How the legendary Memphis Belle was brought back to life - We Are The Mighty
MIGHTY HISTORY

How the legendary Memphis Belle was brought back to life

Through the cockpit windscreen, Capt. Robert Morgan saw flashes of light from the wings and engine cowling of a German Focke-Wulf Fw 190 at his 12 o’clock and closing at an incredible rate. Each wink of light from the fighter’s wing root meant another 20mm cannon shell was heading directly at his B-17F Flying Fortress at over 2,300 feet per second.

Having no room to dive in the crowded formation of B-17 bombers of the 91st Bomb Group, he pitched up. The Luftwaffe fighter’s shells impacted the tail of the aircraft instead of coming straight through the windscreen.


Over the intercom Morgan heard his tail gunner, Sgt. John Quinlan, yelling that the aircraft’s tail was shot to pieces and what was left was in flames.

How the legendary Memphis Belle was brought back to life
(U.S. Army Air Forces photo)

It was January 23, 1943. Morgan and his nine crewmen aboard the “Memphis Belle” had just fought their way through a swarm of Luftwaffe fighters, dropped their bombs on a Nazi submarine base in the coastal city of Lorient in occupied France and were fighting to survive the return trip to the Eighth Air Force base in Bassingbourn, England. Morgan began calculating if the crew should bail out and become prisoners of war before the tail tore completely off the bomber trapping the crew in a death spiral culminating in a fiery crash.

A moment later, Quinlan reported that the fire in the tail had gone out. The “Memphis Belle” and its crew would survive the mission; the crew’s eighth and the bomber’s ninth.

How the legendary Memphis Belle was brought back to life
(U.S. Army Air Forces photo)

They would have to survive 17 more missions to complete the required 25 to rotate home. All would be flown during a period of World War II when the Luftwaffe was at the height of its destructive powers.

Against all odds, the “Memphis Belle” crew flew those missions, their last to once again bomb the U-boat pens at Lorient on May 17, 1943, before returning safely to England for the final time. Bottles of Champagne were uncorked and radio operator Tech. Sgt. Robert J. Hanson collapsed onto the flightline and kissed the ground.

How the legendary Memphis Belle was brought back to life
(U.S. Army Air Forces photo)

For the “Belle” itself, it was only mission 24 and the plane had to fly once more with an alternate crew on May 19.

The B-17 and its crew would be the first to return alive and intact to the U.S. They were welcomed as heroes and immediately embarked on a 2 ½-month, nationwide morale tour to sell war bonds. The tour was also to encourage bomber crews in training that they too could make it home. It made celebrities of both the “Belle” and its crew.

Ironically, the two and a half months of press conferences, parties and glad-handing officers and politicians was about the same amount of time during the “Belle’s” combat tour that 80 percent of the 91st Bomb Group’s B-17s and their crews were lost to German fighters and anti-aircraft fire.

“Eighty percent losses means you had breakfast with 10 men and dinner with only two of those 10,” Morgan said in an interview after the war. During the totality of the air war over Europe more than 30,000 U.S. Airmen aboard heavy bombers, like the B-17, would be killed.

How the legendary Memphis Belle was brought back to life
(U.S. Air Force photo)

Seventy-five years to the day after that 25th mission, the Museum of the U.S. Air Force will honor the bravery of those bomber crews, some of the first Americans to take the fight to the Nazis in WWII, when they unveil for public display the largely restored B-17F, Serial No. 41-24485, “Memphis Belle” as part of a three-day celebration, May 17-19, 2018.

How the legendary Memphis Belle was brought back to life
Download the Museum Brochure Here

According to the museum curator in charge of the “Memphis Belle” exhibit, Jeff Duford, the weekend will include more than 160 WWII re-enactors showcasing their memorabilia, WWII-era music and vehicles, static displays of other B-17s, flyovers of WWII-era aircraft and presentations of rare archival film footage. The “Memphis Belle” will be the centerpiece of an exhibit documenting the strategic bombing campaign over Europe.

“The ‘Memphis Belle’ is an icon that represents all the heavy bomber crewmen who served and sacrificed in Europe in World War II,” Duford said, “In many ways the ‘Memphis Belle’ is the icon for the United States Air Force.

“You look at the U.S. Marines, they have this wonderful icon of the flag being raised over Mount Suribachi on Iwo Jima and everyone recognizes that. It symbolizes service and sacrifice and tenacity and teamwork. Well, the Air Force has that symbol too, and it’s this airplane. It demonstrates teamwork. The crews had to work together. The planes in formation had to work together. The formations had to work together with the fighter escorts.”

The service and sacrifice of the young men still leaves Duford awestruck even after working on the “Belle” project for a decade.

How the legendary Memphis Belle was brought back to life
(U.S. Army photo)

“How does one climb inside of this aircraft knowing that they are probably not going to come home? And they don’t do that one time; two times; three times; 10 times – they have to do it 25 times,” said Duford. “Once they got inside the airplane, they had no place to run. There were no foxholes to be dug. The skin on those airplanes is so thin that a bullet or flak fragment would go through it like a tin can because that’s essentially what it was.

“The odds were that every 18 missions, a heavy bomber was going to be shot down. So when you think the crew had to finish 25 missions to go home, statistically it was nearly impossible. It was one-in-four odds that a heavy bomber recruit would finish their 25 missions. Those other three crew members would’ve been shot down and captured, killed or wounded so badly they couldn’t finish their tour.”

The fact the “Memphis Belle” crew survived their tour was of great value to the U.S. Army Air Forces in maintaining support for the daylight strategic bombing campaign over Europe, which was still, in fact, an experiment.

“Back then, there was no book on high altitude strategic bombing. The generals didn’t know any more than we did. They had to figure bombing strategy as we went along,” said Morgan in a book he would write after the war, “The Man Who Flew the Memphis Belle”.

The B-17 was named the “Flying Fortress”, because it was bristling with .50 caliber machine guns covering every angle of attack by German fighters, save one. The theory was that all that defensive firepower would be amplified by heavy bombers flying in tight formations, called “boxes”, enabling them to protect each other from attacking fighters.

While the German Messerschmitt and Focke-Wulf fighters sometimes paid a price for attacking the formations, they soon developed tactics that exploited a design weakness in B-17Fs, like the “Memphis Belle”.

How the legendary Memphis Belle was brought back to life
German Luftwaffe models used in fighter pilot training show the fields of fire covered by the machine guns of the Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress.
(U.S. Army Air Forces photo)

While twin .50 caliber machine guns in top and belly turrets and the tail and single .50 cal. gunners protected the bomber, the 12 o’clock position was covered by a lone .30 caliber machine gun – no match for the German fighters. Because the bomber formations had to fly straight and level to initiate their bombing run, the Luftwaffe fighter pilots began attacking the formations head on. The ensuing carnage was ghastly.

“The secret to the B-17 was the capability of flying in tight formations, so tight that the wings were often almost touching,” wrote Morgan. “We were able to put out an amazing amount of firepower… but, I also positively feel that was a bit of divine intervention for our crew.”

While the addition of Allied fighter escorts helped fend off some German attackers, the fact that the B-17s had to fly at 25,000 feet or lower to maintain any semblance of accuracy on target put them in the range of the deadly German 88mm anti-aircraft gun. No amount of machine guns or friendly fighters could counter the dense flak approaching targets while flying straight and level.

Bomber crews had to just grit their teeth and pray.

“They felt like they were a great crew. They were tightly knit, confident and dedicated to what they were doing,” said Duford. “However, being in those formations, flying straight and level with enemy anti-aircraft and fighter aircraft, there certainly was a little bit of luck for them too.”

Luck, both good and bad, was also a factor in the “Belle” crew, despite not being the first crew to complete 25 missions, being the one to return to the U.S. for a bond and morale tour.

The “Belle’s” selection for the morale tour was the result of a film project about the strategic bombing campaign that was the brainchild of USAAF Gen. Hap Arnold and a Hollywood director, William Wyler, who had volunteered to serve his country in the best way he knew how.

It was hoped that a film documenting a bomber crew as they successfully completed a combat tour would calm new recruits, who were hearing stories of the carnage overseas, and assuage the doubts of the public, press and politicians that strategic bombing was a failure.

