause inflammation. Inflammation = bad.
  • Cut down daily fruit intake. Eating extra fruit is a common habit of many people when they are focused on a fitness goal. The issue is fruit has sugar and sugar limits the ability for your little ab muscles to pop through. Limit fruit to 1-2 servings per day and get the rest of your nutrients through vegetables.
  • Combine a protein and carbohydrate every time you eat. Yes, eat carbs! Good protein sources include egg whites, chicken breast, turkey, white fish, and protein powder. Some good carbohydrate sources include oatmeal, sweet potatoes, brown rice, polenta, rice cakes, and starchy veggies.
  • Eat plenty of calories. The men and women I’ve created customized diets that require 1800-2500 calories per day depending on body habits and goals. Undereating will make your body go into starvation mode and store every morsel of food you give it. You want to optimize your metabolism so your body doesn’t store any extra fat. The best way to do this is to eat enough.

Correct Exercises for 6-Pack Abs

  • Establish a strong good core. By working on your core first, you are establishing the foundation. Try isometric/balancing exercises such a planks.
  • Train abs like any other body part. You have to build the muscles so that as the fat melts away the muscles are ready for presentation! Do 3-5 sets of 3-4 different ab exercises 1-3 times per week.
  • Go hard! If you aren’t sore the next day, you aren’t working hard enough. Increase the intensity by increasing the weight, the number of reps or the number of sets.
  • Avoid obliques/side movements. If your oblique muscles are thick and large, that will make your waist thicker/wider. If your goal is a smaller waist, then stick to straight up and down movements without twisting.  Some exercises I like are the hanging leg raise, sit ups on the Bosu ball, reverse crunches, and flutter kicks. (Note: If your fitness goals are functional in nature and size is not important then avoiding oblique exercises is not necessary for you.)

What Doesn’t Work

  • Sitting in the sauna and just sweating. Sweat is not fat and this will not get your waist smaller.
  • Wearing waist cinchers/corsets. These will bring in your waist temporarily (hours), but as your tissues in that area relax when the item is removed, the waist returns to your normal size.
  • Fat burning creams. These creams may help you to sweat but it’s scientifically impossible to spot reduce fat without surgery.
  • Fat burning pills. Nutritional supplements that are labeled as “supplements” have not been tested to confirm the contents in the bottle are actually in the bottle. So, you might pay for nothing or double the dose that’s listed – no one knows! If you want to crank up your metabolism just stick with caffeine the natural, guaranteed way and brew a good ‘ol cup of joe!

Full disclosure: My waist doesn’t stay 23 inches year round. That size takes an amount of commitment I don’t currently have as a resident physician. But what I do have is a small waist and a flat tummy I can take to the beach any day. I’ve adapted this execution plan as a lifestyle because there is no quick fix.

Now watch Simone’s workout:

Simone is an Air Force Academy graduate, doctor, and fitness model. Check out her website here.

MIGHTY TACTICAL

A first look at this next-generation European stealth fighter

The French aircraft manufacturer Dassault Aviation recently published a video that gives a glimpse into what the reported Franco-German next-generation aircraft might look like.

France and Germany announced in July 2017 that they would join forces to build an advanced “European” fighter to replace Dassault’s Rafales and Germany’s Eurofighter Typhoons, The War Zone reported summer 2017.



“As expected, 2-engine deltawing,” Sim Tack, the chief military analyst at Force Analysis and a global fellow at Stratfor, tweeted on July 5, 2018 about the new Dassault Aviation video, in which the conceptual fighter appears around 3:10.

“I think if they can pull it all off, this seems a legitimate candidate for a highly capable competitor to the F-35 and Su-57,” Tack told Business Insider.

www.youtube.com

Unlike the F-35, Dassault’s next-generation fighter is likely to have two engines and therefore much more thrust, Tack said.

“In terms of capabilities, the focus will probably be on stealth technology, and integration with information systems,” Tack said, such as “sharing information between aircraft, possibly commanding drones, etc.”

Tack added that it was up for debate whether this aircraft would be a fifth- or sixth-generation fighter.

The Dassault fighter also doesn’t appear to have a vertical stabilizer, something that would cut down on radar reflections from the side, giving it greater stealth capabilities, Tack said.

In any event, the next-generation fighter will probably be under development for the next 20 years, Tack said.

This article originally appeared on Business Insider. Follow @BusinessInsider on Twitter.

