Iran commands a secret 25,000-man 'foreign legion' in Syria - We Are The Mighty
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Iran commands a secret 25,000-man ‘foreign legion’ in Syria

Iran commands a 25,000-man army fighting in support of Syrian President Bashar al-Assad, according to the head of Israel’s foreign affairs and defense committees.


Avi Dichter, who formerly served as Israel’s domestic intelligence chief, warned visiting Swiss parliamentary members that the massive army is purposely targeting the Syrian rebel opposition, as opposed to the Islamic State.

Also read: US General thinks Iran is behind the missile attacks on US Navy near Yemen

“This is a foreign legion of some 25,000 militants, most of whom have come from Afghanistan and Pakistan,” Dichter told the delegation Wednesday, as reported by Reuters. “They are fighting in Syria only against the rebels and not against ISIS.”

Dichter did not disclose his sources, but he does receive regular intelligence briefings in his role.

Iran commands a secret 25,000-man ‘foreign legion’ in Syria
The Iranian army marches in parade | Wiki Commons

Iran’s role in the Syrian conflict is as substantial as Russia’s, albeit much more covert. In lieu of massive bombing campaigns, Iran has recruited a large army comprised of mostly Afghan refugees.

The Hazara community is a small Shia Muslim sect in Afghanistan’s predominantly Sunni population. ISIS and Taliban attacks against the Hazaras forced many to flee to Iran, which also practices Shia Islam. Instead of welcoming the Hazaras, Iran converted them into an army, known as the Fatemiyoun division.

Typically, the Qods Force, a branch within Iran’s Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC), is responsible for foreign cover operations. Iran’s government recognized at the start of the Syrian conflict that a war in Syria would likely be unpopular. The Hazaras served as a convenient proxy.

Iran also utilizes Lebanon’s Hezbollah terrorist militias as a proxy for Assad. The Iran-Hezbollah relationship goes back decades, and the terrorist group is far better suited for counter-insurgency operations in Syria than the more conventional Iranian forces.

“The Iranians enlisted Hezbollah … to fight in Syria because the Iranian army is better suited to fight as an army against another army, while the Hezbollah militants are adept at fighting against terror groups,” said Dichter.

Dichter noted approximately 1,600 Hezbollah fighters have been killed fighting in Syria. The terrorist group is an arch-enemy of Israel, but that does not mean he is happy to see them dying on the battlefield.

“The fighting had made [Hezbollah] a better fighting force and more adept in conventional military warfare,” said Dichter.

Iran commands a secret 25,000-man ‘foreign legion’ in Syria

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Senate committee renews medical marijuana provision in VA Bill

Iran commands a secret 25,000-man ‘foreign legion’ in Syria


Senate lawmakers on Thursday once again signaled to the Veterans Affairs Department they want VA doctors able to talk to patients about use of medical marijuana.

By a 20-10 bipartisan vote, the Senate Appropriations Committee passed an amendment to the military construction and veterans legislation allowing agency doctors to make recommendations to vets on the use of medical marijuana — something they can’t do now even in states where cannabis prescriptions are legal.

“We should be doing everything we can to make life easier for our veterans,” Sen. Jeff Merkley, a Democrat from Oregon, said in a statement. “Prohibiting VA doctors from talking to their patients about medical marijuana just doesn’t make sense. The VA shouldn’t be taking legal treatment options off the table for veterans.”

Medical marijuana is being prescribed in some states for symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, even though its effectiveness remains questionable.

The legislative amendment was sponsored by Merkley and Sen. Steve Daines, a Republican from Montana, who successfully got the same amendment through the committee in November, only to see it stripped from the bill by House lawmakers a month later.

The latest language still has to be considered by the full Senate and then be sent once more to the House for approval.

The VA won’t comment on the lawmakers’ actions on medical marijuana, but its website quotes a report by Marcel Bonn-Miller of the National Center for PTSD at the VA Medical Center in Palo Alto, California, and Glenna Rousseau of the VA Medical Center in White River Junction, Vermont, dismissing marijuana as useful in treating veterans.

