Voice technology created the 1963 speech JFK never gave - We Are The Mighty
MIGHTY TRENDING

Voice technology created the 1963 speech JFK never gave

The speech which President John F. Kennedy was due to deliver on the day of his assassination has been recreated with voice synthesis technology.


Kennedy was on his way to give the speech when he was shot dead while driving through Dallas with his presidential motorcade.

The text, however, survived. And voice synthesis experts have been able to bring the speech to life by synthesising 116,777 voice samples to create the illusion of a fluent performance.

Also read: Here are the top conspiracy theories surrounding Kennedy assassination

Scottish voice company CereProc stitched together parts from 831 separate JFK recordings, each of which was around 0.4 seconds long, to form the full 2,590-word address. The project took two months.

The recording was published the morning of March 16, 2018, on the website of The Times newspaper, which commissioned the project.

A small excerpt can also be heard at the end of this video:

 

Kennedy’s speech (published here in full by the JFK Presidential Library), was dedicated in part to the recently-established Graduate Research Center of the Southwest.

It reads in part as a rebuke of populism, emphasising that the US must be “guided by the lights of learning and reason” and wary of populists with “swift and simple solutions to every world problem.”

More: Here is the story behind John F. Kennedy’s Purple Heart

Here’s an excerpt:

This link between leadership and learning is not only essential at the community level. It is even more indispensable in world affairs. Ignorance and misinformation can handicap the progress of a city or a company, but they can, if allowed to prevail in foreign policy, handicap this country’s security.

 

In a world of complex and continuing problems, in a world full of frustrations and irritations, America’s leadership must be guided by the lights of learning and reason or else those who confuse rhetoric with reality and the plausible with the possible will gain the popular ascendancy with their seemingly swift and simple solutions to every world problem.

MIGHTY TACTICAL

What you need to know about the banned missile the US is developing

Thirty years ago, the United States and the Soviet Union signed the Intermediate Nuclear Forces Treaty, or INF Treaty, which called for the elimination of all ground launched-surface-to-surface missiles with ranges between 500 and 5,500 kilometers (310 to 3,417 miles). This treaty held through the 1990s and most of the 2000s, but in recent years, there have been allegations of Russian non-compliance.


According to a report by the Wall Street Journal, the United States has begun development of a ground-launched cruise missile. The last such system the United States had in service was the BGM-109G Gryphon, a version of the Tomahawk cruise missile still used by the United States Navy. It was one of three systems scrapped by the United States in compliance with the INF Treaty.

Voice technology created the 1963 speech JFK never gave
A BGM-109G Gryphon is launched. (DOD photo)

Details on the new missile are scarce, as the system’s development has begun. One likely option would be to try to bring back the ground-launched version of the Tomahawk. Another option could be to launch Tomahawks from an Aegis Ashore base. The Tomahawk can be launched from the same vertical-launch cells as the RIM-161 Standard Missile, or SM-3, used in Aegis Ashore. A 2016 release from Lockheed Martin noted that an Aegis Ashore base in Romania is active, and one in Poland is under construction.

The Wall Street Journal noted that the Pentagon’s intention is to hopefully force Russia to comply with the 1987 treaty. However, should Russia not go back into compliance, a source told the paper that the United States is determined to be ready if the Russians choose to “live in a post-INF world … if that is the world the Russians want,” as one official put it.

Voice technology created the 1963 speech JFK never gave
USS Ross (DDG 71) fires a tomahawk land attack missile April 7, 2017. (U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 3rd Class Robert S. Price/Released)

The Hill reported that during meetings with other NATO defense ministers at NATO Headquarters in Brussels, Belgium, Secretary of Defense James Mattis states that Russia’s violations raise “concern about Russia’s willingness to live up to the accords that it’s signed, the treaties it’s signed.”

MIGHTY TACTICAL

See what happened when world’s top snipers competed

The finest snipers in the US military, as well as local, state, and federal law-enforcement agencies, have been battling it out against teams from across the US and around the world in the annual International Sniper Competition.

The Army’s 75th Ranger Regiment came in first, the Colorado Army National Guard took second, and Sweden’s 17th Wing Air Force Rangers came in third. There were also some surprises in the rankings.