Humor

7 times enlisted troops don’t want to salute

Saluting is a non-verbal form of communication used in day-to-day military life and during various ceremonies to convey respect.


As recruits, we learn how to properly execute a hand-salute, and it’s an act we demonstrate hundreds of times throughout our service. The hand gesture quickly becomes part of our muscle memory.

Although the gesture is meant to pay respect, there are a few times in which enlisted personnel want to hold back their rendered salutes — these are a few of those times.

Related: 7 different types of MPs you’ll face at the gate

1. When you’re on a roll, working hard, but then “Colors” begins.

Sure, we joined the military because we’re patriotic, but it sucks to shift your focus when you’ve got momentum.

This is why the U.S. military uses 5.56mm ammo instead of 7.62mm

2. When it’s 3 a.m., you’re half asleep on barracks duty, and the Officer of the Day walks in.

Oh, sh*t! You weren’t sleeping, right? Just tell them you were just praying before you screw up the salute.

3. After a 12-hour shift guarding the gate and you’ve already saluted at least 500 blue stickers.

“If I have to salute another dependant with a blue sticker, I’m going to flip.”

This is why the U.S. military uses 5.56mm ammo instead of 7.62mm
(Photo by U.S. Marine Cpl. Jo Jones)

4. When it’s freezing outside and evening “Taps” sounds off.

Sometimes, it’s just too damn cold out to be patriotic.

5. When an officer from another branch rolls around.

Yuck… Let’s just get this over with.

This is why the U.S. military uses 5.56mm ammo instead of 7.62mm

Also Read: 5 common movie mistakes veterans can spot right away

6. Having to salute a lower-ranking troop to gain entry onto the ship.

To get payback later, make sure the lower enlistee salutes you back with proper freakin’ form.

7. After work, when you’re carrying more than a case of beer back to the barracks, and an officer walks by.

Whatever you do, do not make eye contact with the general.

MIGHTY MOVIES

‘Tolkien’ trailer depicts WW1 influence on ‘Lord of the Rings’

World War I veteran John Ronald Reuel “J.R.R.” Tolkien published The Hobbit in 1937 and followed it up with The Lord of the Rings (1954-1944), books that would shape fantasy epics forever. The stories take place in Middle Earth, a medieval-esque land inhabited by humans, elves, dwarves, hobbits, dragons, orcs, and trolls, as well as sorcerers and wizards and witches and all manner of magics.

Thanks to sexy Legolas Peter Jackson, everyone has heard of Tolkien’s creations, but not everyone knows where he drew his inspiration from. Finally, the biopic Tolkien will tell the author’s tale.


TOLKIEN | Trailer 2 | FOX Searchlight

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Watch the trailer:

Tolkien was a language scholar, specializing in Old and Middle English, which explains how he was able to invent his own languages for Middle Earth so perfectly. In 1915, Tolkien completed his studies at Oxford and became a second lieutenant in the Lancashire Fusiliers. After training, he finally embarked for France in June 1916 and saw action almost immediately at the Battle of the Somme.

His service during World War I would heavily influence his writing, which the trailer alludes to brilliantly as the great dragon Smaug manifests in the flames of war.

[rebelmouse-proxy-image https://media.rbl.ms/image?u=%2F26sLAFvfAue8vXRGyw.gif&ho=https%3A%2F%2Fi.giphy.com&s=284&h=7f61aef5968593308d5dbf231ae6e4f97118775103317acc850df8bbdc6fe8b6&size=980x&c=3434644327 crop_info=”%7B%22image%22%3A%20%22https%3A//media.rbl.ms/image%3Fu%3D%252F26sLAFvfAue8vXRGyw.gif%26ho%3Dhttps%253A%252F%252Fi.giphy.com%26s%3D284%26h%3D7f61aef5968593308d5dbf231ae6e4f97118775103317acc850df8bbdc6fe8b6%26size%3D980x%26c%3D3434644327%22%7D” expand=1]

Tolkien would lost two friends in the Battle of the Somme, a heavy toll for anyone to bear. Tolkien would also suffer from ‘trench fever’ — a typhus-like condition — that would heavily debilitate him for the rest of his service.

Also read: How Tolkien’s war experience would influence ‘Lord of the Rings’

The journey from warrior to artist is a fascinating one, and Tolkien is one of the greatest. He had already begun writing some of his earliest tales, and after the war he sought employment as an Assistant Lexicographer on the New English Dictionary and later as an Associate Professor in English Language at the University of Leeds.