“Controlled studies have not been conducted to evaluate the safety or effectiveness of medical marijuana for PTSD,” the report states. “Thus, there is no evidence at this time that marijuana is an effective treatment for PTSD. In fact, research suggests that marijuana can be harmful to individuals with PTSD.”

The federal government in 2014 approved a study on medical marijuana to be conducted by the Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies, a California-based nonprofit research center. But the research hasn’t yet been completed.

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This soldier took out a pillbox using only one small bomb and combat knife

U.S. Army Pfc. Michael J. Perkins silenced seven enemy machine guns and captured 25 German troops when he rushed a pillbox with just a small bomb and a trench knife in 1918.


Company D of the 101st Infantry was assaulting German lines in Belieu Bois, France when they came under fire from a pillbox. Fire from seven automatic weapons rained down on them. The American infantrymen maneuvered on the Germans to try and silence the guns.

Related video:

Unfortunately, the enemy had expected the American move and began tossing grenades out the door to the fortification, preventing anyone getting too close.

Iran commands a secret 25,000-man ‘foreign legion’ in Syria
Pillboxes are like this, but with machine guns firing in all directions. Photo: John Beniston CC-BY-SA-3.0

Perkins was not scared of things like grenades and pillboxes, so he crept up to the bunker with a small bomb and a trench knife.

Perkins waited by the door until the Germans attempted to throw out another grenade. As soon as the door cracked, he threw his bomb inside. The explosion opened the door permanently, and Perkins rushed inside with his knife.

Iran commands a secret 25,000-man ‘foreign legion’ in Syria
He rushed into a room with over 25 heavily armed Nazis carrying only this knife, because ‘Murica. Photo: Curiosandrelics CC-BY-SA 3.0

The enemy inside were likely dazed by the bomb, but Perkins was still heavily outnumbered. He used the trench knife to kill and wound the first few Germans before accepting the surrender of the 25 survivors.

For his heroism, Perkins received the Medal of Honor. Unfortunately it was posthumous. He was wounded in the struggle for the pillbox and sent to the infirmary. En route, he was struck by an enemy artillery shell and killed.

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This is the insane training it takes to earn the Army Expert Infantryman Badge

Through the darkness, the Soldiers pushed forward toward their objective. Sweat was dripping off the chins of some, hitting the ground as each mile passed. This is only the beginning of earning the Army Expert Infantryman Badge.


Their rucksacks seemed heavier with each passing step, their helmets weighing down like lead covers on their heads. They had to complete a full 12 miles before their trek was done.

Once they reached their destination, there was one more task at hand: each Soldier had to treat a simulated casualty and carry him out on a litter.

Iran commands a secret 25,000-man ‘foreign legion’ in Syria
A Soldier with 1-2 Stryker Brigade Combat Team drags a simulated casualty to the finish line of Objective Bull Dec. 15, 2017, at Joint Base Lewis-McChord, Washington. Objective Bull was the final event of the Expert Infantry Badge testing, which was held Dec. 11-15. (U.S. Army photo by Staff Sgt. Samuel Northrup)

This was the final event for the Expert Infantryman Badge testing that took place Dec. 11-15, 2017, at Joint Base Lewis-McChord, Washington.

Out of the 324 1-2 Stryker Brigade Combat Team Soldiers who started the Expert Infantryman Badge testing, only 73 successfully completed all the required tasks and earned their Badge — making the attrition rate 78 percent.

“The test has evolved over the years,” said Command Sgt. Maj. Walter A. Tagalicud, the I Corps command sergeant major. “It certainly differs from the one I participated in to earn my EIB in 1989. But, the spirit and intent remain. There is no greater individual training mechanism to building the fundamental warrior skills required in our profession, than the EIB.”

There is a lot of train up to the EIB, said Spc. Tyler Conner, an infantryman with Company A, 2nd Battalion, 3rd Infantry Regiment. Even if a Soldier is not trying out for the EIB, the train up for the testing is valuable to see the right way of doing infantry tasks. When a Soldier finally earns the EIB, it shows that they have honed their skills enough to be called an expert infantryman.