Voice technology created the 1963 speech JFK never gave

(U.S. Army photo by Markeith Horace, Maneuver Center of Excellence, Fort Benning Public Affairs)

Voice technology created the 1963 speech JFK never gave

(U.S. Army photo by Patrick A. Albright, Maneuver Center of Excellence, Fort Benning Public Affairs)

Voice technology created the 1963 speech JFK never gave

(U.S. Army photo by Patrick A. Albright, Maneuver Center of Excellence, Fort Benning Public Affairs)

Voice technology created the 1963 speech JFK never gave

(U.S. Army photo by Patrick A. Albright, Maneuver Center of Excellence, Fort Benning Public Affairs)

According to the Army, teams must complete “a gauntlet of rigorous physical, mental and endurance events that test the range of sniper skills that include, but are not limited to, long range marksmanship, observation, reconnaissance and reporting abilities, and abilities to move with stealth and concealment.”

Source: US Army

Voice technology created the 1963 speech JFK never gave

(U.S. Army photo by Patrick A. Albright, Maneuver Center of Excellence, Fort Benning Public Affairs)

Snipers play a critical role in combat, with missions including “precision fires on enemy personnel and equipment, intelligence gathering, counter-sniper operations, infiltration and overwatch of [named areas of interest], occupation of and operations in support by fire positions, ballistic interdiction of IEDs, and disruption of enemy operations.”

Source: US Army

Voice technology created the 1963 speech JFK never gave

(U.S. Army photo by Patrick A. Albright, Maneuver Center of Excellence, Fort Benning Public Affairs)

Voice technology created the 1963 speech JFK never gave

(U.S. Army photo by Patrick A. Albright, Maneuver Center of Excellence, Fort Benning Public Affairs)

“Working together in this venue is a great way for us to share ideas, build rapport, and train our forces,” Brig. Gen. David M. Hodne, the US Army Infantry School commandant, said at the closing ceremony, “After all, the purpose of the International Sniper Competition is to improve our collective lethality.”

Source: Fort Benning Public Affairs Office

Voice technology created the 1963 speech JFK never gave

(U.S. Army photo by Patrick A. Albright, Maneuver Center of Excellence, Fort Benning Public Affairs)

Voice technology created the 1963 speech JFK never gave

(U.S. Army photos by Markeith Horace, Maneuver Center of Excellence, Fort Benning Public Affairs)

Voice technology created the 1963 speech JFK never gave

(U.S. Army photos by Markeith Horace, Maneuver Center of Excellence, Fort Benning Public Affairs)

Voice technology created the 1963 speech JFK never gave

(U.S. Army photos by Markeith Horace, Maneuver Center of Excellence, Fort Benning Public Affairs)

Voice technology created the 1963 speech JFK never gave

(U.S. Army photos by Markeith Horace, Maneuver Center of Excellence, Fort Benning Public Affairs)

Voice technology created the 1963 speech JFK never gave

US Army teams dominated the competition. One surprising result: The US Coast Guard’s Special Missions Training Detachment edged out the US Marine Corps’ Scout Sniper instructors.

This article originally appeared on Business Insider. Follow @BusinessInsider on Twitter.

MIGHTY TRENDING

The number of US troops with the coronavirus more than quadrupled in a week

The number of coronavirus cases in the US military is on the rise, the latest Department of Defense figures show.

In just a week’s time, the number of cases among US service members has more than quadrupled.


On March 23, the number of US troops that had the coronavirus was 133. A week later, the number of current cases has jumped to 569.

Across the entire Department of Defense, the number of coronavirus cases is also more than four times what it was a week ago.

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Screen shot of DoD coronavirus figures from COVID-19 fact sheet

DoD

In addition to the more than 500 military personnel who have the virus, the Pentagon reports that 220 civilian employees, 190 dependents, and 64 contractors have it.

As of last Monday, only 44 civilian personnel, 35 dependents, and 31 contractors had the coronavirus.

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Screen shot of DoD coronavirus figures from COVID-19 fact sheet

DoD

The number of military personnel who have been hospitalized has jumped from four to 26 in the past week, doubling from 12 on Friday. Hospitalizations among civilian employees, dependents, and contractors have also increased.

Among US troops, 34 service members have recovered. Across DoD, a total of 42 people have recovered from the virus. There have been no deaths among military or civilian personnel, but the coronavirus has killed a dependent and a contractor.