Based on the trailer, the film appears to celebrate Nicholas Hoult’s Tolkien, from his early education, love of language, and close friendships; to the war; and, of course, to his relationship with Edith Bratt, played by Lily Collins.

For fans of his work, the film looks promising.

For anyone who knows the toll that war can take, the film looks familiar — and perhaps promises a way “back again.”

Tolkien is directed by Dome Karukoski and will open on May 10, 2019.

MIGHTY TACTICAL

How to protect yourself from Chinese cyber spies

The FBI has a clear message for the US public: Chinese society itself is a threat to the US due to its heavy engagement with espionage and influence campaigns.

FBI Director Christopher Wray said as much at a February 2018 Senate Intelligence Committee hearing, during which he said naive academics have allowed “nontraditional collectors” of intelligence to infiltrate the US’s revered “very open research and development environment” in universities.


While Chinese citizens have been pouring into US and Western universities and industries, China has seen an explosion in domestic technology, especially in its military and space sectors.

To be fair, all countries with the capability engage in spycraft, but the Chinese Communists don’t gather intelligence like the US does.

China’s society is not like the US’s. In China, everything belongs to the ruling Communist Party, including the military and intelligence services, and its people can be coerced into their service.

Beijing has gone to extreme lengths to police its people on even social interactions, establishing leverage over their citizens, even the ones living abroad. Chinese citizens in the US and Canada have reported threats being made to their families on the mainland when they speak up against the CCP.

The US has accused China of coercing foreign firms into technology transfer. The private sector, as it tries to break into China’s massive market, is filled with off-the-record horror stories of spying and theft of secrets.

This is why the U.S. military uses 5.56mm ammo instead of 7.62mm
(Photo by howtostartablogonline.net)

Because of the clandestine nature of spycraft, it’s almost impossible to know if you’re the subject of Chinese espionage, but there are steps you can take to reduce the risk you face.

Based on insider accounts, here’s how you can protect yourself from suspected outlets of Chinese espionage as a US citizen.

Avoid Chinese tech

Bill Bishop, an author who has lived on and off in China for decades and writes the Sinocism newsletter for Axios, tweeted the following: “Entertaining to talk to Chinese engineers with experience with Huawei about whether or not Huawei installs back doors. Unanimous ‘Of course’ followed by ‘how naive are the foreigners who still doubt that.'”

New court documents filed in the US allege that ZTE, another Chinese phone maker, was set up with the express purpose of conducting international espionage.

With a camera, microphone, and the logins of its owners accounts, accessing the smarphones of US citizens would be a massive intelligence boon for any nation.

This is why the U.S. military uses 5.56mm ammo instead of 7.62mm

Public naivety comes up again and again in intelligence circles. In May, the US banned all Chinese-made smartphones from the Pentagon, saying devices from Huawei and ZTE “may pose an unacceptable risk to department’s personnel, information and mission.”

If the Pentagon is taking seriously the risk of espionage via Chinese-made phones, maybe savvy US citizens should follow suit.

Don’t bring tech to China

“If you have a security briefing” before heading to China for a company with sensitive information, “you would be told ‘do not take a laptop,'” Bonnie Glaser, director of the China Power Project told Business Insider.

“I once got a security briefing or someone told me ‘do not leave the laptop in your room and take a shower, someone could walk in and download your information and be out,'” said Glaser.

Glaser said it’s common for foreigners staying in a hotel in China to return from the gym or a trip and find “people rummaging around their room.”

This is why the U.S. military uses 5.56mm ammo instead of 7.62mm
(Photo by Charles & Hudson)

China has been “aggressive” about intelligence gathering from government and business officials “for years and years and years, and they are really good at it,” said Glaser.

“Any person who is really dealing with proprietary information, nobody takes a laptop, nobody writes an email. People who are really serious about security will take a burner phone, they would never take their own phone,” said Glaser.

Use caution with Chinese nationals

The Chinese Communist Party has extraordinary powers within its borders to detain and reeducate people over something as central and inoffensive as an ethnic or religious identity.

In 2014, the FBI issued a public service announcement warning against being a pawn for Chinese spies. US students are “coming back from an overseas experience saying unusual things happened, offers that didn’t make sense, for money, big favors, positions they really weren’t suited for. And we think a lot of those were pitches or recruitments,” the FBI said.