Wyler, an immigrant who was born in the Alsace region of modern-day France when it was part of the German Empire prior to World War I and who would go on to win three Best Director Academy Awards, including one for “Ben-Hur”, was commissioned as a major and headed to England with a film crew to document the fight in skies over Europe.

Wyler and his cameraman flew with B-17 combat crews and began filming missions of a B-17F of the 401st Bomb Squadron of the 91st Bomb Group named “Invasion II”. His staff also began interviewing and making publicity photographs of the crewmembers, as they drew closer to completing 25 missions.

However, on April 17, 1943, the reality of war spoiled the Hollywood ending during their 23rd mission to Bremen, Germany. Invasion II crashed after being hit by flak over Borhmen, Germany, setting the cockpit and wing on fire. The crew managed to bail out, but all became prisoners of war.

Wyler regrouped and found a plane and crew with the 324th Bomb Squadron that was also close to completing their combat tour. The “Memphis Belle”, named for Morgan’s girlfriend, Margaret Polk of Memphis, Tennessee, and its crew took center stage.

How the legendary Memphis Belle was brought back to life
The crew of the 358th Bomb Squadron Boeing B-17F ‘Hell’s Angels’ completed its 25th mission on May 13, 1943.
(U.S. Army Air Forces photo)

While the crew of “Hell’s Angels” completed their tour on May 13, 1943, four days before the “Belle”, there was no film of that plane and crew. Consequently, it was the “Belle” and its crew that would fly mission 26 back to the U.S. and receive a hero’s welcome.

Wyler’s film, “Memphis Belle: A Story of a Flying Fortress”, would be released and distributed by Paramount Pictures the following year.

How the legendary Memphis Belle was brought back to life
(National Museum of the U.S. Air Force photo)

It was a film that came with a high price tag. One of Wyler’s cinematographers, 1st Lt. Harold J. Tannenbaum, a veteran of World War I, was killed in action during the filming when the bomber he was in was shot down over France on April 16, 1943.

Until the end of the war, the “Belle” was used as a training aircraft, but instead of being torn apart for scrap like most of the other 12,700 B-17s built during the war, the city of Memphis, Tennessee, put the aircraft on display for nearly 50 years.

The historic aircraft came to the National Museum of the U.S. Air Force in October 2005, when work began on a careful, multi-year conservation and restoration effort including corrosion treatment and the full outfitting of missing equipment.

Casey Simmons arrived shortly after the “Memphis Belle” as a restoration specialist for the museum.

How the legendary Memphis Belle was brought back to life
(Photo by J.M. Eddins Jr.)

From the beginning, it was apparent that priority one in the restoration was getting it right. His first assignment was to fabricate a glycol heater that was missing from inside the left wing. No visitor to the museum would ever see it.

“I know it’s there and that’s cool because it’s going to get all the parts that it needs to be a complete aircraft,” said Simmons. “When you don’t have the part you try and find a part from another airplane or you go to the blueprints and make the part completely from scratch.”

While the museum has other B-17s in its collection, the “Memphis Belle” requires a whole other level of patience and dedication.

How the legendary Memphis Belle was brought back to life
(Photo by J.M. Eddins Jr.)

“Other restoration projects are typically a general model of a certain aircraft. So it represents a lot of them. This one is a specific aircraft, so you have to get it right; exactly to the rivet,” said Simmons.

The museum specialist did not try to restore the “Belle” to how it rolled off the Boeing line, but utilized films, photos and records from its time in combat to bring the B-17F back to fighting trim, scars and all.

“There are certain damage spots on the “Memphis Belle” that were fixed over time, so we have to make sure that those show up on the aircraft the way they were,” said Simmons. “If they put five rivets in an area as opposed to the standard four that are supposed to be there, we have to get that correct… When you go through video footage, old film footage, or photographs, and you do find a little glimpse of what you’re looking for, that’s a big moment. We have to get it right for those bomber crews.”

The bravery of those bomber crews continued after all the whoopla back home died down. Even Morgan was eager to get back in the fight.

While on a morale tour stop in Wichita, Kansas, Morgan caught a glimpse of the future of strategic bombing, the still secret B-29 Superfortress. He volunteered immediately to train on the new bomber and earned command of his own squadron of B-29s that deployed to Saipan in the Pacific Theater.

On November 24, 1944, his 869th Squadron of the 497th Bomb Group was the first, other than Doolittle’s Raiders in 1942, to bomb Tokyo. He would go on to complete another 24 combat missions in the B-29 before the end of WWII. He retired from the U.S. Air Force Reserve in 1965 as a colonel.

While the restoration and display of the “Memphis Belle” will ensure the story of the dedication, bravery and airmanship of its 10 crewmembers that returned home safely in 1943 honors all the Airmen that fought in WWII, Duford is particularly enthusiastic that the exhibit will allow Museum of U.S. Air Force visitors to learn the story of the little known 11th crewmember of the “Memphis Belle”.

As much as any Airman, he embodied the spirit and sense of duty shared by all the heavy bomber crews.

“It’s the story of one of the waist gunners, Emerson Scott Miller,” said Duford. “You don’t see him in any of the war bond photos and you don’t see his name listed as one of the ‘Memphis Belle’ crew members. He came overseas as a technician repairing the autopilot systems on B-17s. He was safe. He didn’t have to fly the missions but he decided he wanted to do more and volunteered to fly in combat. He joined the ‘Memphis Belle’ crew after they had flown about nine or 10 of their missions. So he had flown 16 of his missions when the rest of the ‘Memphis Belle’ crew completed their 25th.

“Capt. Robert Morgan really wanted Scott Miller to come back on the war bond tour, but Miller hadn’t finished his 25th mission, so he had to stay. While the ‘Belle’ crew was celebrated and famous and there were parties for them, Scott Miller was still flying in combat.”

Fittingly, Miller finished his 25th mission aboard another B-17 on July 4, 1943, but for him, there were no parades, no press conferences, no meeting movie stars and no special duties.

“We got in touch with Scott Miller’s family,” said Duford. “They donated a trunk full of artifacts, and so Scott Miller has a place in the exhibit and his story will be told… He could have just simply done his duty repairing those autopilot systems and gone home safe. But he put his life on the line and then was forgotten. Now he’s going to be remembered now and for generations to come.”

This article originally appeared on Airman Magazine. Follow @AirmanMagazine on Twitter.

Articles

17 images that show why going to the armory sucks

Checking out your weapon from the armory can be like standing in line at the DMV — it’s the worst game of hurry up and wait ever.


You were instructed to show up bright and early to check out your weapon, but the armorers never seemed to be there on time.

But once you received your rifle, life seemed to finally make sense now that you get to shoot something up. After an amazing day at the range, you now have the problem of cleaning the rifle so well the Marines working at the armory will take it back on your first pass.

If not you’ll stay and clean all evening long because the armors usually stand a 24-hour duty.

Related: 33 images that perfectly portray your first 96-hour liberty

So check out how your day typically went after you checked out your rifle from the armory.

1. When you’re told to be on time at the armory but the gate is locked.

Where are they? (Images via Giphy)

2. After 20 minutes of ringing the bell and a few Starbucks espresso shots — you finally gain entry.

Hulk wants in! (Images via Giphy)

3. When the armorer’s window finally opens for the first time after waiting what felt like an eternity.

That’s freakin’ bright. (Images via Giphy)

4. The look you give when the armorer when he asks you for the weapon’s serial number but all the caffeine you drank pulled all the blood out of your brain. Good thing you brought your weapons card with you.

Damn, I’m having a brain fart. (Images via Giphy)

5. Then when you get your beautiful and perfectly oiled rifle from the armor.

It feels like f*cking Christmas. (Images via Giphy)

6. How you felt running to the range to take your stress out on a few already destroyed armored vehicles.

Move! Out of my way! (Image via Giphy)

7. How you felt after putting hundreds of rounds accurately down range.

I’m the strongest man alive! (Images via Giphy)

8. After the adrenaline goes away, you realized it’s already 1700, you still need to clean out all the carbon that’s built up, and you have a date in a few hours.