One of the more heavily affected service branches has been the Navy, which has suffered outbreaks not only aboard pier-side ships but also aboard a deployed ship. A coronavirus outbreak aboard the Navy aircraft carrier USS Theodore Roosevelt forced the flattop to make port in Guam, where the entire crew is being tested for the virus.

While the Department of Defense is releasing daily coronavirus figures, Military Times reported that it has opted not to further disclose granular details that the department says could potentially give adversaries an advantage.

The coronavirus that first appeared in China has spread to more than 740,000 people and killed over 35,000 people worldwide. In the US, the number of cases has exceeded 140,000 with well over 2,000 dead.

This article originally appeared on Business Insider. Follow @BusinessInsider on Twitter.

MIGHTY TRENDING

The Air Force’s new bomber will retire these others

With the A-10 Thunderbolt II having narrowly escaped the chopping block and the F-15C Eagle currently awaiting a potentially early end to its service, the Air Force’s bomber fleet is next to face a series of retirements. While the older B-52 Stratofortress is currently safe, the Air Force is currently considering putting the B-1B Lancer and the B-2 Spirit out to pasture earlier than expected with the eventual advent of its next-generation B-21 Raider bomber.


The Air Force’s Global Strike Command, the major command under which its bombers serve, plans on procuring between 80 to 100 of the new bomber, if not more. Earlier plans called for Global Strike Command to phase in the B-21, which would serve alongside the B-1B, the B-2, and the B-52 for years before gradually replacing them altogether.

Now, instead of simply adding the planned complement of B-21s to the existing fleet of B-1Bs, B-2s, and B-52s, the service would instead begin retiring its Lancers and Spirits by the 2030s and supersede them en masse with scores of Raiders.

The B-1B Lancer serves as America’s sole supersonic strategic bomber. A marvel of engineering, the Lancer can comfortably dash at supersonic speeds at low altitudes, making it almost untouchable by enemy air defense systems. While originally designed to fulfill a nuclear strike role during the Cold War, the Lancer has since evolved into a conventional munitions “bomb truck,” serving in Afghanistan and Iraq over the past twenty years in close air support roles.

Voice technology created the 1963 speech JFK never gave
A B-1B from Ellsworth AFB operating over Afghanistan in 2008 (Photo U.S. Air Force)

For all its incredible power and strategic value, however, the Lancer does come with a set of limitations. Its high operating and maintenance costs make retaining it as a long-term active bomber a very expensive and undesirable option. Additionally, it is prohibited, by treaty, from carrying cruise missiles.

Existing in a class of its own, the B-2 Spirit is an aircraft unlike any other. Born of a need to revamp America’s aging Cold War bomber fleet of B-52s with a long-range deep strike aircraft that couldn’t be shot down if sighted. The solution to that last requirement was to build an aircraft that couldn’t be spotted at all — an all-stealth bomber that evades and defeats radar detection.

While the B-2 was highly revolutionary with its flying-wing, all-stealth design, and still remains unmatched today, the Air Force has an undeniably strong rationale behind pushing it towards retirement as well.

Voice technology created the 1963 speech JFK never gave
A B-2 Spirit taxiing at Andersen AFB, Guam. (Photo U.S. Air Force)

The B-2’s operating costs are sky-high, coming in at a whopping $130,159 USD per flight hour. With just a 20-strong fleet of Spirits, this plus the fleet’s unique support structure and incredible maintenance costs combine for a strong case against holding onto the B-2 for more than the next two decades.

The B-52, on the other hand, will soldier on for decades to come due to the fact that it can carry a considerably diverse combat payload, including guided “smart” munitions, and the Long Range Standoff cruise missile. Additionally, the B-52, more popularly known as the “BUFF,” will soon be upgraded with newer fuel-efficient turbofan engines, which will make it even easier to maintain, cheaper to fly in the long term, and improve performance metrics.

Voice technology created the 1963 speech JFK never gave
A B-52 operating out of Minot AFB, North Dakota (Photo US Air Force)

While the B-21 and the B-2 will share a passing resemblance with their flying wing architecture, the new bomber is projected to be far more cost-effective, easier to maintain, and highly multi-role, with the ability to perform intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance missions as needed. It will also be able to carry the LRSO upon its completion and entry into service.

