How robots and drones might be used in future wars - We Are The Mighty
MIGHTY TACTICAL

How robots and drones might be used in future wars

The U.S. Army loves robots and wants its soldiers to love them, too. The U.S. Army Joint Modernization Command recently conducted its annual Joint Warfighting Assessment in the Pacific Northwest, with most of the testing at the Yakima Training Center. From late April to May 11, 2019, troops from Joint Base Lewis-McChord’s 2-2 Stryker Brigade and 2nd Ranger battalion, along with U.S. Marines from Camp Lejune and Camp Pendleton, tested new weapon concepts for a Pacific war scenario set in 2028.

One of the concepts they were testing was the “optionally manned vehicle,” which would allow leaders in the field to decide to switch their systems to remote operating systems instead of putting their troops on the line.


“The idea is that the robotics could be available, so when they pick that platform you can put the robotics on it, and now you can do the manned (or) unmanned team and push the robotics out on the battlefield,” explained Lieutenant Colonel John Fursmo, the officer commanding the opposing force for the exercise.

How robots and drones might be used in future wars

The Assault Breacher Vehicle.

(Photo by Kevin Knodell/Coffee or Die)

Some of the vehicles that have been brought out for testing are actually quite old, brought back to life and stuffed with robotic capabilities by engineers tinkering with them like Frankenstein’s monster. Troops and engineers explain that it’s all about testing, experimentation and soldier feedback. “These are concepts, these are not necessarily the pieces of equipment we would actually use,” said Fursmo. “The Army still has to decide what it wants for this new combat vehicle that will replace some tanks and other armored vehicles.”

Fursmo pointed to an old M58 mobile recon vehicle that’s been retrofitted with remote control capabilities. “It’s a tracked vehicle, it’s been in the Army a very long time, [and] essentially the Army stopped using it several years ago because the mission itself was so dangerous that it was just decided it wasn’t worth it,” he explained. “But make it a robot and now it’s at least conceptually worth looking at it again.”

Robotics and digital tech are already changing the way wars both big and small are being fought around the world every day. What were once science fiction dreams (or nightmares) aren’t as far away as some might think. Some are already here.

How robots and drones might be used in future wars

An experimental quadcopter mounted on a Stryker during JWA 19.

(Photo by Kevin Knodell/Coffee or Die)

Eyes in the Sky

Cavalry scouts often call themselves the ninjas of the U.S. Army. Though considered combat troops, their job is more often to scope out the enemy without drawing fire and to report their findings. “A big problem we have is seeing without being seen,” explained Major Dave Scherke, a cav scout squadron leader with the 2-2 Stryker Brigade.

A scout team might move with three troops aboard a Stryker and three dismounted on the ground. They use maps, rulers, and measuring tape to take down mission critical information while conducting route reconnaissance. “It’s very time consuming and, from a security standpoint, can leave you exposed,” Scherken said.

However, at Yakima Training Center, Scherke’s men have been testing the Sensor Enabled Scout Platoon concept. They’ve tested the “Instant Eye” quad copter, an aerial drone surveillance system. “We have that all the way down to the squad level. So instead of just having one of these for each one of my cav troops, now I have six of them, and that massively increases our ability to see over the ridge and see the enemy first,” Scherke explained.

The quad copter itself isn’t particularly unique — you can buy similar models at Best Buy. Drones have already become part of the new normal for warfare. In Iraq and Syria, ISIS militants have used store-bought drones to help them target mortars and have even modified them to drop grenades and other improvised explosives. During the battle of Mosul, frustrated Iraqi troops started purchasing commercial drones of their own to fight ISIS. Robots are everywhere.

However, the small drones the scouts are testing are equipped with the Instrument Set Reconnaissance and Survey (ENFIRE) system that uses software and algorithms that can help measure terrain features, roads, and even calculate how much weight a bridge is capable of supporting. “There’s a bridge classification app that tells you the whole bridge classification,” said Colonel Chuck Roede, the deputy commander of JMC. “It really allows the scouts to do the job we expect them to do.”

ENFIRE connects directly to systems in the Stryker itself, which connects to a larger network. “It takes all that information, aggregates it into a computer, and creates a route overlay,” Scherke explained. “[Plugging] into our mission command systems to send very rapidly [means] our logistics planners and our other maneuver planners can get that information right away. So it speeds up what our scouts can do, and now instead of having six scouts on the ground just doing this while other guys are securing them, you can put fewer scouts on the ground to do that mission.”

How robots and drones might be used in future wars

Deep purple, the drone utilized by chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear specialist, prepares to lift off on an NBC reconnaissance mission at the Joint Warfighting Assessment 19 training exercise at Yakima Training Center, Yakima, Washington, April 29, 2019.

(Photo by Pfc. Valentina Y. Montano/302nd Mobile Public Affairs Detachment, U.S. Army)

The Instant Eye has night vision, infrared, and powerful zoom and camera clarity features for checking out targets, as well as signal tracking. “We can get some eyes on there without exposing our scouts and then bring indirect fires down to win that fight first because we want to be fighting an unfair fight,” said Scherke.

Cav scout Sergeant Joseph Gaska, who was in the field operating the prototype, told Coffee or Die that he was impressed with it. “As long as you’re high enough, you won’t hear it, so it’s not going to be that buzzing sound above your head,” he said of small, nimble drones’ ability to move nearly undetected. It has other ambitious features, too, Gaska noted. For instance, he said that if they were to somehow lose their connection to the drone, it’s programmed to remember where its handlers are and will return to them.

The Joint Warfighting Assessment JWA19 WA, UNITED STATES 04.28.2019

www.youtube.com

Machines Doing The Dirty Work

One of the most difficult things ground troops are asked to do is breaching operations against enemy strongholds. The defending side nearly always has the advantage. Good defenders lay out layers of defense that can include walls, barbed wire, ditches, minefields, and countless other hazards and traps. “It’s a very challenging task because you have to imagine your opponent on the far side of that position ready to destroy you with every weapon system that they have,” Fursmo said. “If you can take humans out of that, you’re going to have fewer casualties — it’s really the most dangerous thing a ground force does.”

Troops in the field trained with various aerial drones for detecting chemical threats and minefields, but more of the efforts focused on ground-based systems. One of the key systems they were testing was the Assault Breacher Vehicle. Their ABV working prototype was built around the hull of an M1A1 Abrams tank armed with mine charges and a .50-caliber machine gun and equipped with plows and dozer blades.

“Basically, the concept of this vehicle is that this one vehicle with two operators can do what an entire platoon of engineers would be required to do in a breach,” U.S. Marine 1st Lt. David Aghakhan explained. “It’s not taking anything away from my capabilities — I can still manually operate it — but it gives me the option of saying ‘I don’t want to expose my Marines in this obstacle belt because it’s too dangerous,’ and I can pull them out and we can robotically operate it.”

How robots and drones might be used in future wars

A soldier remotely operates a humvee from inside another humvee.

(Photo by Kevin Knodell/Coffee or Die)

Working from remote controls in command vehicles, soldiers and Marines could also remotely control other vehicles to move in and provide suppressing fire for the ABV as it worked to clear mines, smash berms, and deal with other obstacles. Captain Nicole Rotte, an Afghanistan veteran and commander of the 2-2’s engineer company, said that she was impressed with it.

“The challenge that I have is my planning factor for moving through a breach is 50 percent loss,” said Rotte. “So all these concepts, to be able to take an unmanned vehicle and bring them down the battlefield, to be able save soldiers from being lost in the breach, that’s awesome for me.”

Rotte said they only had minor technical issues that were easily solved by turning the systems off and on again. She added that if anything, she’s excited for the prospect of having more robots available to her and seeing what they can do.

Unmanning the Battlefield?

Some futurists have envisioned a world in which war was waged entirely by robots. The U.S. military and CIA have already used drones with operators in Nevada pulling the trigger to kill enemies as far away as Afghanistan, Yemen, and Somalia. However, while the vehicles are referred to as “unmanned,” they require regular maintenance — and usually have a human operator somewhere.

At times, U.S. military commanders have underestimated the strain on personnel in regard to upkeep and the long hours of operation. “The explosion in demand had created a snowball effect that never allowed the […] staff to take a pause and say, ‘Let’s normalize all the processes that we should be doing,'” the Air Force reported in one of its official annual histories from 2012. “Instead, normalization was put off to some future date after the pace of combat operations slowed down.”

But the wars continued, as did the extreme hours. Airmen working six days a week were constantly asked to work extra hours while leave got cancelled. They were never “deployed” but remained almost constantly on duty, remotely fighting wars in several countries that were continents away. “It’s at the breaking point and has been for a long time,” a senior Air Force official told The Daily Beast in 2015. “What’s different now is that the Band-Aid fixes are no longer working.”

How robots and drones might be used in future wars

A remotely operated humvee with a robotic firing turret.