Naturalized Chinese citizens in the US been indicted countless times, with many being employed by Chinese firms to steal secrets across a broad swath of US industries. The FBI’s Wray warned in February 2018, specifically that Chinese “professors, scientists, students” all participated in intelligence gathering.

China is widely suspected of using cyber crime to steal US plans for the F-35 stealth jet, but other more civilian industries like agriculture and manufacturing are at risk too, according to experts.

This is why the U.S. military uses 5.56mm ammo instead of 7.62mm
F-35 Lightning II
(Lockheed Martin photo)

Wray received considerable backlash for his comments from Asian-American civil rights groups who noted in a letter to Wray that “well-intentioned public policies might nonetheless lead to troubling issues of potential bias, racial profiling, and wrongful prosecution.”

But Wray stood firm in his analysis.

“To be clear, we do not open investigations based on race, or ethnicity, or national origin,” Wray told NBC News. “But when we open investigations into economic espionage, time and time again, they keep leading back to China.”

This article originally appeared on Business Insider. Follow @BusinessInsider on Twitter.

MIGHTY TACTICAL

One of these 3 combat vehicles might replace the Bradley

As the US Army pursues accelerated modernization to meet the potential future demands of high-intensity warfighting against top adversaries like Russia and China, the service is searching for a new next-generation combat vehicle to replace the Bradley Infantry Fighting Vehicle produced by BAE Systems.

The Next-Generation Combat Vehicle (NGCV) program is the second highest priority for the recently-established Army Futures Command. This brand new four-star command is dedicated to the research and development of future weapons systems for this new era of great power competition.

“The Russians and the Chinese have used the last 15 years to modernize their forces,” Brig. Gen. Ross Coffman, director of the NGCV cross-functional team, told reporters Oct. 9, 2018, “We need to do the same.”


Replacing the Bradley Fighting Vehicle is the top priority for the Next-Generation Combat Vehicle program

The primary focus right now is replacing the Bradley with an Optionally Manned Fighting Vehicle (OMFV), although the requirements are still in the works, with Army officials noting that “all options are on the table.” The Army’s NGCV cross-functional team is looking for something lethal, survivable, and most importantly upgradeable so that it can continue to meet the Army’s needs for year’s to come, NGCV team leaders explained Tuesday at the 2018 Association of the United States Army conference in Washington, DC.

The Army appears to be pursuing a vehicle that can be reconfigured for different missions, has an outstanding power-to-weight ratio for intensity-based and technological upgrades and modifications, and can wage war in both urban and rural environments to provide a deterrent force in Europe and beyond.

The program is expected to issue an official request for proposals in 2018, and companies will have around six months to prepare their offers. The NGCV program expects to field its new OMFV in 2026. This Futures Command team is also looking at a new Armored Multi-Purpose Vehicle (AMPV), Mobile Protected Firepower (MPF) option, Robotic Command Vehicle (RCV), and replacement for the M1 Abrams tank, but the expected delivery dates for these projects are farther out.

There are three full-scale OMFV concepts put foward by BAE Systems, Raytheon, and Rheinmetall, and General Dynamics on display at AUSA 2018, although there may be more potential designs later on when the official request for proposals is sent out. While the three concepts on the floor offer many similar features, each vehicle brings something unique to the table.

This is why the U.S. military uses 5.56mm ammo instead of 7.62mm

The CV90 Mark IV.

(BAE Systems)

Characterizing it as a conversation starter, BAE Systems is offering the latest version of its proven combat vehicle — the CV90 Mark IV

There are 15 variants of the Combat Vehicle (CV) 90 in service in seven nations, so BAE Systems is coming to the table with the latest iteration of a proven vehicle. “We’re pretty proud of this vehicle,” a spokesman for the company told Business Insider at AUSA. “We brought this as our best way to start a conversation with the Army and help the Army help us figure out what it is that soldiers need.”

The strengths of this vehicle, according to its makers, include its growth potential and the mission-specific modularity and flexibility.

“On the left and right sides of it are boxes, they look like they are bolted on, those are weapons station modules,” the spokesman explained, “On [the left] side, you have a Spike missile module connected to the vehicle, and on the right side, you have a 7.62 coaxial machine gun with 2,000 ready rounds in the box.”

Those modular systems are all on attachment points, meaning that they could be swapped out for other modules, such as a Mark 19 grenade launcher, to suit the mission at hand. “It gives the Army, the unit commander, and the vehicle commander the maximum flexibility they need based on the mission,” he said, calling it “sexy.”