It should be noted, however, that nothing is set in stone. The Air Force will have to account for this proposed plan to Congress before putting it into effect, and as with the earlier A-10 retirement issues, it’s all too possible that Congress could stand in the way of America’s B-1B and B-2 fleets being sent to the boneyard early.

MIGHTY TRENDING

This bazooka heading to US troops in Afghanistan is lighter and more deadly than ever

The M3 Carl Gustav is an upgraded variant of the Army’s Multi-Role Anti-Armor, Anti-Personnel Weapons System, or MAAWS – a reusable, recoilless shoulder-fired conventional munition.


It was first ordered by the Army in response to an Operational Needs Statement from Afghanistan seeking to procure a direct fire, man-portable, anti-personnel and light structure weapon able, among other things, to respond to insurgent rocket-propelled grenade, or RPG, fire.

Voice technology created the 1963 speech JFK never gave

The latest version, or M3E1, is not only lighter, but shorter than the existing M3 but also ergonomically designed with a longer handle and better grips. These features, as well as its ability to use multiple types of rounds for firing, has led the Army to approve a requirement for 1,111 M3E1 units, service statements said.

Responding to soldier feedback, Army and Saab engineers designed a titanium updated M3E1 that is more than six pounds lighter than the bulkier M3 version. The M3E1 is also 2.5 inches shorter and has an improved carrying handle, extra shoulder padding and an improved sighting system that can be adjusted for better comfort without sacrificing performance.

The M3E1 is part of the Product Manager Crew Served Weapons portfolio, which is processing a contract to procure 1,111 M3E1s and an Urgent Material Release to field them as soon as possible, service statements said.

The new variant is “seven pounds lighter than the M3 – it can be carried safely while loaded – it has advanced fire control – and it has an adjustable shoulder rest and front grip,” Wes Walters, Executive Vice President of Business Development for Land Domain with Saab North America, told Scout Warrior.

The M3E1 is also compatible with intelligent sighting systems for firing programmable rounds.

Voice technology created the 1963 speech JFK never gave
U.S. Paratroopers assigned to 173rd Airborne Brigade fires the M3 Carl Gustav rocket launcher at the 7th Army Training Command’s Grafenwoehr Training Area, Germany, Aug. 18, 2016. The Carl Gustav is a lightweight, man-portable recoilless rifle. This weapon was used by the U.S. Army after World War II. The Army retired these weapons when the Dragon and TOW anti-tank guided missiles were fielded.(U.S. Army Photo by Visual Information Specialist Gerhard Seuffert)

The weapon includes an airburst capability with its High Explosive, or HE, round.

Army weapons developers say the airburst round is the one that is utilized most often because of its effective range. It uses a mechanical time fuse which is set prior to loading the weapon system.

Airburst rounds can be pre-programmed to explode in the air at a precise location, thereby maximizing the weapon’s effect against enemy targets hiding, for example, behind a rock, tree or building.

The weapon has been used by U.S. Army Rangers, Navy SEALs and Special Forces since the late-80s. In 1988, U.S. Special Forces identified a need for a shoulder-fired, recoilless rifle to replace the M67, and Saab Dynamics developed the M3, which was a likely candidate to address the need.

Voice technology created the 1963 speech JFK never gave
A coalition force member observes as a soldier shoots a Carl Gustav recoilless rifle at a range in Helmand province, Afghanistan, Aug. 16, 2013. Coalition force members train at ranges regularly to maintain weapon readiness for operations. (U.S. Army photo by Spc. Justin Young)

Earlier versions of the anti-armor, anti-personnel, shoulder-fired multi-role weapon is 42-inches long weighs 21 pounds and can fire up to four rounds per minute.

MAAWS can utilize thermal sights to provide Soldiers with the ability to shoot at night and reach the proper range.

The MAAWS is able to fire anti-tank, flechette, illumination, enhanced armor, smoke and High Explosive Dual Purpose rounds, Army developers explained.

“The High Explosive Dual Purpose round gives you two different capabilities. In impact mode, the round goes off immediately as soon as it hits the target. In delay mode, the round penetrates the target and then goes off,” a service official explained.