The EIB evaluation included an Army Physical Fitness Test, with a minimum score of 80 points in each event; day and night land navigation; medical, patrol, and weapons lanes; a 12-mile forced march, and Objective Bull (evaluate, apply a tourniquet to and transport a casualty).

Also Read: These 3 soldiers fought their way back to the front lines after losing legs

“These crucial skills are the building blocks to our battle drills and collective gates,” Tagalicud said. “The Expert Infantryman Badge is as much about the training, leading up to and through the testing, as it is about proving your mettle.”

“Earning the EIB was one of the best experiences I had in the Army,” said Sgt. Wilmar Belilla Lopez, a Soldier with 2nd Battalion, 3rd Infantry Regiment. “Being tactically and technically proficient is the core of being a Soldier. When a Soldier earns their EIB, it signifies they have achieved a level of proficiency all Soldiers should strive for.”

“The Greek Philosopher Heraclitus said, ‘Out of every 100 men, 10 shouldn’t even be there, 80 are just targets, 9 are the real fighters and we are lucky to have them – for they make the battle. But the one, one is a warrior, and he will bring the others back,'” Tagalicud said while addressing the new EIB holders.

“You are that warrior. You Infantrymen, you Soldiers, you leaders, and candidates are the one in a hundred,” he said. “Many stepped forward to answer the question am I good enough. For you the answer in a resounding yes!”

Iran commands a secret 25,000-man ‘foreign legion’ in Syria
A Soldier with 1-2 Stryker Brigade Combat Team gets pinned his Expert Infantryman Badge after successfully completing the testing Dec. 15, 2017, at Joint Base Lewis-McChord, Washington. The number of candidates was 324 when testing began Dec. 11, but only 73 earned their badge on Dec. 15. (U.S. Army photo by Staff Sgt. Samuel Northrup)

The Expert Infantryman Badge was developed in 1944 to represent the infantry’s tough, hard-hitting role in combat and symbolize proficiency in infantry craft.

For the first Expert Infantryman Badge evaluation, 100 noncommissioned officers were selected to undergo three days of testing. When the testing was over, 10 NCOs remained. The remaining ten were interviewed to determine the first Expert Infantryman.

On March 29, 1944, Tech. Sgt. Walter Bull was the first Soldier to be awarded the Expert Infantryman Badge

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US ambassador visits Taiwan for 1st time in four decades

Amid rising tensions between the US and China, a US ambassador visited Taiwan for the first time in 42 years. On Sunday, the US ambassador to Palau, John Hennessey-Niland, arrived on the self-governed island with a delegation from Palau. Although the ambassador was present as part of an official visit by the Palau government, it is significant — marking the first visit by such an official since Washington severed diplomatic ties with Taipei during the Carter administration in 1979.

Palau is one of only 15 nations that officially recognize Taiwan as a country. China views the self-ruled democratic island as its own territory and has spoken for decades about one day “reunifying” Taipei with the government in Beijing.

Iran commands a secret 25,000-man ‘foreign legion’ in Syria
John Hennessey-Niland, US ambassador to the Republic of Palau, left, and Palau Ambassador Hersey Kyota at Hennessey-Niland’s swearing-in ceremony at the US State Department, March 6, 2020. Photo courtesy of the US Embassy.

Beijing spoke out against the visit, with the foreign ministry saying on Monday it opposed Hennessey-Niland’s trip.

Speaking to reporters in Taipei on Tuesday, Hennessey-Niland took the unusual step of referring to Taiwan as a country, reported Agence France-Press.

“I know that here in Taiwan people describe the relationship between the United States and Taiwan as real friends, real progress and I believe that description applies to the three countries — the United States, Taiwan and Palau,” he said.

While Washington has not formally recognized Taipei as a sovereign government, it has arguably been Taiwan’s most important unofficial ally and its leading arms supplier since 1979.

Additionally, Hennessey-Niland spoke strongly about China’s involvement in the region. Hennessey-Niland said American ambassadors have the responsibility to express their dissatisfaction with China for its economic and political threats against Taiwan’s allies. He also called on Washington to penalize Beijing for its “malicious behavior.”