In addition to this flexibility, there is also growth potential in the vehicle weight. The vehicle has a maximum weight of 40 tons. The floor model weighed around 30 tons, allowing for the addition of extra armor and weapons systems should the intended mission require these modifications.

The CV90 Mark IV comes with a number of other potentially desirable features and capabilities as well

The vehicle’s 35 mm cannon can be easily modified should the Army show an interest in a 50 mm main gun, something Col. Jim Schirmer, the project lead for the NGVC, told reporters on Oct. 9, 2018, that the Army is seriously considering.

The BAE Systems vehicle also features a drive-by-wire system for manned and unmanned missions, advanced data transfer capabilities, enhanced survivability as it sits low to the ground (hard to see, hard to hit), advanced 360 surveillance, smart targeting systems, airburst munitions for counter-drone warfare, and active protection systems that can be modified as the Army presents a clearer picture of what it expects.

This is why the U.S. military uses 5.56mm ammo instead of 7.62mm

the Lynx KF41 Infantry Fighting Vehicle.

Raytheon and Rheinmetall joined forces to create the Lynx KF41 Infantry Fighting Vehicle, presenting it at AUSA 2018 as a ready-right-now OMFV option.

Described as a “not business as usual” project, the Lynx KF 41 Infantry Fighting Vehicle is the byproduct of a partnership between Rheinmetall, which has an extensive knowledge of vehicles, and Raytheon, a company that excels at integrated electronic systems.

The Raytheon team emphasized modularity for mission-specific modifications in a brief discussion with BI on the floor at AUSA 2018. “The whole thing is very innovative. You can take this configuration, remove the top, make it into another configuration, and you can do that overnight,” Kim Ernzen, vice president of Land Warfare Systems at Raytheon, explained.

“With a 10-ton crane, you can lift the roof plate and the turret off the base chassis, and you can re-roll the vehicle,” Philip Tomio, the vice president of strategy and marketing for the Vehicle Systems Division at Rheinmetall, said. “You can turn it into a command post, an ambulance, a repair and recovery vehicle, a joint fires reconnaissance variant. You have a number of options.”

She revealed to BI that during recent trials, crews were able to change the configuration in roughly three hours.

Raytheon and Rheinmetall are promising a “modern fighting vehicle that will keep US soldiers far ahead of battlefield threats for decades to come.”

The survivability of the vehicle can be changed in accordance with the demands of the fighting environment. With roughly 20 tons of configurable payload, the chassis can support additions up to 55 tons for high-intensity combat against an adversary like the Russians. And the main gun can be modified from a 35 mm cannon to a 50 mm gun as needed.

The Lynx IFV supports up to nine dismounts with a three-man crew, as well as as next-generation thermal sights, Coyote unmanned aircraft, active protection systems to counter a variety of asymmetric threats, a fully-integrated situational awareness sensor suite, and an extended-range TOW missile system, among other features.

The spokespeople for this OMFV project repeatedly stressed that the Lynx would be manufactured in the US, supporting the US industrial base and creating jobs. But perhaps more importantly, the vehicle is a finished product, not a concept, that could be ready to go on a moment’s notice.

This is why the U.S. military uses 5.56mm ammo instead of 7.62mm

General Dynamics Griffin armored fighting vehicle.

General Dynamics brought its Griffin III demonstrator, a combat system featuring elements of the Ajax armored vehicle used in the UK

Produced by the company the makes the M1 Abrams tank, also slated for replacement, General Dynamics’ Griffin III features lethality, modularity, and growth options, among other capabilities.

In terms of lethality, the modular turret features a 50 mm main gun with the option to modify the weapon to a 30 mm cannon if necessary and the ability to fire at an 85 degree angle, a capability requested by the Army for urban combat. The 50 mm gun is significantly more powerful than the Bradley’s current 25 mm cannon.

Supporting a squad with five to eight people and a two-to-three-man crew, the newest evolution of the Griffin I and II is, according to General Dynamics, focused on “adaptability” through the company’s emphasis on a modifiable, open architecture. At the same time, the vehicle features a wide variety of integrated systems with a common operating system, specifically active protection systems, laser warning systems, 360-degree surround view, and a deepstrike package, Mike Peck, the director of enterprise business development at General Dynamics told BI at AUSA 2018.