MIGHTY CULTURE

Army astronaut holds Q&A from space

An Army astronaut on a six-month mission in space recently shared her experience, saying she still leans on her military training while aboard the International Space Station.

Lt. Col. Anne McClain, a former helicopter pilot who has flown over 200 combat missions, blasted into space on a Russian Soyuz rocket in early December 2018 to serve as a flight engineer for her crew.

“I spent my whole career working high-risk missions in small teams in remote areas, which is what we’re doing right now,” she said in an April 24, 2019 interview.


McClain, 39, is one of five soldiers in the Army Space and Missile Defense Command’s astronaut detachment. Its commander, Col. Andrew Morgan, is slated to launch July 20, 2019, the 50th anniversary of the Apollo 11 Moon landing.

Spacewalker

During her stay, McClain has been able to complete two spacewalks — both about 6.5-hours long — for maintenance outside the space station, which is about the length of a football field.

Voice technology created the 1963 speech JFK never gave

Astronaut Lt. Col. Anne McClain is pictured in the cupola holding biomedical gear for an experiment that measures fat changes in the bone marrow before and after exposure to microgravity.

(NASA)

On March 22, 2019, she and another American astronaut replaced batteries and performed upgrades to the station’s power system. Then on April 8, 2019, she and a Canadian astronaut routed cables that serve as a redundant power system for a large robotic arm that moves equipment and supports crews while outside the station.

When she first started to train for spacewalks back in Houston, McClain said it reminded her of being an OH-58 Kiowa helicopter pilot on a scout weapons team.

The spacesuits, she noted, are like small spacecraft that need to be constantly monitored in order for their occupants to stay alive against the extreme temperatures and vacuum of space. Suits have their own electronics, power and radio systems — similar to components helicopter pilots often cross-check while remaining focused on the mission.

Voice technology created the 1963 speech JFK never gave

Astronaut Lt. Col. Anne McClain works in a laboratory inside the International Space Station Jan. 30, 2019.

(NASA)

Then there is the buddy team aspect of both operations.

“Up here on a spacewalk, that’s the other astronaut that’s outside with you,” she said. “On the ground, that was the other helicopter that I was flying with.

“Most importantly, you have to be able to work with that other person and their system — their spacesuit, their helicopter — in order to accomplish the mission,” she added. “It was actually amazing to me how many of the skills kind of carried over into that environment.”

Space research

Unique from her Army days has been her participation in scientific experiments on the station, the only research laboratory of its kind with over 200 ongoing experiments.

An upcoming experiment, she said, is for an in-space refabricator, a hybrid 3D printer that can recycle used plastic to create new parts.

“That’s a really exciting new technology to enable deep-space exploration,” she said.

Voice technology created the 1963 speech JFK never gave

Astronaut Lt. Col. Anne McClain, wearing the spacesuit with red stripes, and Air Force Col. Nick Hague work to retrieve batteries and adapter plates from an external pallet during a spacewalk to upgrade the International Space Station’s power storage capacity March 22, 2019.

(NASA)

In December 2018, NASA announced plans to work with U.S. companies to develop reusable systems that can return astronauts to the Moon. Human-class landers are expected to be tested in 2024, with the goal to send a crew to the surface in 2028.

What’s learned in these missions could then help NASA send astronauts to Mars by the 2030s, according to a news release.

While currently in low Earth orbit, McClain explained that resupply vehicles can come and go. Beyond that, crews would need to be self-sustained for longer periods of time.

“We’re using the space station as a test bed for some of the technologies that are going to enable us to work autonomously in space,” she said, “and hit some of our deep-space exploration goals.”

As with other astronauts, McClain has also become a guinea pig of sorts in human research tests that study how the human body reacts to microgravity.

Voice technology created the 1963 speech JFK never gave

Anne McClain, now an astronaut and lieutenant colonel, stands next to a OH-58 Kiowa helicopter.

(NASA)

One experiment she has been a part of is monitoring airway inflammation up in space.

With a lack of gravity, dust particles don’t fall to the ground and will often be inhaled by astronauts. The tests measure exhaled nitric oxide, which can indicate airway inflammation, she said.

This research could be important if astronauts are sent back to the Moon, which is covered with a fine dust similar to powdered sugar, she said.