Where did the time go? (Images via Giphy)

9. This is how fast you ran back to the armory.

Move! (Images via Giphy)

10. You scrubbed your weapon in record time.

That looks good enough. (Images via Giphy)

11. But the armorer used his dirty finger and rejected taking the rifle back into storage.

That’s not the finger we were talking about but okay. (Images via Giphy)

12. Then you yelled …

We feel you. (Images via Giphy)

13. You then began angrily scrubbing your rifle.

F*ck you carbon! (Images via Giphy)

14. Then you noticed the other platoons going home for the day and you’re still stuck here.

Farewell. (Images via Giphy)

15. After your arm gets tired, the perfect idea pops into your head.

I got it! (Images via Giphy)

16. When you walk up to the armorer’s window and you clearly put $10 inside the weapon’s ejection port.

We think she’s trying to drop a hint. (Images via Giphy)

17. It worked!

I’m free. (Image via Giphy)

Articles

John Glenn’s incredible response to a political opponent said he ‘never held a job’

How the legendary Memphis Belle was brought back to life
Wikimedia Commons


John Glenn, the first American to orbit the Earth, a former US senator, and former Marine aviator who saw combat in World War II and Korea, has died at 95.

Glenn is known for a number of accolades throughout his life of service, from the military to the astronaut program and eventually, into politics. So it’s worth looking back on his entry into politics, when he first ran for office against an incumbent named Howard Metzenbaum.

Also read: This is the little-known combat career of John Glenn

In 1974, Glenn’s military record offered an opening for criticism by his opponent, who was mindful of Americans’ anti-war fervor during the Vietnam War. Metzenbaum began calling him “Col. Glenn” to highlight his time in the Marine Corps, and later told him that he “had never met a payroll,” which Glenn perceived as being told that his military record and service with NASA didn’t qualify as “having held a job.”

His response during the debate was remarkable, and at the end of it, he received more than 20 seconds of sustained applause, according to PBS. Here’s what he said:

“I spent 23 years in the United States Marine Corps. I lived through two wars. I flew 149 missions. I was in the space program. It wasn’t my checkbook, it was my life that was on the line.

You go with me as I did out to a veterans’ hospital and look those men with their mangled bodies in the eye and tell them that they didn’t hold a job. You go with me to any Gold Star mother and you look her in the eye and you tell her that her son did not hold a job. You go to Arlington National Cemetery — where I have more friends than I’d like to remember — and you think about this nation, and you tell me that those people didn’t have a job.

I tell you, Howard Metzenbaum, you should be on your knees every day of your life thanking God that there were some men, some men, who held a job. And they required a dedication to purpose, a love of country, and a dedication to duty that was more important than life itself.

And their self-sacrifice is what has made this nation possible.

I have held a job, Howard.”

Glenn went on to defeat Metzenbaum in the primary and win the general election. He served in the Senate from 1974 to 1999. His speech was also used to motivate a group of US Marines before they went into combat in Marjah, Afghanistan in 2010.

Watch the video:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LNyqiHuutkM
MIGHTY TRENDING

GNC is closing 248 stores after filing for bankruptcy. Here’s the full list.

GNC filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection on Tuesday night, announcing that it expects to close between 800 and 1,200 stores while on the hunt for a buyer for its business. The vitamins and supplements retailer had about 7,300 stores as of the end of March.

In a letter to shoppers, GNC said the COVID-19 pandemic “created a situation where we were unable to accomplish our refinancing and the abrupt change in the operating environment had a dramatic negative impact on our business.”


GNC identified 248 stores that would close imminently as part of the restructuring process. Stores are closing in 42 states, as well as in Puerto Rico and Canada.

Here are the first of the locations GNC plans to close, arranged alphabetically by state: 

Alabama:

Quintard Mall, 700 Quintard Drive, Oxford, AL

Arizona:

Flagstaff Mall, 4650 E 2 N Hwy 89, Flagstaff, AZ

Arrowhead Town Center, 7700 West Arrowhead Towne, Glendale, AZ

Madera Village, 9121 E. Tanque Verde Rd, Suite 115, Tucson, AZ

Arkansas:

Benton Commons, 1402 Military Road, Benton, AR

Northwest Arkansas Plaza, 4201 North Shiloh Dr, Fayetteville, AR

The Mall at Turtle Creek, 3000 East Highland Ave, Space # 309, Jonesboro, AR

Park Plaza, 6000 W. Markham, Little Rock, AR

North Park Village Shopping Center, 103 North Park Dr, Monticello, AR

McCain Mall Shopping Center, 3929 McCain Blvd, North Little Rock, AR

California:

Brawley Gateway, Brawley, CA

Rancho Marketplace Shopping Center, Burbank, CA

La Costa Town Square, 7615 Via Campanile Suite, Carlsbad, CA

Centrepointe Plaza, 1100 Mount Vernon Ave, Suite B, Colton, CA

Mountain Gate Plaza, 160 W. Foothill Parkway, #106, Corona, CA

Town Place, 787 1st Street, Gilroy, CA

Victoria Gardens, 12379 S Main St., Rancho Cucamonga, CA

Monterey Marketplace, Rancho Mirage, CA

Red Bluff Shopping Center, 925 South Main Street, Red Bluff, CA

Tierrasanta Town Center, San Diego, CA

Grayhawk Plaza, 20701 N. Scotsdale Rd, Suite 105, Scottsdale, AZ

Buena Park Mall, 8312 On The Mall, Buena Park, CA

East Bay Bridge Center, 3839 East Emery Street, Emeryville, CA

Vintage Faire Mall, 3401 Dale Road, Modesto, CA

Huntington Oaks Shopping Center, 514 W. Huntington Drive, Box 1106, Monrovia, CA

Del Monte Shopping Center, 350 Del Monte S.C., Monterey, CA

Antelope Valley Mall, 1233 Rancho Vista Blvd, Palmdale, CA

Town Country Village, 855 El Camino Real, Palo Alto, CA

Rancho Bernardo Town Center, Rancho Bernardo, CA

Rocklin Commons, 5194 Commons Drive 107, Rocklin, CA

Westfield Shoppingtown Mainplace, 2800 North Main Street, Suite 302, Santa Ana, CA

Gateway Plaza Shopping Center, 580b River St, Suite B, Santa Cruz, CA

Santa Rosa Plaza, 600 Santa Rosa Plaza, Suite 2032, Santa Rosa, CA

The Promenade Mall, 40820 Winchester Road, Temecula, CA

West Valley Mall, 3200 N. Naglee Rd., Suite 240, Tracy, CA

Union Square Marketplace, Union City, CA

Riverpoint Marketplace, West Sacramento, CA

Yucaipa Valley Center, 33676 Yucaipa Blvd, Yucaipa, CA

Colorado:

Chapel Hills Mall, 1710 Briargate Blvd at Jamboree Drive, Colorado Springs, CO

The Citadel, 750 Citadel Drive East, Space 1036, Colorado Springs, CO

River Landing, 3480 Wolverine Dr, Montrose, CO

Monument Marketplace, 15954 Jackson Creek Pkwy, Monument, CO

Central Park Plaza, 1809 Central Park Dr., Steamboat Springs, CO

Larkridge Shopping Center, 16560 N. Washington St, Thornton, CO

Woodland Park Plaza, 1115 E US Hwy 24, Woodland Park, CO

Connecticut:

The Plaza At Burr Corners, 1131 Tolland Pike, Manchester, CT

Delaware:

Dover Mall, 1365 N. Dupont Highway, Dover, DE

Gateway West Shopping Center, 1030 Forest Ave, Dover, DE

Rockford Shops, 1404 North Dupont St, Wilmington, DE

Florida:

Boynton Beach Mall, 801 N Congress St, Suite 763, Boynton Beach, FL

Clearwater Plaza, 1283 S. Missouri Ave, Clearwater, FL

Coral Square, 9295 West Atlantic Blvd, Coral Springs, FL

Dupont Lakes Shopping Center, 2783 Elkcam Blvd, Deltona, FL

The Shops @ Mission Lakes, 5516 South State Rd 7, Space # 128, Lake Worth, FL

Wickham Corners Shopping, 1070 North Wickham Road, Unit 106, Melbourne, FL

Shoppes Of River Landing, Miami, FL

Coastland Mall, 2034 Tamiam Trail North, Naples, FL

Orlando Fashion Square, 3451 E Colonial Drive, Orlando, FL

Oviedo Marketplace, 1385 Oviedo Marketplace B, Oviedo, FL

Gulf View Square Mall, 9409 Us 19 North, Port Richey, FL

University Mall, 12232 University Square C, Tampa, FL

Georgia:

The Mall @ Stonecrest, 8000 Mall Parkway, Lithonia, GA

Walnut Creek Plaza, 1475 Gray Highway, Macon, GA

Horizon Village, 2855 Lawrenceville Suwanee, Suite 740, Suwanee, GA

Merchant’s Square, 414 South Main Street, Swainsboro, GA

Idaho:

Karcher Mall, 1509 Caldwell Blvd. Suite 1206, Nampa, ID

Illinois:

Bannockburn Green, 2569 Waukegan Rd, Bannockburn, IL

University Mall, 1225 University Mall, Carbondale, IL

244 State Street, Chicago, IL

Stony Island Plaza, 1623 E 95th St, Chicago, IL

Country Club Plaza, 4285 W 167th St, Country Club, IL

South Shoppes, 2725 IL Route 26 S, Freeport, IL

Lincolnwood Town Ctr, 3333 West Touhy Av, Lincolnwood, IL

Cross County Mall, 700 Broadway East, Mattoon, IL

McHenry Plaza, 1774 N. Richmond Road, McHenry, IL

Orland Square Mall, 852 Orland Square, Orland Park, IL

Peru Mall, 3940 Rt 251, Space #E-9, Peru, IL

Northland Mall, 2900 E Lincolnway, Sterling, IL

Eden’s Plaza, 3232 Lake Avenue, Wilmette, IL

Indiana:

Putnam Plaza, 35 Putnam Place, Greencastle, IN

Nora Plaza, 1300 East 86th Street, Indianapolis, IN

Fairview Center, 556 Fairview Center, Kendallville, IN

South Point Plaza, 3189 State Rd 3 S, New Castle, IN

Iowa:

Asbury Plaza, 2565 Northwest Arterial, Dubuque, IA

Old Capitol Center, 201 Clinton Street, Iowa City, IA

Crossroads Center, 2060 Crossroads Blvd, Waterloo, IA

Kansas:

Walmart Center, 2504 South Santa Fe Dr, Chanute, KS

E 17th Ave Retail, Hutchinson, KS

Hy Vee Shops, 4000 W 6th Street, Lawrence, KS

Town Center Plaza, 4837 West 117th Street, Leawood, KS

West Ridge Mall, 1801 Wanamaker Rd., Topeka, KS

Kentucky:

Florence Mall, 2122 Florence Mall Space #2124, Florence, KY

Louisiana:

Piere Bossier Mall #520, 2950 East Texas Ave., Bossier City, LA

Broussard Village Shopping Center, 1212 D Albertson Pkwy, Broussard, LA

Prien Lake Mall, 484 West Prien Road, Space G-17b, Lake Charles, LA

Maine:

Bangor Mall, 663 Stillwater Avenue, Bangor, ME

Maryland:

Brandywine Crossing, 15902 E Crain Hwy, Brandywine, MD

Washington Center, 20 Grand Corner Avenue, Suite D, Gaithersburg, MD

St. Charles Towne Ctr, 1110 Mall Circle, Suite 6194, Waldorf, MD

Massachusetts:

Auburn Mall, 385 Southbridge St, Auburn, MA

Liberty Tree Mall, 100 Independence Way, Danvers, MA

Walpole Mall, 90 Providence Hwy, East Walpole, MA

Riverside Landing, New Bedford, MA

Emerald Square Mall, 999 South Washington Street, Box 111, North Attleboro, MA

Eastfield Mall, Boston Rd, Unit B11, Springfield, MA

Michigan:

Briarwood Mall, 850 Briarwood Circle, Ann Arbor, MI

Caro Shopping Center, 1530 West Caro Road, Caro, MI

The Marketplace Shoppes, Greenville, MI

Livonia Plaza, 30983 Five Mile Road, Livonia, MI

The Village Of Rochester Hills, 136 N Adams Road, Space #B136, Rochester Hills, MI

Forum @ Gateways, 44625 Mound Road, Mound M-59, Sterling Heights, MI

Minnesota:

Andover Marketplace, Andover, MN

Burnsville Center, 1030 Burnsville Center, Burnsville, MN

Southdale Center, 2525 Southdale Center, Edina, MN

Five Lakes Center, 334 South State St, Fairmont, MN

Midway Shopping Center, 1470 University Ave W, St. Paul, MN

Kandi Mall, 1605 1st St S, Willmar, MN

Mississippi:

Northpark Mall, 1200 East County Line Road, Space 159, Ridgeland, MS

Missouri:

West Park Mall, 3049 Route K, Cape Girardeau, MO

Chesterfield Commons, 204 THF Blvd, Chesterfield, MO

Battlefield Mall, Space #337, 2825 South Glenstone, Springfield, MO

Nebraska:

One Osborne Place, Hastings, NE

Nevada:

The Summit Sierra, 13987 South Virginia Street, Space 700, Reno, NV

New Hampshire:

Walmart Plaza, 1458 Lakeshore Rd, Gilford, NH

New Jersey:

Diamond Springs, 41 Diamond Spring Rd., Denville, NJ

The Shoppes At Union Hill, 3056 State Route 10, Denville, NJ

American Dream, 1 American Dream Way, East Rutherford, NJ

Menlo Park Shopping Center, 29 Menlo Park, Edison, NJ

302 Washington St, Hoboken, NJ

The Wall Towne Center, 2437 Route 34, Manasquan, NJ

Town Brooks Commons, 840 ROUTE 35 S, Middletown, NJ

Mall @ Short Hills, Rt 24 J.f. Kennedy Pkw, Short Hills, NJ

Tri-City Plaza, Toms River, NJ

Willingboro Plaza, 4364 Route 130 North, Willingboro, NJ

New Mexico:

Cottonwood Mall, 10000 Coors Bypass Nw, Space #d205, Albuquerque, NM

New York:

Deer Park Commons, 506 Commack Road, Deer Park, NY

Genesee Valley Shopping Center, 4290 Lakeville Rd, Geneseo, NY

Northgate Plaza, 3848 Dewey Ave, Greece, NY

Johnstown Mall, 236 North Comrie Ave, Johnstown, NY

Chautauqua Mall, 318 East Fairmont, Lakewood, NY

360 Eighth Ave, New York, NY

100 Elizabeth Street, New York, NY

163 E 125th St, New York, NY

Staten Island Mall, 2655 Richmond Avenue, Staten Island, NY

Green Acres Mall, 1134 Green Acres Mall, Valley Stream, NY

Eastview Mall, 7979 Victor-Pittsford Road, Victor, NY

North Carolina:

The Arboretum Shopping Center, 3339 Pineville Matthews, Suite 200, Charlotte, NC

Blakeney Shop Center, Charlotte, NC

Southpark Mall, 4400 Sharon Rd, Charlotte, NC

Four Seasons Town Center, 346 Four Seasons Mall, Greensboro, NC

Cross Pointe Center, 1250-l Western Blvd, Jacksonville, NC

Ohio:

Dayton Mall, 2700 Miamisburg Centerville Rd, Dayton, OH

Ohio River Plaza, 13 Ohio River Plaza, Township Road 11 Sr 7, Gallipolis, OH

Indian Mound Mall, 771 S 30th St, Heath, OH

The Shoppes Of Mason, 5220 Kings Mills Road, Mason, OH

Heritage Crossing, 3113 Heritage Green, Monroe, OH

The Town Center At Levis, 4135 Levis Commons Blvd, Perrysburg, OH

Miami Valley Centre, 987 E. Ash Street, Piqua, OH

Sandusky Mall, 4314 Milan Road, Sandusky, OH

Southpark Mall, 500 Southpark Center, Strongsville, OH

Crocker Park, 137 Market Street, West Lake, OH

Meadow Park Plaza, 1659 Rombach Ave, Wilmington, OH

Oklahoma:

Neilson Square, 3322 W Owwn K Garriott Road, Enid, OK

Oregon:

Cascade Station, 10207 NE Cascades Pkwy, Portland, OR

Seaside Factory Outlet, 1111 North Roosevelt, Seaside, OR

Pennsylvania:

South Mall, 3300 Lehigh Street, Allentown, PA

Logan Valley Mall, 300 Logan Valley Mall, Bk 4, Altoona, PA

Clearview Mall, Route 8, Butler, PA

Clearfield Mall, 1800 Daisy Street, Clearfield, PA

Neshaminy Mall, 707 Neshaminy Mall, Cornwell Heights, PA

Cranberry Mall, 20111 Route 19. Freedom, Cranberry, PA

Oxford Valley Mall, 2300 E Lincoln Highway, Langhorne, PA

Hyde Park Plaza, 451 Hyde Park Road, Leechburg, PA

Monroeville Mall, Monroeville, PA

Shoppes At Montage, 2105 Shoppes Blvd, Moosic, PA

Edgmont Square Shopping Center, Newtown Square, PA

Pine Creek Center, 195 Blazier Drive, Unit 6, Pittsburgh, PA

Springfield Mall, 1200 Baltimore Pike, Springfield, PA

Lehigh Valley Mall, 215 Lehigh Valley Mall, Whitehall, PA

3097 Willow Grove Mall, 2500 Moreland Road, Willow Grove, PA

Wynnewood Shopping Center, 50 East Wynnewood Road, Wynnewood, PA

York Galleria, 2899 Whiteford Rd, York, PA

Rhode Island:

Hunt River Commons, 72 Frenchtown Road, North Kingston, RI

Diamond Hill Plaza, 1790 Diamond Hill Road, Woonsocket, RI

South Carolina:

Anderson Mall, 3139 N Main, Anderson, SC

Haywood Mall, 700 Haywood Road, Greenville, SC

North Hills Shopping Center, 2435 E North Street, Suite 1115, Greenville, SC

Myrtle Beach Mall, Myrtle Beach, SC

Shoppes At Stonecrest, 1149 Stonecrest Blvd, Tega Cay, SC

Tennessee:

University Commons, 2459 University Commons W, B160, Knoxville, TN

Three Star Shopping Center, 1410 Sparta Road, McMinnville, TN

Southland Mall, 1215 East Shelby Drive, Memphis, TN

Wolfchase Galleria, Memphis, TN

Texas:

Alamo Corners, 1451 Durenta Avenue, Suite 3, Alamo, TX

Barton Creek Square, 2901 Capital Of Texas Hwy, Austin, TX

Sunland Park Mall, 750 Sunland Park Drive, Space J4, El Paso, TX

North East Mall, 1101 Melbourn Road, Suite #3090, Hurst, TX

Sheppard Square, 2055 Westheimer, Suite 160, Houston, TX

Ingram Park Mall, 6301 Northwest Loop 410, San Antonio, TX

Rivercenter Mall, 849 East Commerce Street, San Antonio, TX

Virginia:

Charlottesville Fashion Square, 1588 Fashion Square Mall, Charlottesville, VA

Franklin Commons, 144 Council Drive, Franklin, VA

Dulles 28, 22000 Dulles Retail Plaza, Ste 154, Sterling, VA

Maple Avenue Shopping Ctr, 335 Maple Avenue East, Vienna, VA

Washington:

Everett Mall, 1402 SE Everett Mall, Suite #225, Everett, WA

Village At Redmond Ridge, Redmond, WA

The Joule, 509 Broadway, Seattle, WA

Jefferson Square, 4722 West 42nd Ave SW, Seattle, WA

Spokane Valley Mall, 14700 E Indiana Avenue, Spokane Valley, WA

Green Firs Shopping Center, University Place, WA

Vancouver Plaza, 7809 Vancouver Plaza #160, Vancouver, WA

Wisconsin:

Bay Park Square, 311-a Bay Park Square, Green Bay, WI

East Town Mall, 2350 East Mason Street, Green Bay, WI

Janesville Mall, 2500 Milton Ave, Space 117, Janesville, WI

The Shops Of Grand Avenue, Milwaukee, WI

West Virginia:

Greenbrier Valley Mall, 75 Seneca Trail US Route 219, Fairlea, WV

Puerto Rico:

Plaza Guayama, Guayama, PR

Condominio Reina De Casti, 100 Paseo Gilberto, San Juan, PR

Centro Gran Caribe, Carretera #2 Km 29.7, Vega Alta, PR

Canada:

Marlborough Mall, Calgary, AB, Canada

Shawnessy Town Centre, Calgary, AB, Canada

Bonnie Doon Shopping Centre, Edmonton, AB, Canada

Bower Place, Red Deer, AB, Canada

Sevenoaks Shopping Centre, 32900 South Fraser Way, Abbotsford, BC, Canada

Brentwood Towne Centre, Burnaby, BC, Canada

Eagle Landing Sc, 706-8249 Eagle Landing Pk, Chilliwack, BC, Canada

Dawson Mall, 11000 8th Street, Dawson Creek, BC, Canada

Willowbrook Shopping Center, Langley, BC, Canada

Queensborough Landing, New Westminster, BC, Canada

Mayfair Shopping Centre, Victoria, BC, Canada

Brandon Shoppers, 1570-18th St Unit 87, Brandon, MB, Canada

Smartcentres Corner Brook, Corner Brook, NL, Canada

Georgian Mall, 509 Bayfield Street, Barrie, ON, Canada

Lynden Park Mall, 84 Lynden Road, Brantford, ON, Canada

Cataraqui Town Center, 945 Gardiners Rd, Kingston, ON, Canada

Williamsburg Town Centre, Kitchener, ON, Canada

Masonville Place, London, ON, Canada

Markham Town Centre, 8601 Warden Ave, Markham, ON, Canada

Creekside Crossing, 1560 Dundas St E, Mississauga, ON, Canada

Erin Mills Town Centre, Mississauga, ON, Canada

Westside Market Village, 520 Riddell Road, Orangeville, ON, Canada

Markham Steeles Shopping Centre, 5981 Steeles Avenue East, Scarborough, ON, Canada

Morningside Crossing, Scarborough, ON, Canada

New Sudbury Centre, 1349 Lasalle Blvd, Sudbury, ON, Canada

St Claire Runnymede Rd, 2555 St Clair Ave West, Toronto, ON, Canada

Colussus Centre, 31 Colussus Dr, Vaughan, ON, Canada

Laurier Quebec, 2700 Laurier Boulevard, Quebec, PQ, Canada

Galeries Rive Nord, 100 Boulevare Brien, Repentigny, PQ, Canada

This article originally appeared on Business Insider. Follow @BusinessInsider on Twitter.

MIGHTY HISTORY

This is how dog tags got their name

Troops carry with them the reminder of their death on the battlefield. Nearly every military since has a variation of identification tags, but it’s American troops who truly intertwine them within their culture.


To the American war fighter, it is as much of a badge of honor as everything else carried with them. The tags give the survivors of the conflict all of the necessary information about the fallen warrior. When they go to meet their maker on the battlefield, one is collected for immediately for notification and the other is used in case cannot be immediately recovered.

Carrying around some sort of identification for a warrior’s remains is a time honored tradition. Going as far back as the ancient Spartans, the phrase “Come back with your shield or on it” had a deeper meaning.

Of course, it’s a cold way for a wife to tell her husband to win the fight or die with honor. But the intricate and deeply personal designs of the Spartan shield meant that the wife could have closure if he fell in battle. Even the Roman Legionaries carried lead disks in a pouch around their neck called “signaculum.”

How the legendary Memphis Belle was brought back to life
Roman Signaculum, one of the first identification tags. (Image via Rome Across Europe)

The first time American troops would use tags to identify their bodies was with Gen. George Meade having his men write their name and unit designation on a piece of paper. In 1906, aluminum tags were introduced and by 1913, it became mandatory to wear.

Through out the years, what was written on the tags has changed, and each branch of the current U.S. armed forces has different information written on them, but what remains constant is the troop’s name, religion, and usually the blood type.