“All of that is integrated in there. You don’t have to keep adding boxes to the vehicle,” he explained.

The Griffin is said to have a lot of “unique” features designed to trigger additional conversations with the Army going forward.


The Griffin III is meant to satisfy the Army’s vague requirements for the OMFV as they are right now, but it could be changed.

“We wanted to show them what they asked for and then ask, ‘Do you like it, or would you change something?'” Peck explained to BI. “If so, the next iteration — Griffin IV — will have those modifications on it.”

This article originally appeared on Business Insider. Follow @BusinessInsider on Twitter.

popular

The hilarious reactions to Germany getting knocked out of the World Cup

Despite a visibly less dominant string of qualifying matches and a questionable performance early in the group stage, as the reigning World Cup champions, when it came to the 2018 tournament, Germany could not be written off by any means. When you think about it, after handing Brazil a sound 7-1 whooping in the semi-finals in 2014, how could one even imagine that they wouldn’t even make it out of the group stage this year? Well, after a stunning 2-0 loss to South Korea — of all the teams — Germany is going home and the internet is going nuts.


For starters, Fox Sports Brazil’s reaction is both petty and priceless. Still, that 7-1 L Brazil took in 2014 is by no means better than going out in the first round. It’s better to go out early than be a world-renowned team that chokes and gets smashed in the semi-finals, especially considering the fact that Brazil had beaten Germany when it really really mattered so many times in the past, but I’m digressing here.

The American Outlaws, a band of next-generation US Soccer fans are actually offering Germany a seat on the couch of embarrassingly crippling defeat.

Maybe Americans were just generally elated that someone else besides them blew it when they didn’t have to?

Speaking of couches.

But, South Korea still isn’t even that good!

When you think about it, Germany deserved this, they just didn’t seem to play that hard.

The fans are pissed.

The fans are shocked.

But, it’s been a weird week in general anyway.

Meanwhile, everyone who stood to benefit from their elimination *cough cough* England and Mexico, are turning all the way up right now.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EiK1whjBOrs

www.youtube.com

Still, it’s not like Germany’s exit is unfounded. This is the third World Cup in which the reigning champs have gone out in the first round. Italy did it in 2010 and Spain did it in 2014. Plus their exit gives less experienced but talented teams like Mexico and South Korea a chance to prove themselves in the round of 16 and that’s something to be excited about.

This article originally appeared on Fatherly. Follow @FatherlyHQ on Twitter.

Articles

Why Lady Gaga’s halftime show made America’s top commandos so nervous

A senior commander of America’s top special operations units is worried that small commercially-available unmanned aerial vehicles pose an increasing threat to his commandos on operations around the world.


This is why the U.S. military uses 5.56mm ammo instead of 7.62mm
Drones aren’t just for killing tangos in Pakistan anymore. (YouTube Screenshot: Aerial Videos Photos)

During a conference on special operations hosted by the National Defense Industrial Association in Maryland, the deputy commander of Joint Special Operations Command — which oversees some of the United States’ most secretive operations using Delta Force, SEAL Team 6 and other clandestine units — said the Super Bowl halftime show Feb. 5 deepened his concern.

“I’m sure many of you saw the Super Bowl halftime show where Lady Gaga was at the top of the stadium and … there was that interesting pattern in the sky that … was a formation of quadcopters, or drones, that were lit and were making that pattern in the sky,” said JSOC deputy chief Air Force Maj. Gen. Greg Lengyel during the Feb. 14 conference.

“A ‘swarm’ used for entertainment purposes. There’s many other purposes that that can be used for as well,” he added.

This is why the U.S. military uses 5.56mm ammo instead of 7.62mm
Deputy JSOC commander Maj. Gen. Greg Lengyel worries that commercial drones can easily be turned into military ones. (US Military photo)

During Gaga’s show, 300 specially-built drones illuminated with colored LEDs created a pattern of an American flag and a Pepsi logo in the sky above Houston’s NRG Stadium. Dubbed “Shooting Stars,” the drones were built by Intel for light shows and are programmed to fly into specific patterns.

That problem as Lengyel sees it, is that such drone technology is readily available to America’s terrorist adversaries and puts his forces at risk.

“It is a vulnerability to a military that has not been attacked from the air by enemy forces since the Korean War,” Lengyel said. “And now we run the risk of being attacked from the air by enemy forces by a drone you can get off the discount shelf at TJ Max.”