Iran commands a secret 25,000-man ‘foreign legion’ in Syria
US Navy seaman Kyeong Chan Oh, from Seoul, South Korea, looks through an alidade on a bridge wing of the Arleigh Burke-class guided-missile destroyer USS John Finn March 10, 2021, in the Taiwan Strait. US Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 3rd Class Jason White, courtesy of DVIDS.

Hennessey-Niland stated that the TAIPEI Act — which was signed into law by then President Donald Trump on March 26, 2020 — would make an important contribution to supporting diplomatic allies of Taiwan, such as Palau, noting that Taiwan is an important partner of the US, and together the US and Taiwan can do more to assist other Pacific island nations.

The significance of the visit is being acknowledged by the Taiwanese. Lin Ting-hui, deputy secretary-general of the Taiwanese Society of International Law, told reporters that the visit is “not trivial.”

Lin said it shows the US is “not shying away” from sending an ambassador to Taiwan. He said this demonstrates that American policy on Taiwan has changed to “a more positive orientation.” Lin suggested that the US is no longer limiting itself to the parameters of the Taiwan Relations Act. 

“It no longer hides it as it did in the past,” Lin said. “Instead, it chooses to make it public.”

This article originally appeared on Coffee or Die. Follow @CoffeeOrDieMag on Twitter.

MIGHTY TACTICAL

The last camouflage is up to the scientists

A camouflaged soldier almost invisible to the naked eye may light up like a Christmas tree on a high-end thermal imaging device, which is why advanced thermal detection capabilities are among the greatest threats to the concealed warfighter.

Thermal imaging systems have the ability to detect a soldier’s infrared heat signature, light or electromagnetic radiation outside the visible spectrum emitted by a warm body. These sensors can distinguish between a person’s body heat and the ambient temperature of their surroundings.

“Defeating a thermal signature is probably the hardest thing,” an Army sniper previously told Business Insider, adding that “emerging technology by our near-peer enemies” is making it increasingly difficult for soldiers to hide.


Thermal detection “is dangerous to a sniper because you can’t hide from that,” he explained.

Agreeing with the sniper’s assessment, two masters of modern camouflage explained to BI why this particular threat is so difficult to defeat.

Iran commands a secret 25,000-man ‘foreign legion’ in Syria

How a human being appears to the naked eye vs how they appear to a thermal sensor.

(Youtube Screenshot)

“The big thing here is physics,” retired Army Lt. Col. Timothy O’Neill, a consultant for HyperStealth Biotechnology Corp. and the inventor of digital camouflage, said. “For a thermal signature, you are talking about energy at one end of the electromagnetic spectrum. It’s energy. Energy, we recall, cannot be created or destroyed.”

This principle, known as the First Law of Thermodynamics, complicates everything.

“You can put a soldier inside a suit that traps the heat inside so that he can’t be seen, but he gets roasted inside,” O’Neill, who did his doctoral dissertation on camouflage, added. “The heat’s there.” The problem is figuring out what to do with the heat energy.

“It has to go somewhere somehow,” Guy Cramer, president and CEO of HyperStealth, told BI. “You either need to vent it or convert it to a non-detectable signal.” There are certain fabrics that will actually cool the body down, but it doesn’t eliminate the person’s heat signature altogether.

“It’s not an easy thing to do,” he said.

“You get outside the visible spectrum, and you do have problems,” O’Neill added. “Right now, almost all of the threats that we face have late-generation image intensification and thermal detection. It’s not an easy fix.”

Iran commands a secret 25,000-man ‘foreign legion’ in Syria

How a human being appears to the naked eye vs how they appear to a thermal sensor.

(YouTube Screenshot)

“There are things you can do, but you are still up against physics,” the father of digital camouflage said. “So, almost anything you do to reduce a thermal signature is going to be high-tech and a little difficult for the soldier.” He said that there are some strides being made in this area, but it’s difficult to know what, if anything, will be a game-changer.

US Army scientists, for example, are researching new infrared obscurants, aerosol particles that block infrared light to obscure the warfighter on the battlefield. The service also put in a multi-million dollar order for Fibrotex’s Ultra-Light Camouflage Netting System (ULCANS), a new kind of advanced camouflage specifically designed to conceal troops from night vision, thermal imaging, radar, and more.