(Photo by Kevin Knodell/Coffee or Die)

Even without the logistical hurdles, many commanders (even those that fully embrace a robotic future for war) don’t believe grunts will ever become obsolete. “It’s technologically feasible to fly a drone from Nevada and have it circling over Iraq or Afghanistan. But the demands of the terrain, as Army soldiers we are so tied to the terrain — you need to have leaders on the ground to see and understand the terrain,” Roede said.

Col. Christopher Barnwell, head of the field experimentation division at JMC, said that while he could see a future where commanders could run a war without ever going to the field — adding that at this point communications are advanced enough that senior officers already don’t have to — he doesn’t think a good leader would choose to stay home while war is raging elsewhere.

“No commander I know would do that,” he said. “I feel like I need to be on the ground and see things with my own eyes and get a feel for what’s going. Technically possible? Yes. Likely? I don’t personally think so.”

How robots and drones might be used in future wars

An Alabama Army National Guard Soldier with the 690th Chemical Company inspects a “deep purple” drone at YTC at Joint Warfighting Assessment 19, May 4, 2019.

(Photo by Pfc. Valentina Y. Montano/ 302nd Mobile Public Affairs Detachment, U.S. Army)

Battle Bots

While they don’t see human judgement being removed from the equation, some military planners are excited by the prospect of artificial intelligence to allow vehicles to move on their own on the battlefield.

“As the concept matures, as we bring in elements of AI, as we bring in some measures of autonomy, the ratio of operators to vehicles will drop so that eventually you’ll have one operator who can control maybe a squad or platoon’s worth of vehicles,” said Roede. He suggested that AI could allow vehicles to autonomously navigate terrain and even rally into formations as they haul supplies and weapons.

Barnwell suggested it potentially going even further — he can foresee a day in the future when leaders can delegate to robotic weapons systems in combat and allow them to autonomously pick and engage targets.

“You tell these robotic vehicles, ‘You’ve got this part of the engagement area, and you are free to shoot at enemy vehicles; anything north of the niner-niner grid line is enemy and you are free to shoot it,'” Barnwell said. “And because these vehicles have AI, they know what to shoot […] on their own.”

However, the prospect of robots that can autonomously kill enemies based on algorithms or pre-programmed targets sets has potentially serious ramifications. The recent battles for Mosul and Raqqa proved incredibly bloody. House-to-house fighting and heavy bombing and artillery strikes led to untold deaths of civilians trapped in the cities, and the work of rebuilding the infrastructure since the battles ended has been slow.

Military strategists believe that urban fighting could be the norm for the 21st century. More than half of the world’s population now lives in cities, and that’s expected to grow. In particular, there are concerns about the challenges posed by potentially fighting in massive megacities like Seoul, Shanghai, Tokyo, or Lagos. Army Chief of Staff Mark Milley has pointed out that the entirety of Mosul — Iraq’s second largest city — isn’t equal to a neighborhood in Seoul.

How robots and drones might be used in future wars

Conceptual prototypes at Yakima Training Center.

(Photo by Kevin Knodell/Coffee or Die)

Heavily armed robots combing the streets of a densely populated megacity picking targets based on algorithms have the potential to cause a lot of unintended collateral death and destruction. Machines feel neither remorse nor pity.

Barnwell said that they’re already considering these potential problems. “Through programming, we would be able to figure out what are appropriate targets, what are not. What is the ROE (rules of engagement), what are we going to allow these things to shoot at by themselves, and what are we not going to allow them to shoot at by themselves,” he explained. “In a megacity, for example, we may not even employ this sort of thing — or we may, depending on what the intelligence tells us the enemy is out there.”

But Roede stressed again that fighting wars is going to remain a fundamentally human endeavor, adding, “I don’t think we’ll ever be at a place where we’ll let the machine make the final decision on anything.”

This article originally appeared on Coffee or Die. Follow @CoffeeOrDieMag on Twitter.

MIGHTY TRENDING

This is what happens when you swap your workout for PT

If you’re a suburban mom in Iowa, your PT is a Cruiser.

How robots and drones might be used in future wars
And this is what your husband does to unwind. Check out his award-winning ride. (Photo via Flickr, Rex Gray, CC BY 2.0)

If you’re a tumbler in the circus, your PT is a Barnum.

How robots and drones might be used in future wars
And your work wife is an elephant. And your carpool is full of clowns.

And if you’re an aspiring Industrial Age robber baron played by Daniel Day Lewis, your PT is an Anderson.

How robots and drones might be used in future wars
And your metaphor is a milkshake. And you’re drinkin’ it up!

But if you served in the military, your PT is an acronym, meaning Physical Training. And your PT comes with a silent F, which might officially stand for “fitness,” but back on testing days, probably stood for an f-word you used frequently to grumble and bitch.

In the service, PT sucks. That goes without saying. And yet, as a civilian, you’re still doing it. Nowadays, you do PT voluntarily and brag about your preferred brand to anyone who will listen. You pay $100/month for a nice, clean place (close to work!) to do it in. You pay someone extra to play your drill instructor, someone who’s motivational but not too mean. Let’s face it. You have become enmired in hypocrisy

And there’s only one man who can pull you free.

How robots and drones might be used in future wars
That man is Max. (Go90 Max Your Body screenshot)

Max doesn’t do PT, he is PT. He’s Physically Titanic, Proactively Tactical, Pyrotechnically Triumphant, and Proudly Terse. He’s a Prehensile Tyrannosaurus with Possible Telekinesis and a full Power Train warranty. Also, he will Put a Trace on your phone if you try to weasel out of this workout.

In this episode, Max is sending you back to PT. No frills. No gym. No equipment. No excuses. Just minute after minute of good old fashioned body weight conditioning drills stacked up in supersets for you to grovel and bitch your way through .

Welcome back to Performance Testing, Puddy Tat.

Watch as Max casually bats aside your nonsense, in the video embedded at the top.

Watch more Max Your Body:

Our trainer will make you a leopard

This is how you train for brotherhood

This is what happens when a troll runs the obstacle course

One session with this trainer will make you assume the fetal position

This is how you fight when the waters are rising

MIGHTY HISTORY

How Panama actually started its war with the United States

On Dec. 20, 1989, President George H. W. Bush launched Operation Just Cause, the U.S. invasion of Panama. The goal was to oust Panamanian dictator Manuel Noriega and maintain the neutrality of the Panama Canal while protecting American citizens there. Some 27,000 U.S. troops toppled Noriega’s regime in just over a month and they started it – just like the U.S. planned.


Some people would swear that a small Central American dictatorship with a patronage-based military starting a war with a world superpower is a terrible idea. Those people would be correct, especially considering the superpower already controlled a huge chunk of the country, and staged military units from inside that zone of control.

Until 1979, it was known as the Panama Canal Zone. By 1989, that area was full of U.S. military personnel.

How robots and drones might be used in future wars

Just a sliver. No big deal.

At the time, the United States still controlled the canal. The terms of the Carter-Torrijos Treaty stated that Panama would gain full control of the canal on Dec. 31, 1999. But even after the canal was given to Panama, the U.S. retained the right to defend the canal to keep it a neutral lane for all ships of all countries. So, the United States already had 12,000 combat-ready forces in the country before the invasion even began.

Still, the United States worked to provoke the Panamanians into committing overtly hostile acts toward U.S. troops. The Americans gave money to the campaign of Guillermo Endara, a politician in direct opposition to Noriega’s regime. When Endara won the national election over Noriega’s chosen candidate, the dictator ruled the vote invalid and then declared himself the sole ruler of Panama.

How robots and drones might be used in future wars

Drug and human trafficker-in-chief, Manuel Noriega.

Alarmed at Noriega’s shocking display of power, the U.S. military began stepping up its provocation efforts, staging military exercises in former Canal Zone areas, driving through Panamanian territory, and challenging the Panamanian Defense Forces to stop them from moving as they pleased. The Bush Administration also expanded sanctions on Panama and even funded a coup attempt against Noriega.

On Dec. 15, 1989, Noriega even declared war on the United States — but even that didn’t precipitate the invasion. The next day, four military officers were stopped by the Panamanian military on their way to dinner at the Marriott in downtown Panama City. The four officers were driving in a private vehicle when they hit a roadblock and were suddenly surrounded by PDF troops. The Panamanians fired at the vehicle, hitting Marine Capt. Richard E. Hadded in the foot and wounding Marine 1st Lt. Robert Paz, who was rushed to the hospital, where he died of his wounds.

Two Americans, a Naval officer and his wife, witnessed the event. They were detained and beaten by the PDF. That’s when President Bush called down the thunder.

How robots and drones might be used in future wars

Cue the Van Halen song.

The Panamanian Defense Forces got hit hard. In the middle of the night, tens of thousands of American troops using mechanized infantry, Special Forces, and even airborne assaults, made a move to cripple the Panamanians and capture Noriega. It was the largest combat operation since the Vietnam War, an invasion of an area the size of South Carolina.