“If that’s in the air and we’re breathing that for months on end, if we’re doing extended stays on the lunar’s surface,” she said, “we need to understand how that affects the human body.”

Overview effect

While there is no typical day in space, McClain said their 12-hour shifts normally start with a meeting between them and support centers in the U.S., Russia, Germany and Japan.

When not helping with an experiment, astronauts do upkeep inside the station that includes plumbing, electricity work, changing filters, checking computer systems, or even vacuuming.

Voice technology created the 1963 speech JFK never gave

Astronaut Lt. Col. Anne McClain uses the robotics workstation inside the International Space Station to practice robotics maneuvers and spacecraft capture techniques April 16, 2019.

(NASA)

The best parts of her day, she said, are when she gets the chance to peer down on Earth. Every day, the station orbits around the planet 16 times, meaning astronauts see a sunrise or sunset every 45 minutes.

“One of the cool things about going to the window is if you’re not paying attention, you don’t even know if it’s night or day outside,” she said. “You could look out and see an aurora over the Antarctic or you could look out and see a beautiful sunrise over the Pacific.”

After seeing Earth from above with her own eyes, McClain has come to realize people there are more dependent on each other than they may think.

Voice technology created the 1963 speech JFK never gave

Astronaut Lt. Col. Anne McClain poses for a photograph with her 4-year-old son before she launched to the International Space Station in early December 2018.

(NASA)

“You get this overview effect where you realize how small we are and how fragile our planet is and how we’re really all in it together,” she said. “You don’t see borders from space, you don’t see diversity and differences in people on Earth.”

Those back on Earth can also gaze up and enjoy a similar effect.

“Sometimes we focus too much on our differences, but when we all look up into space, we see the same stars and we see the same sun,” she said. “It really can be unifying.”

Whenever she glanced up at the stars as a young child, she said it was a magical experience and eventually sparked her interest in becoming an astronaut.

Her family supported her dream and told her she could do whatever she wanted as long as she put in the work.

Q&A with Army astronaut in space

www.youtube.com

“They didn’t tell me how much work it was going to be,” she said, laughing, “but it certainly was a lot more than I anticipated.”

Before she was selected to NASA’s human spaceflight program in 2013, McClain, of Spokane, Washington, attended the U.S. Military Academy and was commissioned in 2002.

She later became a Marshall scholar and earned two master’s degrees. She then flew over 2,000 flight hours on 20 different aircraft and became a Kiowa instructor pilot.

In June 2019, she is set to return back to Earth.

“No matter what your passion is, you really can find it within the Army,” she said. “The opportunities really are endless and the sky is not the limit.”

This article originally appeared on United States Army. Follow @USArmy on Twitter.

MIGHTY TRENDING

Army-funded research nabs Nobel Prizes in chemistry and physics

Professor Frances Arnold won a 2018 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for research initially funded by the U.S. Army in new enzyme production that led to the commercial, cost-effective synthesis of biofuels tested on the U.S. Army Black Hawk helicopters in 2013, and are now approved by the aviation standards body for use in commercial aviation.

Arnold is only the fifth woman to win the prize in its 117-year history.

Gérard Mourou, a French scientist and pioneer in the field of electrical engineering and lasers, won a 2018 Nobel Prize in Physics for Army-funded research in fundamental physics that led to new developments high-intensity, ultrashort laser pulses which led to a number of commercial advancements from masonry, i.e., drilling tiny holes, to medicine’s Lasik eye surgery.


With a modest single investigator grant from the U.S. Army Research Laboratory’s Army Research Office in the 1990s, Arnold demonstrated the ability to modify an enzyme that provided robust native activity but at higher temperatures. Through a process of protein sequence alteration and selection, directed evolution stretches the boundaries of enzyme activity and function beyond what nature provides.

During this grant period, Arnold also developed a computational algorithm called SCHEMA which provides a means of improving molecular evolution searches toward targeted protein sequence alterations. Through SCHEMA, she demonstrated that this algorithm can be used to design variations of a model protein that confers functional diversity (e.g. enhanced activity, enhanced thermal stability, altered substrate specificity).

Voice technology created the 1963 speech JFK never gave

Dr. Frances Arnold, Nobel Laureate in Chemistry.