Cramer told BI that he is currently patenting an idea known as “quantum stealth,” a light-bending camouflage material able to bend the electromagnetic spectrum around a target to achieve multi-spectral invisibility. This technology has not yet been publicly demonstrated.

Iran commands a secret 25,000-man ‘foreign legion’ in Syria

How a human being appears to the naked eye vs how they appear to a thermal sensor.

(YouTube Screenshot)

The Army’s top general revealed earlier this month that the service is pursuing new camouflage systems to better protect soldiers waging war on future battlefields, and thermal is a priority.

“Advanced camouflage technologies are critical,” Army Chief of Staff Gen. Mark Milley explained to lawmakers. “We are putting a fair amount of money into advanced camouflage systems, both individual, unit, vehicle, etc.”

“We know that adversary [target] acquisition systems are very capable in that, if you can see a target, with precision munitions, you can hit a target, so camouflage systems that break up electronic signatures and break up heat signatures are critical.”

This article originally appeared on Business Insider. Follow @BusinessInsider on Twitter.

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Congresswoman gives the best description of flying the legendary A-10

“A badass airplane with a big gun on it.”


That’s how Republican Congresswoman Martha McSally described the A-10 Warthog to President Donald Trump, as she told the Center for Strategic and International Studies on Tuesday.

McSally, the first female fighter pilot and a veteran of Iraq and Afghanistan, told the crowd at the CSIS event about her experiences as an A-10 pilot laying down close air support for US troops during the 2000s.

“It’s an amazing airplane to fly, but it’s really cool to shoot the gun,” said McSally. “The folklore as A-10 pilots that we pass around is that we built the gun, and told the engineers ‘figure out how to fly this gun.'”

Related: The ‘Chopper Popper’ scored the A-10’s first air-to-air kill…against an Iraqi helicopter

“The gun, 30 millimeters is just amazing.” said McSally. “When you shoot the gun, the whole airplane shakes. The first time you shoot the gun, you think the airplane’s breaking up.”

Perhaps better known is the iconic “BRRRT” sound of the A-10’s 30 mm, 1,174 round gun as heard from the ground, a sound that US infantrymen have come to equate with salvation and safety.

Iran commands a secret 25,000-man ‘foreign legion’ in Syria
The GAU-8/A Avenger Gatling gun next to a VW Type 1. Removing an installed GAU-8 from an A-10 requires first installing a jack under the aircraft’s tail to prevent it from tipping, as the cannon makes up most of the aircraft’s forward weight. | US Air Force photo

In practice, the A-10’s gun is actually more precise than even the newest, most accurate GPS or laser-guided bombs, which can often cost up to a million dollars each.

“In Afghanistan … we used mostly the gun,” said McSally, “It’s a very precise weapon and it allows for minimizing collateral damage and fratricide because the weapon’s footprint is so tight. We can roll in and precisely go after the target while it keeps Americans safe.”

MIGHTY TRENDING

Kim Jong Un suspected of ordering assassination of nephew

Chinese authorities have reportedly blocked a plot from seven North Korean assassins to enter the country and kill Kim Han Sol, the son of Kim Jong Nam — Kim Jong Un’s half brother who authorities allege was assassinated with a nerve agent at an airport in Malaysia.


An anonymous source told South Korea’s JoongAng Ilbo that North Korea’s Reconnaissance General Bureau dispatched seven assassins to kill the 22-year-old Kim Han Sol, but Chinese authorities apprehended two of them and held them for questioning.

Also read: All about the chemical agent VX that allegedly killed Kim Jong Nam

The Kim dynasty has ruled North Korea for nearly 70 years, with Kim Jong Un most recently assuming power after the death of his father, Kim Jong Il. But Kim Jong Nam is Kim Jong Il’s eldest son, and Kim Han Sol is Kim Jong Nam’s eldest.

North Korea’s “forever leader” Kim Il Sung still technically rules the country, and only men of the Kim family can hold power since his death. Kim Jong Un fears external and internal plots to assassinate him or topple him as the head of North Korea, and having living males in his family presents somewhat-viable avenues to achieve that without massive war.