By one in the morning on Dec. 20, 1989, U.S. troops installed Endara as Panama’s new President. Meanwhile, Army helicopter gunships and USAF F-117 Nighthawks were hitting targets around the country and the U.S. Army Special Forces, Navy SEALs, and U.S. Marines hit the ground in full force. They first captured special military targets, like the PDF’s La Comandancia and the Bridge of the Americas over the canal itself. SEALs destroyed Noriega’s personal boat and jet as the dictator took refuge inside Vatican City’s diplomatic mission in the capital.

He would not be there long.

How robots and drones might be used in future wars

Netflix, here’s your next season of Narcos.

Noriega hid under the protection of the Holy See as the United State military cleaned up the remnants of the Panamanian Defense Forces. Meanwhile, the Americans blasted rock and heavy metal music at the mission in an attempt to force Noriega to leave the building and face justice.

Related: Listen to the playlist that ousted Panamanian dictator Manuel Noriega

He finally did on Jan. 3, 1990. Noriega was flown back to the U.S., where he faced indictments for drug trafficking in Miami. The onetime dictator would spend the rest of his life in prison.

Articles

Retired SEAL Admiral turns down National Security top job

The retired admiral whom President Donald Trump wanted to replace Michael Flynn as national security adviser turned down the job, he said Thursday. The Financial Times first reported the news.


Trump offered the position to retired Adm. Robert Harward on Monday, according to Tom Ricks at Foreign Policy. At the time, the former Navy SEAL commander told the president he’d need some time to “think it over.”

Related: Here’s how Mattis reacted to Flynn’s resignation

“It’s purely a personal issue,” Harward told the Associated Press on Thursday evening. “I’m in a unique position finally after being in the military for 40 years to enjoy some personal time.”

CNN’s Jake Tapper reported on Twitter that a friend of Harward said Harward was reluctant to take the job since the Trump White House seemed so chaotic and called the offer a “s— sandwich.”

The White House did not immediately respond to a request for comment.

How robots and drones might be used in future wars
Robert Harward during a visit to Zaranj, Afghanistan, in 2011. | US Marine Corps photo by Sgt. Shawn Coolman

Two administration officials confirmed to The Washington Post that Harward was at the top of Trump’s three-person short list to replace Flynn, who abruptly resigned from the role after it became public that he had discussed sanctions with Russia’s ambassador to the US before Trump’s inauguration. Flynn reportedly urged the ambassador, Sergey Kislyak, not to overreact to the latest round of sanctions imposed by the Obama administration, indicating that incoming administration might be more inclined to roll them back.

Harward, who rose to deputy commander of US Central Command before retiring in 2013, wanted to bring in his own staff for an overhaul of the National Security Council, according to Ricks.

One of FT’s sources said Harward was concerned about whether he could carry out such a “housecleaning” of NSC workers, many of whom were loyal to Flynn.

As national security adviser, Harward would have had a close ally in Defense Secretary Jim Mattis, whom he served under at Central Command. He also has NSC experience, having served on the council during the George W. Bush administration.

Retired Army Gen. Keith Kellogg is serving as acting national security adviser. Trump tweeted Friday morning that Kellogg was “very much in play for NSA — as are three others.”

MIGHTY TRENDING

Navy sacks 2 more officers over USS McCain crash

The commanding officer and the executive officer of the guided-missile destroyer USS John S. McCain were relieved of duty and reassigned to different posts for “loss of confidence,” according to a US Navy statement on October 11.


Commanding officer Cmdr. Alfredo Sanchez and executive officer Cmdr. Jessie Sanchez came under scrutiny after the McCain’s collision with an oil tanker in Southeast Asian waters in August. Ten sailors died and five were injured.

The collision tore a hole in the destroyer’s left rear hull, where several sailors were inside sealed compartments on the vessel, the Associated Press reported at the time.

How robots and drones might be used in future wars
USS John McCain confronts Chinese ships in South China Sea. (Dept. of Defense photo)

Although the investigation is ongoing, the Navy called the collision preventable and said “the commanding officer exercised poor judgment, and the executive officer exercised poor leadership of the ship’s training program.” The Navy’s strict adherence to customs and traditions dictate that commanders be relieved of duty when superiors lose confidence in their leadership.

The McCain incident followed another collision between the USS Fitzgerald and a commercial container ship in June, which killed seven sailors. The Fitzgerald’s executive officer and senior enlisted sailor were also dismissed in that case.

US Navy Vice Adm. Joseph Aucoin, the three-star commander of the US 7th Fleet in Yokosuka, Japan, whose command oversaw the USS McCain and Fitzgerald, was also relieved of duty in August following the series of deadly ship collisions. Four accidents involving ships have occurred in the western Pacific since February, according to The New York Times.

MIGHTY TRENDING

GNC is closing 248 stores after filing for bankruptcy. Here’s the full list.

GNC filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection on Tuesday night, announcing that it expects to close between 800 and 1,200 stores while on the hunt for a buyer for its business. The vitamins and supplements retailer had about 7,300 stores as of the end of March.

In a letter to shoppers, GNC said the COVID-19 pandemic “created a situation where we were unable to accomplish our refinancing and the abrupt change in the operating environment had a dramatic negative impact on our business.”


GNC identified 248 stores that would close imminently as part of the restructuring process. Stores are closing in 42 states, as well as in Puerto Rico and Canada.

Here are the first of the locations GNC plans to close, arranged alphabetically by state: 

Alabama:

Quintard Mall, 700 Quintard Drive, Oxford, AL

Arizona:

Flagstaff Mall, 4650 E 2 N Hwy 89, Flagstaff, AZ

Arrowhead Town Center, 7700 West Arrowhead Towne, Glendale, AZ

Madera Village, 9121 E. Tanque Verde Rd, Suite 115, Tucson, AZ

Arkansas:

Benton Commons, 1402 Military Road, Benton, AR

Northwest Arkansas Plaza, 4201 North Shiloh Dr, Fayetteville, AR

The Mall at Turtle Creek, 3000 East Highland Ave, Space # 309, Jonesboro, AR

Park Plaza, 6000 W. Markham, Little Rock, AR

North Park Village Shopping Center, 103 North Park Dr, Monticello, AR

McCain Mall Shopping Center, 3929 McCain Blvd, North Little Rock, AR

California:

Brawley Gateway, Brawley, CA

Rancho Marketplace Shopping Center, Burbank, CA

La Costa Town Square, 7615 Via Campanile Suite, Carlsbad, CA

Centrepointe Plaza, 1100 Mount Vernon Ave, Suite B, Colton, CA

Mountain Gate Plaza, 160 W. Foothill Parkway, #106, Corona, CA

Town Place, 787 1st Street, Gilroy, CA

Victoria Gardens, 12379 S Main St., Rancho Cucamonga, CA

Monterey Marketplace, Rancho Mirage, CA

Red Bluff Shopping Center, 925 South Main Street, Red Bluff, CA

Tierrasanta Town Center, San Diego, CA

Grayhawk Plaza, 20701 N. Scotsdale Rd, Suite 105, Scottsdale, AZ

Buena Park Mall, 8312 On The Mall, Buena Park, CA

East Bay Bridge Center, 3839 East Emery Street, Emeryville, CA

Vintage Faire Mall, 3401 Dale Road, Modesto, CA

Huntington Oaks Shopping Center, 514 W. Huntington Drive, Box 1106, Monrovia, CA

Del Monte Shopping Center, 350 Del Monte S.C., Monterey, CA

Antelope Valley Mall, 1233 Rancho Vista Blvd, Palmdale, CA

Town Country Village, 855 El Camino Real, Palo Alto, CA

Rancho Bernardo Town Center, Rancho Bernardo, CA

Rocklin Commons, 5194 Commons Drive 107, Rocklin, CA

Westfield Shoppingtown Mainplace, 2800 North Main Street, Suite 302, Santa Ana, CA

Gateway Plaza Shopping Center, 580b River St, Suite B, Santa Cruz, CA

Santa Rosa Plaza, 600 Santa Rosa Plaza, Suite 2032, Santa Rosa, CA

The Promenade Mall, 40820 Winchester Road, Temecula, CA

West Valley Mall, 3200 N. Naglee Rd., Suite 240, Tracy, CA

Union Square Marketplace, Union City, CA

Riverpoint Marketplace, West Sacramento, CA

Yucaipa Valley Center, 33676 Yucaipa Blvd, Yucaipa, CA

Colorado:

Chapel Hills Mall, 1710 Briargate Blvd at Jamboree Drive, Colorado Springs, CO

The Citadel, 750 Citadel Drive East, Space 1036, Colorado Springs, CO

River Landing, 3480 Wolverine Dr, Montrose, CO

Monument Marketplace, 15954 Jackson Creek Pkwy, Monument, CO

Central Park Plaza, 1809 Central Park Dr., Steamboat Springs, CO

Larkridge Shopping Center, 16560 N. Washington St, Thornton, CO

Woodland Park Plaza, 1115 E US Hwy 24, Woodland Park, CO

Connecticut:

The Plaza At Burr Corners, 1131 Tolland Pike, Manchester, CT

Delaware:

Dover Mall, 1365 N. Dupont Highway, Dover, DE

Gateway West Shopping Center, 1030 Forest Ave, Dover, DE

Rockford Shops, 1404 North Dupont St, Wilmington, DE

Florida:

Boynton Beach Mall, 801 N Congress St, Suite 763, Boynton Beach, FL

Clearwater Plaza, 1283 S. Missouri Ave, Clearwater, FL

Coral Square, 9295 West Atlantic Blvd, Coral Springs, FL

Dupont Lakes Shopping Center, 2783 Elkcam Blvd, Deltona, FL

The Shops @ Mission Lakes, 5516 South State Rd 7, Space # 128, Lake Worth, FL

Wickham Corners Shopping, 1070 North Wickham Road, Unit 106, Melbourne, FL

Shoppes Of River Landing, Miami, FL

Coastland Mall, 2034 Tamiam Trail North, Naples, FL

Orlando Fashion Square, 3451 E Colonial Drive, Orlando, FL

Oviedo Marketplace, 1385 Oviedo Marketplace B, Oviedo, FL

Gulf View Square Mall, 9409 Us 19 North, Port Richey, FL

University Mall, 12232 University Square C, Tampa, FL

Georgia:

The Mall @ Stonecrest, 8000 Mall Parkway, Lithonia, GA

Walnut Creek Plaza, 1475 Gray Highway, Macon, GA

Horizon Village, 2855 Lawrenceville Suwanee, Suite 740, Suwanee, GA

Merchant’s Square, 414 South Main Street, Swainsboro, GA

Idaho:

Karcher Mall, 1509 Caldwell Blvd. Suite 1206, Nampa, ID

Illinois:

Bannockburn Green, 2569 Waukegan Rd, Bannockburn, IL

University Mall, 1225 University Mall, Carbondale, IL

244 State Street, Chicago, IL

Stony Island Plaza, 1623 E 95th St, Chicago, IL

Country Club Plaza, 4285 W 167th St, Country Club, IL

South Shoppes, 2725 IL Route 26 S, Freeport, IL

Lincolnwood Town Ctr, 3333 West Touhy Av, Lincolnwood, IL

Cross County Mall, 700 Broadway East, Mattoon, IL

McHenry Plaza, 1774 N. Richmond Road, McHenry, IL

Orland Square Mall, 852 Orland Square, Orland Park, IL

Peru Mall, 3940 Rt 251, Space #E-9, Peru, IL

Northland Mall, 2900 E Lincolnway, Sterling, IL

Eden’s Plaza, 3232 Lake Avenue, Wilmette, IL

Indiana:

Putnam Plaza, 35 Putnam Place, Greencastle, IN

Nora Plaza, 1300 East 86th Street, Indianapolis, IN

Fairview Center, 556 Fairview Center, Kendallville, IN

South Point Plaza, 3189 State Rd 3 S, New Castle, IN

Iowa:

Asbury Plaza, 2565 Northwest Arterial, Dubuque, IA

Old Capitol Center, 201 Clinton Street, Iowa City, IA

Crossroads Center, 2060 Crossroads Blvd, Waterloo, IA

Kansas:

Walmart Center, 2504 South Santa Fe Dr, Chanute, KS

E 17th Ave Retail, Hutchinson, KS

Hy Vee Shops, 4000 W 6th Street, Lawrence, KS

Town Center Plaza, 4837 West 117th Street, Leawood, KS

West Ridge Mall, 1801 Wanamaker Rd., Topeka, KS

Kentucky:

Florence Mall, 2122 Florence Mall Space #2124, Florence, KY

Louisiana:

Piere Bossier Mall #520, 2950 East Texas Ave., Bossier City, LA

Broussard Village Shopping Center, 1212 D Albertson Pkwy, Broussard, LA

Prien Lake Mall, 484 West Prien Road, Space G-17b, Lake Charles, LA

Maine:

Bangor Mall, 663 Stillwater Avenue, Bangor, ME

Maryland:

Brandywine Crossing, 15902 E Crain Hwy, Brandywine, MD

Washington Center, 20 Grand Corner Avenue, Suite D, Gaithersburg, MD

St. Charles Towne Ctr, 1110 Mall Circle, Suite 6194, Waldorf, MD

Massachusetts:

Auburn Mall, 385 Southbridge St, Auburn, MA

Liberty Tree Mall, 100 Independence Way, Danvers, MA

Walpole Mall, 90 Providence Hwy, East Walpole, MA

Riverside Landing, New Bedford, MA

Emerald Square Mall, 999 South Washington Street, Box 111, North Attleboro, MA

Eastfield Mall, Boston Rd, Unit B11, Springfield, MA

Michigan:

Briarwood Mall, 850 Briarwood Circle, Ann Arbor, MI

Caro Shopping Center, 1530 West Caro Road, Caro, MI

The Marketplace Shoppes, Greenville, MI

Livonia Plaza, 30983 Five Mile Road, Livonia, MI

The Village Of Rochester Hills, 136 N Adams Road, Space #B136, Rochester Hills, MI

Forum @ Gateways, 44625 Mound Road, Mound M-59, Sterling Heights, MI

Minnesota:

Andover Marketplace, Andover, MN

Burnsville Center, 1030 Burnsville Center, Burnsville, MN

Southdale Center, 2525 Southdale Center, Edina, MN

Five Lakes Center, 334 South State St, Fairmont, MN

Midway Shopping Center, 1470 University Ave W, St. Paul, MN

Kandi Mall, 1605 1st St S, Willmar, MN

Mississippi:

Northpark Mall, 1200 East County Line Road, Space 159, Ridgeland, MS

Missouri:

West Park Mall, 3049 Route K, Cape Girardeau, MO

Chesterfield Commons, 204 THF Blvd, Chesterfield, MO

Battlefield Mall, Space #337, 2825 South Glenstone, Springfield, MO

Nebraska:

One Osborne Place, Hastings, NE

Nevada:

The Summit Sierra, 13987 South Virginia Street, Space 700, Reno, NV

New Hampshire:

Walmart Plaza, 1458 Lakeshore Rd, Gilford, NH

New Jersey:

Diamond Springs, 41 Diamond Spring Rd., Denville, NJ

The Shoppes At Union Hill, 3056 State Route 10, Denville, NJ

American Dream, 1 American Dream Way, East Rutherford, NJ

Menlo Park Shopping Center, 29 Menlo Park, Edison, NJ

302 Washington St, Hoboken, NJ

The Wall Towne Center, 2437 Route 34, Manasquan, NJ

Town Brooks Commons, 840 ROUTE 35 S, Middletown, NJ

Mall @ Short Hills, Rt 24 J.f. Kennedy Pkw, Short Hills, NJ

Tri-City Plaza, Toms River, NJ

Willingboro Plaza, 4364 Route 130 North, Willingboro, NJ

New Mexico:

Cottonwood Mall, 10000 Coors Bypass Nw, Space #d205, Albuquerque, NM

New York:

Deer Park Commons, 506 Commack Road, Deer Park, NY

Genesee Valley Shopping Center, 4290 Lakeville Rd, Geneseo, NY

Northgate Plaza, 3848 Dewey Ave, Greece, NY

Johnstown Mall, 236 North Comrie Ave, Johnstown, NY

Chautauqua Mall, 318 East Fairmont, Lakewood, NY

360 Eighth Ave, New York, NY

100 Elizabeth Street, New York, NY

163 E 125th St, New York, NY

Staten Island Mall, 2655 Richmond Avenue, Staten Island, NY

Green Acres Mall, 1134 Green Acres Mall, Valley Stream, NY

Eastview Mall, 7979 Victor-Pittsford Road, Victor, NY

North Carolina:

The Arboretum Shopping Center, 3339 Pineville Matthews, Suite 200, Charlotte, NC

Blakeney Shop Center, Charlotte, NC

Southpark Mall, 4400 Sharon Rd, Charlotte, NC

Four Seasons Town Center, 346 Four Seasons Mall, Greensboro, NC

Cross Pointe Center, 1250-l Western Blvd, Jacksonville, NC

Ohio:

Dayton Mall, 2700 Miamisburg Centerville Rd, Dayton, OH

Ohio River Plaza, 13 Ohio River Plaza, Township Road 11 Sr 7, Gallipolis, OH

Indian Mound Mall, 771 S 30th St, Heath, OH

The Shoppes Of Mason, 5220 Kings Mills Road, Mason, OH

Heritage Crossing, 3113 Heritage Green, Monroe, OH

The Town Center At Levis, 4135 Levis Commons Blvd, Perrysburg, OH

Miami Valley Centre, 987 E. Ash Street, Piqua, OH

Sandusky Mall, 4314 Milan Road, Sandusky, OH

Southpark Mall, 500 Southpark Center, Strongsville, OH

Crocker Park, 137 Market Street, West Lake, OH

Meadow Park Plaza, 1659 Rombach Ave, Wilmington, OH

Oklahoma:

Neilson Square, 3322 W Owwn K Garriott Road, Enid, OK

Oregon:

Cascade Station, 10207 NE Cascades Pkwy, Portland, OR

Seaside Factory Outlet, 1111 North Roosevelt, Seaside, OR

Pennsylvania:

South Mall, 3300 Lehigh Street, Allentown, PA

Logan Valley Mall, 300 Logan Valley Mall, Bk 4, Altoona, PA

Clearview Mall, Route 8, Butler, PA

Clearfield Mall, 1800 Daisy Street, Clearfield, PA

Neshaminy Mall, 707 Neshaminy Mall, Cornwell Heights, PA

Cranberry Mall, 20111 Route 19. Freedom, Cranberry, PA

Oxford Valley Mall, 2300 E Lincoln Highway, Langhorne, PA

Hyde Park Plaza, 451 Hyde Park Road, Leechburg, PA

Monroeville Mall, Monroeville, PA

Shoppes At Montage, 2105 Shoppes Blvd, Moosic, PA

Edgmont Square Shopping Center, Newtown Square, PA

Pine Creek Center, 195 Blazier Drive, Unit 6, Pittsburgh, PA

Springfield Mall, 1200 Baltimore Pike, Springfield, PA

Lehigh Valley Mall, 215 Lehigh Valley Mall, Whitehall, PA

3097 Willow Grove Mall, 2500 Moreland Road, Willow Grove, PA

Wynnewood Shopping Center, 50 East Wynnewood Road, Wynnewood, PA

York Galleria, 2899 Whiteford Rd, York, PA

Rhode Island:

Hunt River Commons, 72 Frenchtown Road, North Kingston, RI

Diamond Hill Plaza, 1790 Diamond Hill Road, Woonsocket, RI

South Carolina:

Anderson Mall, 3139 N Main, Anderson, SC

Haywood Mall, 700 Haywood Road, Greenville, SC

North Hills Shopping Center, 2435 E North Street, Suite 1115, Greenville, SC

Myrtle Beach Mall, Myrtle Beach, SC

Shoppes At Stonecrest, 1149 Stonecrest Blvd, Tega Cay, SC

Tennessee:

University Commons, 2459 University Commons W, B160, Knoxville, TN

Three Star Shopping Center, 1410 Sparta Road, McMinnville, TN

Southland Mall, 1215 East Shelby Drive, Memphis, TN

Wolfchase Galleria, Memphis, TN

Texas:

Alamo Corners, 1451 Durenta Avenue, Suite 3, Alamo, TX

Barton Creek Square, 2901 Capital Of Texas Hwy, Austin, TX

Sunland Park Mall, 750 Sunland Park Drive, Space J4, El Paso, TX

North East Mall, 1101 Melbourn Road, Suite #3090, Hurst, TX

Sheppard Square, 2055 Westheimer, Suite 160, Houston, TX

Ingram Park Mall, 6301 Northwest Loop 410, San Antonio, TX

Rivercenter Mall, 849 East Commerce Street, San Antonio, TX

Virginia:

Charlottesville Fashion Square, 1588 Fashion Square Mall, Charlottesville, VA

Franklin Commons, 144 Council Drive, Franklin, VA

Dulles 28, 22000 Dulles Retail Plaza, Ste 154, Sterling, VA

Maple Avenue Shopping Ctr, 335 Maple Avenue East, Vienna, VA

Washington:

Everett Mall, 1402 SE Everett Mall, Suite #225, Everett, WA

Village At Redmond Ridge, Redmond, WA

The Joule, 509 Broadway, Seattle, WA

Jefferson Square, 4722 West 42nd Ave SW, Seattle, WA

Spokane Valley Mall, 14700 E Indiana Avenue, Spokane Valley, WA

Green Firs Shopping Center, University Place, WA

Vancouver Plaza, 7809 Vancouver Plaza #160, Vancouver, WA

Wisconsin:

Bay Park Square, 311-a Bay Park Square, Green Bay, WI

East Town Mall, 2350 East Mason Street, Green Bay, WI

Janesville Mall, 2500 Milton Ave, Space 117, Janesville, WI

The Shops Of Grand Avenue, Milwaukee, WI

West Virginia:

Greenbrier Valley Mall, 75 Seneca Trail US Route 219, Fairlea, WV

Puerto Rico:

Plaza Guayama, Guayama, PR

Condominio Reina De Casti, 100 Paseo Gilberto, San Juan, PR

Centro Gran Caribe, Carretera #2 Km 29.7, Vega Alta, PR

Canada:

Marlborough Mall, Calgary, AB, Canada

Shawnessy Town Centre, Calgary, AB, Canada

Bonnie Doon Shopping Centre, Edmonton, AB, Canada

Bower Place, Red Deer, AB, Canada

Sevenoaks Shopping Centre, 32900 South Fraser Way, Abbotsford, BC, Canada

Brentwood Towne Centre, Burnaby, BC, Canada

Eagle Landing Sc, 706-8249 Eagle Landing Pk, Chilliwack, BC, Canada

Dawson Mall, 11000 8th Street, Dawson Creek, BC, Canada

Willowbrook Shopping Center, Langley, BC, Canada

Queensborough Landing, New Westminster, BC, Canada

Mayfair Shopping Centre, Victoria, BC, Canada

Brandon Shoppers, 1570-18th St Unit 87, Brandon, MB, Canada

Smartcentres Corner Brook, Corner Brook, NL, Canada

Georgian Mall, 509 Bayfield Street, Barrie, ON, Canada

Lynden Park Mall, 84 Lynden Road, Brantford, ON, Canada

Cataraqui Town Center, 945 Gardiners Rd, Kingston, ON, Canada

Williamsburg Town Centre, Kitchener, ON, Canada

Masonville Place, London, ON, Canada

Markham Town Centre, 8601 Warden Ave, Markham, ON, Canada

Creekside Crossing, 1560 Dundas St E, Mississauga, ON, Canada

Erin Mills Town Centre, Mississauga, ON, Canada

Westside Market Village, 520 Riddell Road, Orangeville, ON, Canada

Markham Steeles Shopping Centre, 5981 Steeles Avenue East, Scarborough, ON, Canada

Morningside Crossing, Scarborough, ON, Canada

New Sudbury Centre, 1349 Lasalle Blvd, Sudbury, ON, Canada

St Claire Runnymede Rd, 2555 St Clair Ave West, Toronto, ON, Canada

Colussus Centre, 31 Colussus Dr, Vaughan, ON, Canada

Laurier Quebec, 2700 Laurier Boulevard, Quebec, PQ, Canada

Galeries Rive Nord, 100 Boulevare Brien, Repentigny, PQ, Canada

This article originally appeared on Business Insider. Follow @BusinessInsider on Twitter.

MIGHTY CULTURE

US Navy’s oldest nuclear-powered attack sub completes final deployment

The US Navy’s oldest nuclear-powered fast-attack submarine wrapped up its final deployment Sept. 8, 2019, after sailing around the world.

Los Angeles-class fast-attack submarine USS Olympia completed a seven-month, around-the-world deployment when it returned to Joint Base Pearl Harbor-Hickam, the Navy said on Sept. 9, 2019.


How robots and drones might be used in future wars

The USS Olympia returns home following a seven-month deployment.

(U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 1st Class Amanda Gray)

How robots and drones might be used in future wars

The crew of the USS Olympia returns home from a seven-month deployment.

(U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 2nd Class Michael B. Zingaro)

The powerful sub “completed her final deployment after 35 years of service, circumnavigating the globe in seven months starting from Oahu, Hawaii, transiting through the Panama Canal, Strait of Gibraltar and Suez Canal,” Cmdr. Benjamin Selph, the sub’s commanding officer, said.

Selph said the sub and its crew worked visited various allies and partners during the deployment, at times engaging other navies, such as the British Royal Navy. “We joined the crew of HMS Talent in a day of barbeque and friendly sports competitions of soccer, football and volleyball,” he explained.

How robots and drones might be used in future wars

The crew of the USS Olympia moors in Hawaii following a seven-month deployment.

(U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 2nd Class Michael B. Zingaro)

Selph said that “sailing around the world in our country’s oldest serving nuclear-powered Los Angeles-class fast-attack submarine is a testament to the durability and design of the submarine but also the tenacity and ‘fight on’ spirit of the crew.”

Master Chief Electronics Technician (Radio) Arturo Placencia, Olympia’s chief-of-the-boat, said the boat and its crew “performed with excellence,” adding that “for everyone onboard, this was the first time we completed a circumnavigation of the globe.”

How robots and drones might be used in future wars

Sailors assigned to the USS Olympia load a Mark 48 torpedo from the pier in Souda Bay, Greece, July 10, 2019.

(U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 2nd Class Kelly M. Agee)

The War Zone, a defense publication, tracked the Olympia’s travels from Hawaii to the Western Pacific and through the Indian Ocean, the Red Sea, and the Suez Canal. The sub then conducted operations in the Mediterranean before heading to the Atlantic, passing through the Panama Canal, and sailing through the Eastern Pacific to Pearl Harbor.