(California Institute of Technology photo)

In 2003, the Army began funding Arnold through the Army’s Institute for Collaborative Biotechnologies (AICB) in Santa Barbara. There, Arnold has utilized SCHEMA to design novel activities for a broad host of enzymes including activity and stability improvements in enzymes capable of degrading cellulosic biomass toward renewable fuel synthesis and developed new machine learning tools to enhance the selection of novel engineered enzymes.

Most notably, as a transition of Army basic research funding, Arnold co-founded a start-up company (Gevo) in 2005 that received its initial funding through the AICB applied research program. Gevo’s business goal was to scale-up processing systems that utilize SCHEMA-designed enzymes incorporated into microorganisms for the cost-effective synthesis of biofuels. From these beginnings, Gevo developed into a business that is the world’s only commercial producer of renewable isobutanol and in 2013, the US Army successfully flew the Sikorsky UH-60 Black Hawk Helicopter on a 50/50 blend of Gevo’s ATJ-8 (Alcohol-to-Jet).

“This recognition validates the way ARO pursues basic research,” said ARL’s Dr. Robert J. Kokoska, program manager in microbiology.

“Twenty years ago, an ARO program manager recognized a potentially unique and exciting approach that could change the way biology can be used to expand the possibilities and range of biochemical synthesis. As Prof. Arnold successfully pursued her vision in large part through this modest initial investment and then through the AICB, the Army can take great pride in knowing that it helped nurture this ground-breaking research which has provided valuable tools for enhancing the creativity of biologists and engineers within the Army research enterprise and the research community at-large. The exciting Army-impactful industrial biofuel transition further validates ARO’s basic research investments,” Kokoska said.

Voice technology created the 1963 speech JFK never gave

Dr. Gerard Mourou, Nobel Laureate in Physics.

(University of Michigan photo)

Arnold is the Linus Pauling professor of chemical engineering, bioengineering and biochemistry at the California Institute of Technology.

The Nobel Prize in Physics winner, Mourou, was initially funded while he was at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor. There, he created ultrashort, high-intensity laser pulses, called chirped pulse amplification, that were used to develop a positron source for positron spectroscopy. According ARO program manager Dr. Richard Hammond, this research will lead to new kinds of directed energy sources for the Army. Mourou continues his research at the Ecole Polytechnique, public institution of higher education and research in Palaiseau, a suburb southwest of Paris.

“It is good the world recognizes the value of the research funded by ARO,” Hammond said.

“This research opened the door to an entirely new kind of physics, both in spectroscopy to and high intensity physics interaction leading to directed energy include X-rays, neutron beams and beta rays. This work could lead to developments in new detection mechanisms of future failure of rotors in helicopters, finding voids in materials for electronic and photonic devises, and in radiation therapy,” Hammond explained.

Arnold shares the prize in chemistry with George Smith, who developed a method known as phage display, where a bacteriophage — a virus that infects bacteria — can be used to evolve new proteins.

Mourou shares the prize in physics with Dr. Donna Strickland, of Canada, who is only the third woman to win the prize in physics.

This article originally appeared on the United States Army. Follow @USArmy on Twitter.

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8 photos that show how a military working dog takes down bad guys

A dog’s purpose is often for companionship – and they can be loyal friends. But a number of dogs also serve.


Military working dogs have a variety of missions, including bomb detection, security and attack. In a recent photo essay, the Air Force demonstrates how MWDs are trained to take down bad guys. The canine doing this demonstration is Ttoby, a Belgian Malinois.

According to DogTime.com, the Belgian Malinois can reach up to 80 pounds, and can live for up to 14 years. The American Kennel Club website notes that the breed was first recognized in 1959, and that Cairo, a Belgian Malinois, carried out the raid alongside SEAL Team 6 that targeted Osama bin Laden. PetMD.com reports that the dog is very popular among K9 units in law enforcement agencies.