The term “dog tags” actually can’t be found in U.S. military regulations, where instead they’re called “identification tags.” The military always has ridiculous names for everything, right? A shovel is an “entrenching tool,” a bed is a “rack,” the bumbling idiot who just graduated college is “sir.” The list goes on.

How the legendary Memphis Belle was brought back to life
A pair of blank dog tags hang from a battlefield cross on display during a Memorial Day ceremony, May 25, 2015, in Goldsboro, N.C. The battlefield cross presentation is a tradition that began during the Civil War and continues today to show respect for fallen service members. (U.S. Air Force photo by Airman Shawna L. Keyes)

Among the first instances of the identification tags being called “dog tags” comes from the Prussian Army in 1870. It comes from the term “hundemarken” which was similar to what each dog in the then Prussian capital of Berlin required. The American adaptation of the name dates to just before WWII.

During the Great Depression, President Franklin D. Roosevelt instituted the Social Security Act. Through enumeration, the idea was to give a social security number to all employees across America. Troops would be an easy group to convince to adopt this change. We already had identification tags and incorporating a social security number into it for further identification was a smooth transition.

In comes William Randolph Hearst. History buffs may remember him as the media mogul who controlled the era’s news. Film nerds know him as the unofficial subject of “Citizen Kane.” He was also a fierce opponent of FDR and the New Deal.

Hearst began spreading a rumor about how the Social Security Act would label all workers with tags and probe them for all of their personal information. In reality, only one was ever created as a prototype in the massive brainstorm of ideas and was shot down early in favor of the cards we use today.

How the legendary Memphis Belle was brought back to life

As troops adopted the SSN into their tags, it was further proof Hearst needed that FDR wanted to destroy America. The fear mongering of “you’re treated like dogs! Your personal information will be taken away! The government will own you!” continued. Soldiers, sailors, and Marines would read the papers by Hearst with indifference, gave a collective “Meh, we know,” and rolled with it.

MIGHTY TRENDING

How the Pentagon plans to spend $700M to drop drones

The Pentagon is throwing $700 million at a rapidly progressing program to combat the threat of commercial drone use by the Islamic State, The New York Times reports.


The program has commissioned U.S. defense contractors to begin attempting to find solutions to the drone threat, including using lasers to shoot them out of the sky. The technology is in its infancy and has yet to yield any significant results. ISIS has pioneered the use of relatively cheap commercial drones as airborne improvised explosive devices, for surveillance, and propaganda purposes.

The Pentagon program comes as it increases the number of U.S. troops in Syria to assist training for the Syrian Democratic Forces in the fight against ISIS. The Pentagon reportedly worries that its bases could be vulnerable to ISIS drone attacks, and it sees the broader trend in warfare.

How the legendary Memphis Belle was brought back to life
Image courtesy of Lockheed Martin

The terrorist group used some commercial drones to drop cheap IED’s on the Iraq Security Forces during the Battle for Mosul. ISIS announced the formation of a new drone warfare unit in January, whose sole purpose is to inflict “a new source of horror for the apostates.” The terrorist group said the new unit killed nearly 40 Iraqi soldiers in just one week.

The threat may not just be limited to the battlefield. Georgetown terrorism expert Dr. Bruce Hoffman recently warned that drone “swarms” could become a facet of western terrorist attacks. Hoffman outlined one such scenario, telling readers, “picture Paris on November 13, 2015 [the night when people were slaughtered at a rock concert and in sidewalk cafés] with drone attacks superimposed on top of it. Authorities would have been completely overwhelmed. This elevates our greatest fear, which is simultaneous urban attacks—now with swarming on top of them.”

Articles

More US boots on the ground in Afghanistan

With the Pentagon poised to announce details of a troop increase for the US mission in Afghanistan, the pending decision raises questions about the effect additional boots on the ground will have on the 16-year conflict.


Defense Secretary James Mattis and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Gen. Joseph Dunford made the rounds July 19 on Capitol Hill, reportedly briefing lawmakers on the White House’s strategy for Afghanistan and on the ongoing coalition campaign to defeat Islamic State in Iraq and Syria. The Pentagon repeatedly has said its Afghanistan war plan would be on President Trump’s desk by mid-July.

For several weeks, defense officials led by Mr. Mattis have been assessing the progress of the Afghanistan war, determining what level of support — including a 3,000- to 5,000-troop increase — will be required to stabilize the country’s security forces.

How the legendary Memphis Belle was brought back to life
DoD photo by Army Sgt. Amber I. Smith

Government-led analysis and reviews by private sector analysts say upwards of 60 percent of Afghanistan is heavily influenced by or under the direct sway of the Taliban. Afghan troops, advised by US and NATO forces, have suffered heavy casualties to maintain control over the 40 percent of the country ruled by the central government in Kabul.

The war in Afghanistan received little attention on the campaign trail last year, with Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump focusing on the US-led coalition to defeat the terrorist group known as ISIS or ISIL. But Washington refocused on Southwest Asia amid Taliban gains this spring and the increased Islamic State presence in the eastern half of Afghanistan.

“We are not winning in Afghanistan,” Mr. Mattis told members of the Senate Armed Services Committee last month.

His comments echoed those of US Central Command chief Gen. Joseph Votel and Gen. John Nicholson, the top American commander in the country.

Currently 8,400 US troops are in Afghanistan, training and advising local security forces. Should the top-end troop increase proposal go into effect, it would raise the number of US forces in the country to more than 10,000.

How the legendary Memphis Belle was brought back to life
DoD photo by Sgt. Edward Siguenza

On top of the increases sought by the Pentagon, NATO leaders have agreed to send surge forces into the war-torn country. NATO Secretary-General Jens Stoltenberg announced the decision during an alliance ministerial earlier this year.

Inside the Pentagon, hopes were high that President Trump’s emphasis on military might to achieve US national security objectives coupled with a hands-off management style would give the department the resources and leeway it needed to bring the Afghan war to an end. Those hopes were bolstered when the administration announced decisions on troop numbers would be the exclusive domain of Mr. Mattis and his staff.

But recent reports claiming that National Security Adviser H.R. McMaster instituted a soft cap of 3,900 soldiers, sailors, airmen, and Marines that could be sent to Afghanistan has put a damper on such assumptions.

The Trump White House’s management of the Pentagon “is not the free hand that has been advertised,” said Bill Roggio, managing editor of the Long War Journal and an adjunct fellow at the Foundation for the Defense of Democracies.

How the legendary Memphis Belle was brought back to life
DoD photo by EJ Hersom

Furthermore, any close study of Mr. Trump’s rhetoric during the campaign would have proven things would be business as usual at the Pentagon. “The [war] policies are fundamentally the same at this point in time just with the reins loosened,” Mr. Roggio said.

The proposed 3,900-man troop cap is less an example of the war micromanagement of the Obama administration and more a way to get some breathing room as the Trump administration pulls together a long-term Afghan strategy, he added.

“It is a stopgap until we can come up with a complete strategy. It is not a permanent cap,” said Mr. Roggio.

Congressional hawks, led by Sen. John McCain, Arizona Republican, have taken Mr. Trump’s national security team to task over its lack of an Afghanistan war plan.

How the legendary Memphis Belle was brought back to life
Arizona Senator John McCain. DoD photo by Chief Petty Officer James Foehl

Last month Mr. McCain told Mr. Mattis and Gen. Dunford that he hopes they can “understand the dilemma you are presenting to us” each day the Trump administration holds off on issuing a new strategy for America’s longest war.

But for all the rhetoric, the US does have an Afghanistan strategy in place — the one drafted by the Obama White House.

Mr. Roggio said he understands the frustration at the Defense Department and on Capitol Hill regarding the White House’s slow pace on the Afghanistan plan.

“But there is a strategy in place right now, and until there is a new one, you follow that,” he said, referring to the Obama plan.

MIGHTY TRENDING

Insurgents lure US and allies to meeting, then open fire

Insurgents posing as friendly militia members lured a U.S. and Afghan team to a meeting in eastern Afghanistan, triggering a shootout and a coalition airstrike on the compound, the U.S. military said Jan. 12.