Source: The War Zone

How robots and drones might be used in future wars

USS Olympia returns home following a seven-month deployment.

(U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 1st Class Amanda Gray)

How robots and drones might be used in future wars

Sailors load a Harpoon anti-ship cruise missile aboard the USS Olympia as part of the biannual RIMPAC maritime exercise.

(U.S. Navy photo)

Even in the final years of its more than three decades of service, the Olympia remained a symbol of US undersea power. For example, last summer, it became the first US sub in 20 years to fire a Harpoon sub-launched anti-ship cruise missile. The US military is building this capability as it confronts great power rivals with capable surface fleets.

Source: Submarine Force Pacific

How robots and drones might be used in future wars

Electronics Technician (Nuclear) 1st Class Todd Bolen hugs his girlfriend at Olympia’s homecoming.

(U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 2nd Class Michael B. Zingaro)

How robots and drones might be used in future wars

Cmdr. Travis Zettel, commander of the USS Bremerton, left, hands the Rear Adm. Richard O’Kane cribbage board to Cmdr. Benjamin J. Selph, commander of the USS Olympia, at Joint Base Pearl Harbor-Hickam.

(U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 2nd Class Michael Lee)

In Navy tradition, a lucky cribbage board belonging to Cmdr. Richard O’Kane, who was dealt an incredible winning hand before his Gato-class sub, USS Wahoo, sank two Japanese freighters in 1943, was passed from the USS Bremerton to the Olympia when the latter became the oldest fast-attack sub. Before it is decommissioned, the Olympia will pass the board to another sub, reportedly the USS Chicago.

This article originally appeared on Business Insider. Follow @BusinessInsider on Twitter.

MIGHTY TRENDING

The verdict is in: Veterans love their music

These veterans served in different branches and different conflicts, but one thing unites them — their love of music.


We Are The Mighty and USAA flew the Mission: Music finalists to the world-famous Ocean Way Studio in Nashville for a recording session where we took the opportunity to chat about the music that influenced them along the way.

U.S. Marine JP Guhns likened songs to little checkmarks — little memories — along his military career, while husband and wife duo Home Bru brought up how music connected them to their family.

“Talking about our grandparent’s generation and their service kind of inspires you to be a service member as well,” observed Chelsea, while Matt talked about the music that helped him when he missed home.

Air Force veteran Theresa Bowman cautions people not to underestimate her because of her stature — ACDC is on her list because she knows how to bring the dynamite.

Bobby Blackhat Walters brings the blues, which reminds him of the tough times and the good times.

Vote now for your favorite MISSION: MUSIC Finalist

Meanwhile, Steve Schneider of Jericho Hill related to Thrice’s “Stare at the Sun,” a tune about looking for something to believe in. Many veterans can relate to the feeling of questioning what they’re fighting for, and for this soldier, music helped him come up with an answer.

“There are days in the military where you might not have a whole lot to do, but they’re gonna find stuff for you to do,” laughed U.S. Navy veteran McClain Potter as he explained why “Everyday is Exactly The Same” from Nine Inch Nails is on his Battle Mix.

Check out the full Mission: Music Finalist Battle Mix on Spotify by clicking right here and don’t forget to vote for your favorite artist by clicking right here:

Articles

The next Navy sub could be built with 3D printing

Today it costs the U.S. Navy about $2.6 billion and just under 2.5 years to build a Virginia-class sub. But a joint endeavor by the Department of Energy and the Department of Defense could greatly reduce those costs going forward.


According to a video by Business Insider, the joint project involves using a 3D printer to hake the hull of a mini-submarine.

3D printing has been around for a while – and in 2015, a Royal Air Force Panavia Tornado flew with parts that had been made that way. But this latest effort takes things to a whole new level. It also hit the news when Defense Distributed released plans for 3D-printed firearms.

How robots and drones might be used in future wars
Members of SEAL Delivery Vehicle Team Two (SDVT-2) prepare to launch one of the team’s SEAL Delivery Vehicles (SDV) from the back of the Los Angeles-class attack submarine USS Philadelphia (SSN 690) on a training exercise. (U.S. Navy photo by Chief Photographer’s Mate Andrew McKaskle (RELEASED)

The mini-submarine in the video appears to be very similar to SEAL Delivery Vehicles. These are used to help SEAL infiltrate in and out. Normally these hulls cost about $800,000 to make over a period of months, but 3D printing can reduce the cost by 90 percent and create the hull in a matter of weeks.

The logistical advantages for 3D printing are also significant – offering the ability to custom-design needed parts. That saves time in getting a plane or vehicle back into the fight, and that time could save lives.

How robots and drones might be used in future wars
3D Printing. Photo by Jonathan Juursema.

One prototype has been built, and a second is planned. They will be tested by the Navy.

If all goes well, these printed SDVs could be in service by 2019. To see more about this, watch the video below.

popular

How to address military members as a military spouse

Pop quiz time!

Read the scenarios below and guess the answer.

You are at a squadron picnic where you have just PCSed. You are slightly apprehensive because you are meeting many new people. Your spouse points out her boss and is going to introduce you.

“Paul, this is Col. William. Col. William, this is my husband, Paul.”
Col. William says, “Nice to meet you Paul. Please call me Sarah.”

What do you say?


You have stopped into your spouse’s office to meet him for lunch. You see a young Airman with one stripe on his shoulder sitting at a desk. He says, “Hello, ma’am.” And then your spouse tells you that Airman’s first name.

How do you complete the introduction?

You are at a promotion ceremony and across the room you see a 4-star General whom you met when she was a Lieutenant Colonel. Back then, you called her by her first name, but now she is wearing stars on her shoulders. You turn to your spouse and ask him, “Do I call her Ma’am or by her first name?”

What is the correct answer?

You are at WalMart shopping for odds and ends when your spouse spots her Chief walking down the aisle toward you. Your spouse introduces you to Chief Barney. The Chief gives his first name.

How do you reply?

You are at a dining out. You are dressed to the nines and are feeling fine. Social hour is in full swing and as you step up to the bar to order a drink, you notice that the gentleman standing next to you is none other than the SACEUR (Supreme Allied Commander Europe). Your spouse says, “Hello Sir.” He says hello back. The SACEUR extends his hand to you and says, “Hello, I’m Philip and this is my wife, Cindy.”

How do you respond?

Answer key for all: You call the military member by their first name.

This is one of the areas of military protocol that I have a passion about.

How robots and drones might be used in future wars

There is nowhere that states that we have rank as military spouses. Because we don’t have rank, there is no hierarchy that we must adhere to. This means that you speak to people as if they are people, which they are.

Now that’s not saying that you can’t call someone “Chief” or “General” or even “Airman” but there is no penalty if you choose to call them by their first name. That is what their parents named them, after all.

There are a few exceptions to this “rule.”

Sometimes the service member may have a “call sign.” A call sign is a nickname given to rated officers during a naming ceremony. During that time, there is a group of people who decide on the new person’s nickname. It is usually an homage to a character trait or it coordinates with their first or last name. Once they are given their new name, they may choose to use it always.

For example, I have a friend who was named “Pumba” during his naming ceremony. He introduced himself by his call sign so I didn’t know his real first name until many years later. A reason for this may be that your significant other only knows that person by their call sign. So that is how you are introduced to them. Even today, it is funny to hear “Fuzzy’s” spouse call him “Ryan” because I can’t connect the two names to that one person. It takes a lot of mental math when speaking to family members about them.

The other exception is when a military member is attached to his rank. Sometimes this is a good thing and sometimes not. When I was first introduced to Chief Woolridge, our wing chief, he told me to call him “Avery” so I did. Most just called him “Chief.” After all, he’d earned that rank. I called him “Chief” but also by his first name because that’s who he was. He said that I was the first person in his career to call him by his name. I am still not sure if that was a good or bad thing.

But then there is the officer who give all officers a bad name. That’s the person who insists that you call them by their rank, no matter who they are talking to. I have only met one such person in our 24+ years of service. (Let’s say that we avoid that person as much as possible.) And that’s another etiquette lesson in itself.

The biggest takeaway from this is that while there are protocols in place for the military, there are no written ones for you as a civilian. Civility is your compass for all interactions. The hardest part is remembering someone’s name. And that may be where your only faux pas comes into play.

This article originally appeared on Military Spouse. Follow @MilSpouseMag on Twitter.

Articles

Wing commander praises crew of wrecked B-52 for averting a larger catastrophe

The seven crewmembers of a B-52 that crashed at Anderson Air Force Base, Guam, during a takeoff on May 19 were applauded by their commander for their actions in the crisis.


“We are thankful that the air crew are safe,” Brig. Gen. Douglas Cox, 36th Wing commander, told Pacific Daily News. “Because of their quick thinking and good judgment in this emergency situation, the air crew not only saved their lives, but averted a more catastrophic incident.”