Iran commands a secret 25,000-man ‘foreign legion’ in Syria
Kim Jong Nam. Photo from The Asahi Shimbun.

After Kim Jong Nam’s assassination, reports of a Chinese plot to replace Kim Jong Un with Kim Jong Nam surfaced. Kim Jong Un’s uncle, who had deep ties to China, was himself killed by Kim Jong Un, reportedly in connection to this plot.

Kim Han Sol publicly spoke out against his uncle after the death of his father in a YouTube video where he called the North Korean leader a “dictator.”

Currently, the US, China, and North Korea are in a standoff over North Korea’s nuclear ambitions, with one of the potential US options for solving the crisis being regime change.

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This is why intelligence agencies issue a ‘burn notice’ to bad agents

In 1984, the CIA issued a burn notice on a former Iranian secret police officer and arms dealer, Manucher Ghorbanifar. Ghorbanifar once worked for the Shah of Iran’s SAVAK internal security service and was the primary agent between the United States, Israel, and the Iranians in the early days of the Iran-Contra Affair. 

Few people involved trusted Ghorbanifar, but Americans were being held hostage by Iran and the shady arms dealer was their best bet. They were right not to trust him, as even Col. Oliver North once said of him “I knew him to be a liar.” After one of the arms shipments went bad and Ghorbanifar collected his money anyway, the CIA issued his burn notice. 

Iran commands a secret 25,000-man ‘foreign legion’ in Syria
Retired U.S. Marine Lt. Col. Oliver North, Fox News reporter, interviews Marine Capt. Kevin T. Smalley, AV-8B Harrier pilot, Marine Attack Squadron (VMA) 211, Marine Aircraft Group 13, 3rd Marine Aircraft Wing (Forward) at Camp Bastion, Helmand province, Afghanistan, Oct. 12, 2012. North was visiting Marines and conducting interviews about the attack on Sept. 14, 2012.

A burn notice from an intelligence agency doesn’t require that an intelligence asset be killed in some covert operation. Manucher Ghorbanifar is not only still alive, he even arranged a meeting between Americans and Iranians in the days before the 2003 Invasion of Iraq. 

What it does mean is that any information provided by the person in the burn notice is useless, probably fabricated, and that the asset will do anything for money. Essentially, it’s not the person getting burned, it’s all their useless information. Think of it as CIA officers are expected to burn whatever material was provided by the failed asset. 

Even though no one really trusted him, Ghorbanifar was considered a necessary evil. In the early 1980s, multinational peacekeeping forces and diplomatic cadres in Lebanon saw a series of kidnappings of high-profile people. Military officers, diplomats, and journalists were all fair game. It wasn’t just the United States as a victim; no one was immune. The Soviet Union, France, and other nations had citizens taken as hostages.

In the case of Manucher Ghorbanifar, he was a go-between for Israel, the U.S., and Iran. Iran was in the middle of a devastating war with Iraq and needed arms. The Islamic Republic also controlled many of the militias in Lebanon. The U.S. agreed to allow Israel to give arms to Iran if Iran would free the American hostages. The Americans would then replenish the Israeli stockpiles.

The deal Ghorbanifar brokered between Iran, Israel, and the United States began to unravel very quickly. The Iranians were not releasing the hostages requested, the U.S. began sending more missiles than laid out in the deal, and Ghorbanifar’s explanation was not adding up. After failing three lie detector tests, the CIA issued his burn notice. 

That was in 1984. Ghorbanifar continued to peddle his information to intelligence agencies, and even though the CIA’s burn notice went out to friendly foreign intelligence agencies, Ghorbanifar still found buyers. He was soon discovered to be a double agent, working for Mossad.

And yet, even the CIA continued to work with Ghorbanifar, despite its own files describing him as “an intelligence fabricator and a nuisance.” It was Ghorbanifar who suggested to Col. Oliver North in 1986 that they should fund the Nicaraguan Contras with money from the sale of arms to Iran.  