U.S. Navy Capt. Tom Gresback said the insurgents baited the team, inviting an Afghan militia leader, a U.S. service member, and an interpreter to a security shura meeting Jan. 11.

Once the meeting was over, the Taliban-linked insurgents opened fire, killing the militia leader and wounding the American service member and the interpreter. The Taliban quickly claimed credit for the attack but overstated the casualties, the U.S. military said.

How the legendary Memphis Belle was brought back to life
The Taliban Flag. (Photo from Wikimedia Commons)

The Taliban said the attack was carried out by two insurgents disguised as local militiamen. Taliban spokesman Zabiullah Mujahid told The Associated Press the attackers had infiltrated the local force months earlier.

In Afghanistan, local militias are often paid by the U.S. and are partnered with them in operations in remote regions.

Gresback said that after the wounded were moved to safety, a coalition airstrike targeted the compound, killing 10 insurgents.

Related: American Soldier wounded in Afghanistan attack

The mission was in Mohmand Valley, in Afghanistan’s remote Achin district of Nangarhar province.

According to Gresback, local Afghans began moving back to Mohmand Valley earlier last summer after being forced from their homes in 2015 when the Islamic State group affiliate began to take hold in the southeastern portion of Nangarhar.

The U.S.-led coalition, working with the Afghan forces, has waged a persistent campaign against the IS group.

MIGHTY HISTORY

How women served in the Navy and Marines during WWII

The United States Marine Corps Women’s Reserve was authorized by Congress and signed into law by President Franklin Roosevelt on July 30, 1942. Like their female counterparts servicing in other branches of the military, the primary function of the Marine Corps Women’s Reserve was to release men for combat duty. The jobs available to them were also very similar. Members served in occupations classified as professional, semi-professional, clerical, skilled trades, services, and sales. While over 200 job categories were made available to members of the Women’s Reserve, over half of members worked in clerical positions. Only Caucasian and Native American Women were accepted into service, the Marine Corps barred African American and Japanese American women from its ranks.


At its height, the Women’s Reserve had recruited more than 17,000 members. As was discussed in Part I, the military used a variety of tactics to recruit female members. Films such as Lady Marines, were used to provide a look at the life of a female military recruit in an effort to make new recruits more comfortable with the process. The film, shot at Camp Lejeune, North Carolina, follows a class of recruits from their arrival, to graduation, highlighting their training and job opportunities.

How the legendary Memphis Belle was brought back to life

How the legendary Memphis Belle was brought back to life

The United States Navy also recognized the importance of allowing females to serve in their ranks. The United States Naval Reserve (WAVES), was established and signed into law by President Franklin Roosevelt on July 30, 1942, the same day the Marine Corps Women’s Reserve. Women were accepted into the WAVES as commissioned officers as well as at the enlisted level in order to release men for sea duty. They served at 900 shore stations in the United States and included over 85,000 members. While primarily comprised of white women, 74 African-American women were allowed to serve during the program’s existence.

How the legendary Memphis Belle was brought back to life

The color film, WAVES at Work, highlights the variety of jobs made available to members of the WAVES. Women wanting to serve in the medical, clerical, communication, and culinary fields were able to do so as a member of the WAVES. One of the most interesting jobs highlighted in the film is that of the Air Controlman. Those serving in this capacity would direct planes and ground crews from a control tower at naval air stations.

How the legendary Memphis Belle was brought back to life

Both films, Lady Marines and WAVES at Work, touch on the values discussed in Part I femininity, benefits of joining the military, and the importance of the work needing done. These films also make it a point to highlight the opportunities made available to women in the military. Female recruits were provided with job training in non-traditional areas, training that was not widely available to their civilian counterparts . You can view both films in their entirety below.

This article originally appeared on The National Archives. Follow @USNatArchives on Twitter.

MIGHTY TRENDING

US Army soldier tests positive for COVID-19 in South Korea, marking the first time a US service member is confirmed to have the disease

A US soldier stationed in South Korea has “tested positive” for COVID-19, the military said in a statement on Wednesday morning.


The 23-year-old unnamed male soldier is in self-quarantine at an off-base residence, the US military added. Health officials are investigating whether others were exposed, as the soldier had visited several US bases in the country, including Camps Walker and Carroll, in the past week.

How the legendary Memphis Belle was brought back to life

The incident marks the first time a US service member tested positive for the disease caused by the novel coronavirus.

United States Forces Korea “is implementing all appropriate control measures to help control the spread of COVID-19 and remains at risk level ‘high’ for USFK peninsula-wide as a prudent measure to protect the force,” the military said in a statement.

A 61-year-old widowed US military dependent was previously found to have tested positive in the country on Monday, prompting US forces to raise the risk level to “high.”

The woman visited a post exchange, the military’s shopping center, at Camp Walker in Daegu, where South Korean health officials have cautioned there was a “high possibility that COVID-19 could spread nationwide.”

“We are going to begin to limit all soldier movement,” US Army Col. Michael Tremblay, the garrison commander of Camp Humphreys, said on Tuesday.

How the legendary Memphis Belle was brought back to life

South Korea is addressing an influx of confirmed coronavirus cases, which have passed 1,100 in the country. At least 11 people there have died of COVID-19.

The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention on Monday issued a travel advisory warning that people should avoid all nonessential travel to South Korea.

This article originally appeared on Business Insider. Follow @BusinessInsider on Twitter.

Articles

Philippines President Rodrigo Duterte says he has cousins fighting for ISIS

Philippines President Rodrigo Duterte may need to organize an intervention with his family, since some of his cousins are Islamic militants hellbent on toppling his government.


Duterte claimed in an interview last week that some in his own family had joined militant groups that had been fighting in the Philippines for decades, including the so-called Islamic State, which has partnered with local insurgencies who wish to become affiliates.

How the legendary Memphis Belle was brought back to life
U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry shakes hands with Philippines President Rodrigo Duterte on July 27, 2016. (Photo: U.S. Dept. of State)

“To be frank, I have cousins on the other side, with MI and MN,” Duterte told the Philippines news site Rappler, using shortened acronyms for the Moro Islamic Liberation Front, also known as MILF, and the Moro National Liberation Front. “Some, I heard, are with ISIS.”

Though Duterte is known for his bloody war against drug dealers, the insurgency in the southern Philippines has been growing in recent years, and ISIS has made significant progress in the region. Both the militant groups Abu Sayyaf and Maute have reportedly pledged allegiance to the terror group.

A bomb blast at a night market in Davao City killed at least 14 people and injured more than 60 in September, and on Christmas Eve, 13 people were injured in a bombing outside a church in Midsayap, Rappler reported. Just this morning, Reuters reported that insurgents attacked a prison in the south and freed more than 150 inmates. Initial information pointed to the MILF group’s involvement.

Also read: ISIS is using ‘Mad Max’-style vehicle bombs in Iraq

When asked what he would say to his cousins who may have joined ISIS if he were in the same room, Duterte told Rappler: “Let’s be understanding to each other. You are you and I am I, and I said, if we meet in one corner, so be it.”

MIGHTY MOVIES

Sending Tom Hanks get well vibes with this top 10 tribute

Well, the coronavirus got one of our favorites. Oscar winning actor, amazing fun guy and a man who has gone out of his way to bring amazing stories about our American heroes to the screen told us late Wednesday that he and his wife Rita came down with the COVID-19 bug while in Australia.

(Yes, we know there are a lot of stories that need to be covered, but we want to add a little levity too.)


We were putting out an article about the release of the trailer to his new movie Greyhound, which featured some amazing action scenes from the Battle of the Atlantic, and wanted to also give a shoutout to Tom by giving a ranking of his top 10 best films.

This was hard. There are too many good ones and a lot of great characters. Not everyone reading this will be happy. Don’t blame us! Blame Tom for making so many great movies. Before we do, we also have to shout out his great TV career before he even became a big movie star. He was on the Love Boat, had the great show Bosom Buddies, and even had a martial arts fight with Fonzie.

Honorable Mentions

On the list of greats but just missing the cut are Sleepless in Seattle, Bachelor Party, That Thing You Do!, Turner & Hooch, Charlie Wilson’s War, Road to Perdition. All great with some awesome scenes, but as you will see the rest are hard to top.