How robots and drones might be used in future wars
A B-52 takes off successfully. Photo: US Air Force Senior Airman Brittany Y. Bateman

The plane was taking off on a routine training mission and was carrying only inert munitions, which limited the potential danger to nearby civilians or to emergency responders. Still, it had a full load of fuel and both Air Force and local firefighters had to quickly cordon off the area and battle the flames.

The mission was part of the Department of Defense’s continuous bomber presence in the Pacific. Guam is a small island but has played an outsized role in U.S. Pacific strategy because of its placement near both important sea lanes as well as areas of the Pacific that are claimed by multiple countries, including China.

The Air Force is now working to investigate the crash while also limiting the environmental effects of the spilled fuel and oil from the wreck.

How robots and drones might be used in future wars
B-2 Spirits have also had mechanical issues while flying out of Guam. Photo: US Air Force Staff Sgt. Bennie J. Davis III

This is the second B-52 crash at the base in eight years. A 2008 incident tragically claimed the lives of six crewmembers. In addition to the B-52 incidents, a B-2 Spirit was damaged in Guam due to sensor failures and a B-1 was damaged when it struck emergency vehicles during an emergency landing in 2008. In 2010, another B-2 was damaged when a fire broke out in an engine compartment.

MIGHTY HISTORY

The fascinating life of the man who invented the… saxophone?

The favoured instrument of the likes of Lisa Simpsons, former President Bill Clinton, and the co-author of this article and founder of TodayIFoundOut, the saxophone has variously been described as everything from “the most moving and heart-gripping wind instrument” to the “Devil’s horn.” Rather fittingly then the instrument’s inventor, Adolphe Sax, was a similarly polarising figure and led a life many would qualify as fulfilling all of the necessary specifications to be classified as being “all kinds of badass.”

Born in 1814 in the Belgian municipality of Dinant, Sax was initially named Antoine-Joseph Sax but started going by the name Adolphe seemingly almost from birth, though why he didn’t go by his original name and how “Adolphe” came to be chosen has been lost to history.


The son of a carpenter and eventual master instrument maker Charles Sax, Adolphe Sax was surrounded by music from an early age, becoming especially proficient at playing both the flute and clarinet. Sax’s affinity for wind instruments quickly became apparent in his early teens when he began improving upon and refine the designs of these instruments, as well as coming up with many more. But we’re getting ahead of ourselves because Sax was immeasurably lucky to even make it to adulthood given what he went through as a child.

How robots and drones might be used in future wars

Charles Sax.

Described as chronically accident prone, throughout his childhood Sax fell victim to a series of increasingly unusual mishaps, several of which nearly cost him his life. Sax’s first major incident occurred at age 3 when he fell down three flights of stairs and landed unceremoniously at the bottom with his head smacking on the stone floor there. Reports of the aftermath vary somewhat, from being in a coma for a week, to simply being bedridden for that period, unable to stand properly.

A young Sax would later accidentally swallow a large needle which he miraculously passed without incident or injury. On that note, apparently keen on swallowing things that could cause him harm, as a child he drank a concoction of white lead, copper oxide, and arsenic…

In another incident, Sax accidentally fell onto a burning stove reportedly receiving severe burns to his side. Luckily, he seemingly avoided severe infection that can sometimes follow such, though part of his body was forever scarred.

Perhaps the closest he came to dying occurred when he was 10 and fell into a river. This fact was not discovered until a random villager observed Sax floating face down near a mill. He was promptly plucked from the river and later regained consciousness.

But wait, we’re not done yet, because in another incident he got blown across his father’s workshop when a container of gunpowder exploded when he was standing next to it.

Yet again courting death, a young Sax was injured while walking in the streets when a large slate tile flew off a nearby roof and hit him right on the head, rendering him temporarily comatose.

All of these injuries led Sax’s understandably worried mother, Maria, to openly say her young son was “condemned to misfortune”, before adding, “he won’t live.” Sax’s numerous brushes with death also led to his neighbours jokingly referring to him as “the ghost-child from Dinant.”

Besides apparently giving his all to practicing for a future audition in a “Final Destination film,” on the side, as noted, Sax made musical instruments.

In fact, he became so adept at this that when the young man grew into adulthood and began submitting his instruments to the Belgian National Exhibition, for a few years running he was recommended by the judges for the Gold Medal at the competition, only to have the Central Jury making the final decision deny him such because of his age. They explained to him that if he won the gold, he would then have already achieved the pinnacle of success at the competition, and thus would have nothing to strive for in it the following year.

How robots and drones might be used in future wars

Adolphe Sax.

In the final of these competitions he entered at the age of 27 in 1841, this was actually to be the public debut of the saxophone, but according to a friend of Sax, Georges Kastner, when Sax wasn’t around, someone, rumored to be a competitor who disliked the young upstart, kicked the instrument, sending it flying and damaging it too severely to be entered in the competition.

Nonetheless, Sax was recommended for the Premier Gold Medal at the exhibition thanks to his other submitted instruments, but the Central Jury once again denied this to him. This was the final straw, with Sax retorting, “If I am too young for the gold medal, I am too old for the silver.”

Now a grown man and having seemingly outgrown what it was possible to achieve in Dinant, Sax decided a move was in order, choosing Paris as is destination to set up shop. As to why, to begin with, in 1839 he had traveled to Paris to demonstrate his design for a bass clarinet to one Isacc Dacosta who was a clarinet player at the Paris Academy of Music. Dacosta himself also had created his own improved version of the bass clarinet, but after hearing and playing Sax’s version was quickly impressed by it and Sax himself. He then subsequently introduced Sax around town to various prominent musicians, giving Sax many notable connections in Paris to start from.

Further, not long after he was snubbed at the Exhibition, Sax had learned that certain members of the French government were keen on revitalizing the French military bands and were seeking new and improved instruments to do so. After mulling it over for some time, he decided to try his hand in the big city.

Upon arriving in Paris in 1842, supposedly with a mere 30 francs in his pocked, Sax invited noted composer Hector Berlioz to come review his instruments, resulting in an incredibly glowing review published on June 12, 1842 in the Journal des debats.

Unfortunately for him, this was the start of an issue that would plague Sax for the rest of his life — pitting himself up against the combined might of the rest of the musical instrument makers in Paris who quite literally would go on to form an organization just to take Sax down.

But we’re getting ahead of ourselves.

As for Berlioz’s review of Sax’s work, he wrote,

M. Adolphe Sax of Brussels… is a man of penetrating mind; lucid, tenacious, with a perseverance against all trials, and great skill… He is at the same time a calculator, acoustician, and as necessary also a smelter, turner and engraver. He can think and act. He invents and accomplishes… Composers will be much indebted to M. Sax when his instruments come into general use. May he persevere; he will not lack support from friends of art.

Partially as a result of this piece, Sax was invited to perform a concert at the Paris Conservatoire to much fanfare and success. This, in turn, along with his former connections from his 1839 visit, ended up seeing Sax making many friends quickly among certain prominent musicians and composers impressed with his work. All this, in turn, saw Sax have little trouble acquiring the needed funds to setup the Adolphe Sax Musical Instrument Factory.

How robots and drones might be used in future wars

Needless to say, this young Belgian upstart, who was seemingly a prodigy when it came to inventing and improving on existing instruments, threatened to leave the other musical instrument makers in Paris in the dust.

Said rivals thus began resorting to every underhanded trick in the book to try to ruin him, from frequent slanderous newspaper articles, to lawsuits, to attempts to have his work boycotted.

For example, in 1843, one Dom Sebastien was composing his opera Gaetano Donizetti and had decided to use Sax’s design for a bass clarinet which, as noted, was significantly improved over other instrument makers of the day’s versions. Leveraging their connections with various musicians in the opera, many of whom worked closely with various other musical instrument makers around town, the threat was made that if Sebastien chose to have Sax’ bass clarinet used in the opera, the orchestra members would refuse to play. This resulted in Sebastien abandoning plans to use Sax’ instrument.

In the past, and indeed in many such instances where his instruments would be snubbed or insulted by others, Sax had been known to challenge fellow musicians besmirching his name to musical duels, pitting their talents against one another in a very public way. Owing to his prodigious skill at not just making extremely high quality instruments, but playing them, Sax frequently won such “duels”. In this case, it is not clear if he extended such a challenge, however.

Whatever the case, as one witness to the harassment, the aforementioned composer Hector Berlioz, would write in a letter dated Oct. 8, 1843,

It is scarcely to be believed that this gifted young artist should be finding it difficult to maintain his position and make a career in Paris. The persecutions he suffers are worthy of the Middle Ages and recall the antics of the enemies of Benvenuto, the Florentine sculptor. They lure away his workmen, steal his designs, accuse him of insanity, and bring legal proceedings against him. Such is the hatred inventors inspire in rivals who are incapable of inventing anything themselves.

His audacious plans didn’t help matters. As noted, when he got to Paris, one of the things he hoped to accomplish was to land a rather lucrative contract with the French military to see his instruments alone used by them. A centerpiece of this, he hoped, was his new and extremely innovative saxophone.