According to Pentagon officials, U.S. and Iraqi forces fighting Islamic State militants in both Syria and Iraq have been targeted by terrorist drones. Pentagon spokesman Navy Capt. Jeff Davis said Feb. 7 that Iraqi forces fighting in Mosul have encountered small drones dropping grenades from the sky “at least once a day.”

This is why the U.S. military uses 5.56mm ammo instead of 7.62mm
A captured ISIS drone on the battlefield. (Photo from Iraq Ministry of Defense)

Several months ago, Defense officials claimed ISIS flew an IED-rigged drone into an Iraqi basecamp that was was detonated when soldiers tried to recover it. Dubbed “Trojan Horse” drones, senior commanders have been looking for ways to counter low-tech UAVs on the battlefield.

“We expect to see more of this, and we’ve put out procedures for our forces to be on guard for this,” one commander said, adding that U.S. troops and others have downed many drones harassing coalition troops with small arms fire and electronic means, “with varying levels of success.”

Some companies have created drone-killing systems cobbled together from former IED-hunting components. But others believe ultimately the way to shoot down low-cost drones is with other low-cost drones.

“We’ve made incredible advances in UAS technology that we can exploit, as well as our adversary is exploiting,” Lengyel said.

MIGHTY FIT

Former Marine smashes new USMC PFT Plank

MARADMIN 330/19 just blasted the Marine Corps in the face with a major change to the PFT. The crazy part is that it has nothing to do with pull-ups for once.

On Jan. 1, 2020 Marines will now have the option to do a plank instead of crunches for the “ab portion” of the PFT.

I already know what you’re wondering. How do you get 100 points?


This is why the U.S. military uses 5.56mm ammo instead of 7.62mm

4:20

I guess SgtMaj Cheech came up with that.

I’ll be the first to tell you, that time is no joke. I decided to take a whack at the new test based on the parameters. Check out how it went below.

Michael Gregory on Instagram: “I attempted to get to the 4:20 max time for the new plank portion of the Marine Corps PFT. Watch how it went!”

www.instagram.com

The attempt

Is a 4:20 plank doable? Yes.

Is it preferable? Probably not.

The real question you need to ask yourself is, do you conduct the PFT to actually show how combat-ready you are or do you conduct the PFT to get a 300 and hopefully put yourself “in zone” for promotion?

I think we all know the answer to that.

I do foresee some commanders making this portion of the test “highly encouraged” if not blatantly recommended.

This is why the U.S. military uses 5.56mm ammo instead of 7.62mm

Peep that date. I’m like the Nostradamus of PT tests or something.

(Credit goes to me, for seeing the future.)

The actual test

At the beginning of this year I wrote Those ‘core’ exercises in military PT tests don’t actually prove anything about your fitness.

It seems like either my timing was perfect or someone was listening.

Apparently, all of the services are revamping their fitness standards. I’m a fan. I don’t even care about all the haters that think the Army is going to go bankrupt buying equipment for the new ACFT and treating low back injuries from sh*tty deadlift form.

Soldiers, just read 5 Steps to Deadlift Perfection and you’ll be fine. Also, don’t listen to any senior enlisted that all of the sudden became deadlift experts after a two-day course. There are thousands of people who have been teaching the deadlifts for decades. Talk to them please.
This is why the U.S. military uses 5.56mm ammo instead of 7.62mm

Thanks Dwight.

(media.giphy.com)

Back to the plank!

If the actual purpose of the ab portion of the test is to test overall core strength, the plank does a much better job than the hip-flexor fatiguing crunch.

I like it. Of course, I’m wondering how Marines will figure out how to cheat this portion. But, that’s part of the fun, isn’t it?

The RKC Plank

youtu.be

How to train for it

Perform the plank by flexing and “holding your weight” in various muscle groups. I went calves, quads, abs, shoulders and seemed to hold form relatively well.

The best way to prep for this exercise is obviously to do it. Finish your workouts with a few submax planks.

Take it a step further by performing the RKC plank like shown in the above video. Suffice it to say that if the test was to perform the RKC plank for 4:20, no one would get 100 points. Check it out.

By the way, RKC stands for “Russian Kettlebell Club.” Obviously, that isn’t okay so if anyone asks it now stands for the “Roosevelt Kennedy Coolidge” plank. America!

This is why the U.S. military uses 5.56mm ammo instead of 7.62mm
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