**There are spoilers, so don’t get mad if you haven’t seen a movie yet and continue to read.**

Big (1988) – Piano Scene

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Big

When we were kids we all wanted to be grown up. When we grew up, we kinda wished we could be kids again. Arguably, no movie sums this up as well as Big. The great comedy from 1988 had Hanks as Josh Baskin, the kid that made a wish (Zoltar still creeps me out) and grew up overnight. He realized how good he had it and went back to being a kid, but not before giving everyone the two songs they must try to play whenever they see a keyboard.

Fedex – Cast Away Commercial

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Cast Away

“We never turn our back on it and we never ever allow ourselves the sin of losing track of time.”

The FedEx man who was all about time and efficiency, Hanks’ character Chuck Nolan has the misfortune of becoming a modern-day Robinson Crusoe. Stranded on a deserted island with his thoughts and a volleyball named Wilson, Nolan adapts to life alone before realizing he doesn’t want to die alone.

Also, extra props to FedEx for taking the movie and giving us one of the funniest Super Bowl commercials of all time.

I’m Tired Boss | The Green Mile | SceneScreen

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The Green Mile

Hanks is masterful as Paul Edgecomb, a death row prison guard who encounters a life-changing man in John Coffey. He initially is dismissive of Coffey and tries to ignore him, although he is still drawn to him. As he gets to know him, he realizes that a mistake has been made and now has to deal with the fallout of what he learned. An allegory of the story of Jesus, the movie has moved many to tears.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2undcZx2MFo
Captain Phillips get rescued by navy seals movie scene

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Captain Phillips

“Look at me, I’m the captain now!”

The line gave birth to plenty of memes (especially for us military types) but the movie is pretty well done. Hanks plays the title character and delivers an amazing performance of a by-the-book guy that keeps as cool a head as he can when dealing with pirates. As cool as the Navy sniper who made that awesome shot.

Philadelphia (1/8) Movie CLIP – I Have A Case (1993) HD

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Philadelphia

For his role as Andrew Beckett, Hanks won his first Academy Award. Playing a man dying of AIDS who sues his employer for wrongful termination, Hanks gave a performance of a lifetime while educating the world at the time about the humanity of AIDS sufferers (especially in the LGBT community) in the early 90s. His transformation from a young vibrant man to a dying shell of his former self changed Hanks from the comedic actor of the 80s to the powerhouse thespian that he’s been for the rest of his career.

Apollo 13

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Apollo 13

“Houston, we have a problem.”

Playing Jim Lovell, Hanks teams up with Bill Paxton and Kevin Bacon to portray the almost disastrous Apollo 13 mission. The special effects and cinematography are amazing, it’s directed by Ron Howard so you know its good, and the rest of the cast back on Earth deliver amazing performances (failure is not an option, right?)—but Hanks is the rock of the movie. Showing steady leadership the entire time, from when things are great, to when the shit hits the fan, to when you just have to sit back and pray, Hanks brings it on home.

There’s No Crying In Baseball [Full Scene HD]

www.youtube.com

A League of Their Own

“There’s no crying in baseball!”

Jimmy Dugan yelling at poor Evelyn is the icing on the cake for probably the best comedic performances of his career. A drunk has-been, Dugan gets the chance at redemption managing a team of female ball players during World War II. The journey from uninterested drunk to cynical doubter to teetotalling motivational manager is pretty fun to watch until Dottie drops the ball.

Toy Story 3 – The Furnace

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Toy Story (1, 2, 3, and I guess 4)

In a movie that literally changed the way animation was done, Hanks gave us one of the most endearing and lovable animated characters of all time, and then three more times after that. Playing the favorite (until Buzz shows up) toy of Andy, Woody is the boss of his own toy universe. When we were kids, we all imagined how our toys would be if they came to life. We all imagined they would be like Woody. How much did we love him and his buddies… you know you just about lost it at that scene in Toy Story 3, don’t lie.

Bubba Goes Home – Forrest Gump (4/9) Movie CLIP (1994) HD

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Forrest Gump

You can say Pulp Fiction should have won Best Picture that year. You can say Jenny is a truly evil person. You can say that the movie is overly sentimental. But who cares? It is still an amazing film that shows the journey of America through the life of a simpleton. Hanks is a ping pong player, runner, star football player, shrimp boat captain, and a whole bunch of other things.

But his portrayal of a soldier in Vietnam and his relationships with his friends Bubba and Lt. Dan resonates with every veteran. Holding one buddy in his arms as he dies and being there for another as he lives is a journey most of us can relate to.

Saving Private Ryan (1998) Epic Opening Scene

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Saving Private Ryan

“Earn this.”

That. Opening. Scene. There have been plenty of great war movies over the years, but this one made you feel as if you were there. The opening was so powerful some D-Day veterans had to take a step outside. In the midst of that opening, we are introduced to Captain John Miller. Miller is the guy we wish was our Commanding Officer and the guy we would follow into combat. Follow, because as a true Ranger, he led the way up until the very end. Hanks’ portrayal as the teacher turned warrior is his best performance to date.

So what’s your favorite Tom Hanks movie?

Comment and let us know!

And feel better Tom and Rita!!!

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This Black Cat was bad luck for the Japanese navy

The fighting in the South Pacific during World War II was vicious. One of the big reasons was how evenly-matched the two sides were. One plane called the Black Cat, though, helped the Allies gain a big advantage – and was an omen of ill fortune for the Japanese navy.


According to the Pacific War Encyclopedia, that plane was a modified version of the Consolidated PBY-5A Catalina. This flying boat was a well-proven maritime patrol aircraft – sighting the German battleship Bismarck in time for the British aircraft carrier HMS Ark Royal to launch the strikes that crippled the Nazi vessel in May, 1941.

The PBY had also detected the Japanese fleets at the Battle of Midway.

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PBY-5A Catalina flying over the Aleutian Islands during World War II. (US Navy photo)

The Catalina had one very big asset: long range. It could fly over 3,000 miles, and was also capable of carrying two torpedoes or up to 4,000 pounds of bombs. The PBY drew first blood at Midway, putting a torpedo in the side of the tanker Akebono Maru. But the long legs came with a price in performance. The PBYs had a top speed of just under 200 mph – making them easy prey if a Japanese A6M Zero saw them.

The planes also were lightly armed, with three .30-caliber machine guns and two .50-caliber machine guns. In “Incredible Victory,” Walter Lord related about how two PBYs were shot up in the space of an hour during the run-up to the Battle of Midway by a Japanese patrol plane. One “sea story” related by Morison had it that one PBY once radioed, “Sighted enemy carrier. Please notify next of kin.”

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Consolidated PBY-5A Catalina on a patrol during World War II. (US Navy photo)

Planner found, however, that flying PBY missions at night helped keep them alive. During the the Guadalcanal campaign, the first PBY-5As equipped with radar arrived and the first full squadron of “Black Cats” intended for night operations arrived later that year. According to Samuel Eliot Morison’s “The Struggle For Guadalcanal,” the “Black Cats” were a game-changer.

These Black Cats did a little bit of everything. They could carry bombs – often set for a delay so as to create a “mining” effect. In essence, it would be using the shockwave of the bomb to cause flooding and to damage equipment on the enemy vessel. They also attacked airfields, carried torpedoes, spotted naval gunfire during night-time bombardment raids, and of course, searched for enemy ships.

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Morison wrote about how the crews of the “Black Cats” would have a tradition of gradually filling out the drawing of a cat. The second mission would add eyes, then following missions would add whiskers and other features.

Japan would try to catch the Black Cats – knowing that they not only packed a punch, but could bring in other Allied planes. Often, the planes, painted black, would fly at extremely low level, thwarting the Zeros sent to find them.

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A PBY Catalina in service with the Japanese Maritime Self-Defense Force. (Photo from Wikimedia Commons)

After World War II, many Catalinas were retired, but some served on. The last military unit to operate them was Brazil’s 1st Air Transport Squadron until they were retired in 1982, according to the website of the Brazilian Air Force Aerospace Museum.