While it seems commonplace today, in a lot of ways the saxophone was a revolution at the time, effectively combining major elements of the woodwind families with the brass. As Berlioz would note of the saxophone in his review of it, “It cries, sighs, and dreams. It possesses a crescendo and can gradually diminish its sound until it is only an echo of an echo of an echo- until its sound becomes crepuscular… The timbre of the saxophone has something vexing and sad about it in the high register; the low notes to the contrary are of a grandiose nature, one could say pontifical. For works of a mysterious and solemn character, the saxophone is, in my mind, the most beautiful low voice known to this today.”

Exactly when Sax first publicly debuted the saxophone to the world isn’t clear, with dates as early as 1842 sometimes being thrown around. However, we do know that during one of his earliest performances with the instrument at the Paris Industrial Exhibition in 1844, Sax played a rousing solo from behind a large curtain. Why? Well, Sax was paranoid about his instrument’s design being copied and, as he hadn’t patented it yet, decided that the best way to avoid this was to simply not let the general public see what it looked like.

How robots and drones might be used in future wars
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This brings us to the military. As previously noted, the French military music was languishing in disgrace. Thus, keen to revitalize it in the name of patriotism, the French government created a commission to explore ways to reform the military bands in innovative ways. Two months after announcing this to the world and inviting manufacturers to submit their instruments for potential use by the military, a concert of sorts was put on in front of a crowd of 20,000 in Paris on April 22, 1845.

Two bands would perform in the concert, with one using more traditional instruments and the other armed with various types of saxophones and other modifications on existing instruments by Sax. Both bands played the same works by composer Adolphe Adam.

The band using Sax’s instruments won by a landslide. Several months later, on Aug. 9, 1845, they awarded Sax the lucrative military contract he’d set out to get when he first moved to Paris.

This was the last straw — when Sax, a Belgian no less, secured the contract to supply the French military, his rivals decided to literally form an organization who might as well have called themselves the “Anti-Sax Club”, but in the end went with — L’Association générale des ouvriers en instruments demusique (the United Association of Instrument Makers). This was an organization to which the most prominent and talented instrument maker in France at the time was most definitely not welcome to join.

Their principal order of business throughout Sax’s lifetime seemed to be to try to ruin Sax in any way they could. To begin with, adopting the age old practice of “If you can’t beat ’em, sue ’em,” a long running tactic by the organization was simply to tie up Sax’s resources, time, and energy in any way possible in court.

The first legal action of this group was to challenge Sax’s patent application on the saxophone, initially claiming, somewhat bizarrely, that the instrument as described in the patent didn’t technically exist. When that failed, they claimed that the instrument was unmusical and that in any event Sax had simply modified designs from other makers. They then presented various other instruments that had preceded it as examples, none of which the court agreed were similar enough to the saxophone to warrant not granting the patent.

Next up, they claimed that the exact design had long existed before, made by other manufacturers in other countries and that Sax was falsely claiming it as his own. To prove this, the group produced several literally identical instruments to Sax’s saxophone bearing foreign manufacturing markings and supposedly made years before.

The truth was that they had simply purchased saxophones from Sax’s company and sent them to foreign workshops where Sax’s labeling had been removed and replaced with the shop owner’s own.

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A “straight-necked” Conn C melody saxophone.

Unfortunately for the United Association of Instrument Makers, this ruse was discovered and they had to come up with a new strategy.

They then claimed that since Sax had very publicly played the instrument on several occasions, it was no longer eligible for a patent.

At this point, fed up with the whole thing, an infuriated Sax countered by withdrawing his patent application and giving other instrument makers permission to make a saxophone if they had the skill. He gave his rivals a year to do this, in which time nobody was able to successfully replicate the instrument with any quality. Shortly before the year was up, with no challenger apparently capable, he then re-submitted his patent application and this time it was quickly granted on June 22, 1846.

Apparently not content with just trying to metaphorically ruin his life and business, at one point Sax’s workshop mysteriously caught fire and in another an unknown assassin fired a pistol at one of Sax’s assistants, thinking it was Sax, with it being rumored that the United Association of Instrument Makers was behind both of these things.

Whether true or not, things took a turn for the worse for Sax after King Louis-Philippe fled the country in 1848. In the aftermath of the revolution, and with many of Sax’s high placed friends now ousted, the United Association of Instrument Makers were able to simultaneously petition to have Sax’s contract with the military revoked and, by 1849, were able to have his patents for the bugles-a-cylindres and saxotromba likewise revoked, freeing his rivals up to make the instruments themselves. They also attempted to have his patent for the saxophone squashed, but were unsuccessful on that one.

Sax, not one to take this sitting down, appealed and after a five year legal battle, the Imperial Court at Rouen finally concluded the matter, siding with Sax and reinstating his patents, as well as ordering the Association to pay damages for the significant loss of revenue in the years the legal battle had raged.

Nevertheless, before this happened, in 1852, Sax found himself financially ruined, though interestingly, his final downfall came thanks to a friend. During this time, as noted, Sax was fighting various legal battles, had lost his military contract, and was otherwise struggling to keep his factory afloat. That’s when a friend gave him 30,000 francs to keep things going. Sax had originally understood this to be a gift, not a loan. Whether it was or wasn’t isn’t clear, but when said individual died a couple years later in 1852, his heirs certainly noticed the previous transaction and inquired about it with Sax, demanding he repay the 30,000 francs and giving him a mere 24 hours to come up with the money.

Unable to do so, Sax fled to London while simultaneously once again finding himself embroiled in yet another legal drama. In this case, the courts eventually demanded Sax repay the 30,000 francs, causing him to have to file for bankruptcy and close down his factory.

But this is Adolphe Sax we’re talking about — a man who had survived major blows to the head, drowning, explosion, poisoning, severe burns, beatings by thugs presumably hired by the United Association of Instrument Makers, an assassination attempt, and literally the combined might of just about every prominent instrument maker in his field in Paris leveled against him.

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Adolphe Sax in the 1850s.

Fittingly for a man who is quoted as stating, “In life there are conquerors and the conquered; I most prefer to be among the first”, Sax wasn’t about to quit.

And so it was that continuing to work at his craft, in 1854, Sax found himself back on top, appointed Musical Instrument Maker to the Household Troops of Emperor Napoleon III. His new benefactor also helped Sax emerge from bankruptcy and re-open his factory.

It’s at this point, however, that we should point out that, as indicated by his childhood, it clearly wasn’t just other instrument makers that were against Sax, but the universe as well.

A year before his appointment by Napoleon III, Sax noticed a black growth on his lip that continued to grow over time. By 1859, this tumor had grown to such a size that he could not eat or drink properly and was forced to consume sustenance from a tube.

Just to kick him while he was down, shortly before this, in 1858, Sax’s first born child, Charles, died at the age of 2.

Going back to the cancer, his choice at this point in 1859 was to be subjected to a risky and disfiguring surgery, including removing part of his jaw and much of his lip, or submit himself to experimental medicine of the age. He chose the latter, ultimately being treated by an Indian doctor by the name of Vries who administered some private concoction made from a variety of herbs.

Whether the treatment did it or Sax’s own body simply decided that it would not let something trivial like cancer stop it from continuing to soldier on, within six months from the start of the treatment, and after having had the tumor for some six years at this point, Sax’s giant tumor began to get smaller. By February of 1860, it had disappeared completely.

The rest of Sax’s life went pretty much as what had come before, variously impressing the world with his talents in musical instrument making, as well as fighting constant legal battles, with the United Association of Instrument Makers attempting to thwart him in any way they could, while simultaneously the musical instrument makers behind it profited from Sax’s designs as his patents expired.

Finally fed up with everything, a then 72 year old, near destitute Sax attempted to get justice outside of the courts, with an aptly titled article called “Appeal to the Public”, published in the La Musique des Familles in 1887. The article outlined the many ways in which Sax had been wronged by the United Association of Instrument Makers and the near constant, often frivolous, legal battles he fought throughout his time in Paris with them. He summed up,

[B]efore me, I am proud to say, the musical instrument industry was nothing, or next to nothing, in France. I created this industry; I carried it to an unrivaled height; I developed the legions of workers and musicians, and it is above all my counterfeiters who have profited from my work.

While none of this worked at getting the general public to rally to his defense, it did result in many prominent musicians and composers around Paris petitioning that Sax, who had indeed contributed much to the French musical world, should be given a pension so that he could at least be comfortable in the latter years of his life. The results of this was a modest pension ultimately granted towards this end.

On the side when he wasn’t fighting countless legal battles and inventing and making instruments, Sax also had a penchant for dreaming up alternate inventions, such as designing a device that could launch a 500 ton, eleven yard wide mortar bullet, he called — and we’re not making this up — the Saxocannon. He also designed a truly massive organ intended to be built on a hillside near Paris, capable of being heard clearly by anyone throughout the city when it was played.

In the end, Sax died at the age of 79 in 1894 and was buried in the Montmartre Cemetery in Paris.

This article originally appeared on Today I Found Out. Follow @TodayIFoundOut on Twitter.

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