Iran commands a secret 25,000-man ‘foreign legion’ in Syria
Frente Sur Commandas, Nueva Guinea zone of southeast Nicaragua, 1987. Wikimedia Commons

The arms for hostages deal never panned out, and many of the hostages captured by various Lebanese militia groups were either killed or held for years before release. Ghorbanifar, once burned by the CIA, decided to use his influence to get his Iranian contacts to leak the illegal American activity to the press. 

News of the Iran-Contra scandal first appeared in the Lebanese newspaper Al-Shiraa in 1986. The story’s source was former Iranian cleric Mehdi Hashemi, who opposed the Iranian regime’s dealings with the U.S.

Articles

U.S. general admits F-35 is actually three separate airplanes

Iran commands a secret 25,000-man ‘foreign legion’ in Syria
Image: Lockheed Martin


The whole idea behind the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter was for it to be, you know, joint. That is to say, the same basic plane would work for the U.S. Air Force, Navy and Marine Corps and foreign countries.

Lockheed Martin is designing the F-35 to meet all the requirements of all three U.S. military branches from the outset, with — in theory — only minor differences between the Air Force’s F-35A, the Marines’ F-35B and the Navy’s F-35C.

The variants were supposed to be 70-percent common. But Lt. Gen. Christopher Bogdan, head of the JSF program office, told a seminar audience on Feb. 10 that the three F-35 models are only 20- to 25-percent common, mainly in their cockpits.

In other words, the F-35 is actually three different warplanes. The F-35, F-36 and F-37.

There are very few examples of plane designs that effectively meet the requirements of all three American armed services that operate fighters. The F-4 Phantom was a successful joint fighter, but only because McDonnell Douglas developed it for the Navy — and the Marines and Air Force adopted it after the fact without complicating the design process.

By contrast, the JSF’s design has taken the services’ competing, even contradictory, needs into account from the outset. The F-35A is supposed to be able to pull nine Gs. The B-model has a downward-blasting lift fan to allow it to take off and land vertically. The C-variant has a bigger wing and systems for operating from aircraft carriers. Even trying to bend each variant toward the same basic airframe resulted in a bulky, blocky fuselage that limits the F-35’s aerodynamic performance.

And the compromise didn’t result in a truly common design. It’s “almost like three separate production lines,” Bogdan said, according to Air Forcemagazine. A real joint fighter, the program boss said, is “hard” because each branch is adamant about its requirements. “You want what you want,” Bogdan said.

Bogdan declined to say whether the Pentagon’s next generation of fighters should be joint. But Lt. Gen. James Holmes, the Air Force’s deputy chief of staff for plans and requirements, said in mid-February 2016 that the Navy and Air Force would probably design their next fighters separately.

MIGHTY TRENDING

The 5 biggest stories in the military world right now (June 30)

Good Mighty morning! Here are the five stories you need to know about before you strap on your boots and head out today:


  • An Indonesian Air Force C-130 crashed near a residential neighborhood, killing at least 43 people. CNN has the story here.
  • Our partners at Business Insider report that Greece’s military budget is growing in spite of that country’s economic turmoil.
  • Want a surplus Humvee for old-times sake? The Defense Logistics Agency is making it easier to make them street legal. Fox News has the story here.
  • So much for that “spending like a sailor on liberty” cliche. Forbes reports that military members are better than civilians at monitoring their money.
  • The U.S. has restored military aid to Bahrain in spite of that country’s human rights record. (And the Fifth Fleet staff lets out a collective sigh of relief.) Defense One has the full story here.

Now check this out: The US military took these incredible photos this week 

Articles

At the beginning of the Civil War, most surgeons didn’t know how to treat gunshot wounds

Iran commands a secret 25,000-man ‘foreign legion’ in Syria


While more soldiers died of disease than from battle injuries during the Civil War, a three-page document written by P.J. Horwitz, the surgeon general of the Union’s Navy, proves that many members of the medical corps had little idea of how to treat a gunshot wound at the war’s start. Part of the online exhibition “Passages Through the Fire: Jews and the Civil War,” put together by the Shapell Manuscript Foundation, Slate shared a transcript of Horowitz’s “rudimentary advice” in regards to handling injuries caused by bullets on the battlefield.

If the wound is produced by a musket ball, the patient will generally first feel a slight tingling in the part, and on looking at the seat of injury perceive a hole smaller than the projected ball, generally smooth lined, inverted and the part more or less swelled, and on examining further, if the ball has made its exit there would be found another opening, which unlike the other will have its margin everted and ragged.
Should the patient present radical symptoms of injury, one of the first things to be done is to stop the hemorrhage, if there be any, and then carefully examine the wound to see that no foreign body is lodged there in, and then after bathing the flesh in cold water, apply to the wound a piece of lint on which may be spread a little cerate, and attach it to the parts by adhesive or if the surgeon prefers it he can dip a little lint in the patient’s blood and in the same manner apply it to the part, and then put the part at rest, and treat the local and general symptoms as they arrive.

Head over to Slate to read Horwitz’s full treatise.

Articles

Why handling battlefield casualties was so gruesome during the Civil War

The Civil War produced casualties and war dead on a level previously unencountered by Americans and it was all happening in their farms, fields and in some cases, literally their own backyards. 

Maj. William Childs said after the Battle of Antietam that the days following a battle are always worse than the battle itself. The war killed some 600,000 Americans and turned entire geographic areas into cemeteries. 

When the battle was over and the smoke cleared, these battlefields were littered with thousands of dead and dying bodies, as can be seen in the photographs by Mathew Brady. Someone had to bury the war dead. Often this fell to Black soldiers and servants, in some cases the Union used hired labor but it could also be handled by anyone, including the local townspeople. 

At the beginning of the Civil War, there was no set of rules in place governing the handling of dead and wounded for either side of the war. For a wounded soldier, the enemy wasn’t the only concern. They lay among the dead and the pestilence and disease breeding around them. They also had to worry about wild animals. Wounded troops lying on the battlefield might sometimes be moved, but they might not.

Iran commands a secret 25,000-man ‘foreign legion’ in Syria
National Archives/ Mathew Brady

A post-battle truce could take place after a battle, but that was entirely at the discretion of the leaders of the opposing forces. Sometimes a truce was called to collect and bury the dead, sometimes it was refused. 

In 1862, the Army of the Potomac finally enacted a policy of handling the dead and dying, establishing the first ambulance corps. It wasn’t until 1864 when the same policy was adopted throughout the Union Army, which established who, when and where they could operate on the field after the battle. 

For anyone doing the burial, this could be gruesome work. They often did not have the tools they needed for the job, sometimes even foregoing carts or shovels. Burying thousands of men killed in combat took an extraordinarily long time, especially without the right tools for the job.

The dead of the Civil War were also not afforded coffins. There just weren’t enough available nor was there a distribution system in place to get them to the battlefields. The armies had other, more pressing concerns. Soldiers were buried at the discretion of whoever had come to bury them. They could sometimes be buried with reverence, sometimes with haste, other times buried after being stripped of their possessions and clothing.  

Iran commands a secret 25,000-man ‘foreign legion’ in Syria
Some of the more “fortunate” who were given hospital beds
(National Archives/ Mathew Brady)

With the bodies lying where they fell as people worked to dig their graves, the decaying bodies often sat in the sun and other elements awaiting their final resting place. The smell of the decay was so terrible and risk of disease so great that sometimes individual graves had to be discarded in favor of a large trench to place all the bodies. 

Even once the bodies were buried, they might still need to be reburied. After the Battle of Gettysburg, a fight that killed around 50,000, they attempted to bury the dead where they fell in individual graves. They eventually had to forgo that in favor of a trench due to the number of bodies. Those that were buried individually were not buried deep enough and body parts soon began to breach the surface and had to be reburied. 

As a result, mass graves became used more and more, often dug by the winning side, in haste to press their advantage. These holes could be very shallow, with not much cover on them. The dead would be revealed years later, as dogs and pigs dug them up, the topsoil eroded or were otherwise revealed by the elements. 

Those with the means were able to have their loved ones’ remains returned for a proper funeral service and burial in a cemetery. Eventually Congress passed legislation in 1867 that allowed for the dead to be reburied in national cemeteries following the war, complete with fences, markers and a registry of those buried. 

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