1. It looks like a normal day when Ttoby’s handler tells someone to stop.

Voice technology created the 1963 speech JFK never gave
Military Working Dog Ttoby, 23d Security Forces Squadron, prepares for an MWD demonstration, Feb. 2, 2017, at Moody Air Force Base, Ga. Ttoby is a Belgian Malinois and specializes in personnel protection and detecting explosives. (U.S. Air Force photo by Tech. Sgt. Zachary Wolf)

2. The guy refuses to comply, so the handler warns the suspected bad guy Ttoby will be turned loose.

Voice technology created the 1963 speech JFK never gave
Air Force Senior Airman Anthony Hayes and Ttoby, a military working dog, take a break during a demonstration at Moody Air Force Base, Ga., Feb. 2, 2017. Hayes is a military dog handler assigned to the 23d Security Forces Squadron. Ttoby is a Belgian Malinois and specializes in personnel protection and detecting explosives, trained as a military dog at Joint Base San Antonio-Lackland, Texas. (Air Force photo by Tech. Sgt. Zachary Wolf)

3. The bad guy is warned that the dog will be let loose if he doesn’t comply.

Voice technology created the 1963 speech JFK never gave
Senior Airman Anthony Hayes, 23d Security Forces Squadron military working dog handler, pets MWD Ttoby during a demonstration, Feb. 2, 2017, at Moody Air Force Base, Ga. Ttoby returned from his first deployment to Southwest Asia near the end of January. (U.S. Air Force photo by Tech. Sgt. Zachary Wolf)

4. The bad guy gets his last warning – Ttoby’s ready to chase.

Voice technology created the 1963 speech JFK never gave
Senior Airman Anthony Hayes, 23d Security Forces Squadron military working dog handler, prepares to release MWD Ttoby during a training demonstration, Feb. 2, 2017 at Moody Air Force Base, Ga. The first Air Force sentry dog school was activated at Showa Air Station, Japan, in 1952 and the second school was opened at Wiesbaden, West Germany in 1953. All MWDs are now trained at Joint Base San Antonio-Lackland, Texas, and then distributed throughout the Department of Defense. (U.S. Air Force photo by Tech. Sgt. Zachary Wolf)

5. Ttoby lunges onto the bad guy.

Voice technology created the 1963 speech JFK never gave
Ttoby, a military working dog, performs a bite attack during a demonstration at Moody Air Force Base, Ga., Feb. 2, 2017. (Air Force photo by Tech. Sgt. Zachary Wolf)

6. Struggling doesn’t help, as Ttoby has a firm grip.

Voice technology created the 1963 speech JFK never gave
Air Force Senior Airman Anthony Hayes, right, holds Ttoby, a military working dog, as he bites Senior Airman Randle Williams during a demonstration at Moody Air Force Base, Ga., Feb. 2, 2017. Hayes and Williams are military dog handlers assigned to the 23d Security Forces Squadron. Ttoby is a Belgian Malinois and specializes in personnel protection and detecting explosives, trained as a military dog at Joint Base San Antonio-Lackland, Texas. (Air Force photo by Tech. Sgt. Zachary Wolf)

7. Finally, the bad guy gives up.

Voice technology created the 1963 speech JFK never gave
Air Force Senior Airman Anthony Hayes, left, handles Ttoby, a military working dog, as he bites Senior Airman Randle Williams during a demonstration at Moody Air Force Base, Ga., Feb. 2, 2017. Hayes and Williams are military dog handlers assigned to the 23d Security Forces Squadron. Ttoby is a Belgian Malinois and specializes in personnel protection and detecting explosives, trained as a military dog at Joint Base San Antonio-Lackland, Texas. (Air Force photo by Tech. Sgt. Zachary Wolf)

8. Ttoby has been told to stand down, but he is ready if that bad guy does something stupid – like try to run or assault the handler.

Voice technology created the 1963 speech JFK never gave
Air Force Senior Airman Anthony Hayes, left, commands Ttoby, a military working dog, to stand down during a demonstration at Moody Air Force Base, Ga., Feb. 2, 2017. Hayes is a military dog handler assigned to the 23d Security Forces Squadron. Ttoby is a Belgian Malinois and specializes in personnel protection and detecting explosives, trained as a military dog at Joint Base San Antonio-Lackland, Texas. (Air Force photo by Tech. Sgt. Zachary Wolf)

MIGHTY TACTICAL

9 epic photos of riverine sailors preparing for combat

The U.S. Navy’s Coastal Riverine Squadron 1 is proving itself right now in preparation for mobilization, and its sailors have been showing off at tasks from convoy security to medical aid to speeding around in boats (a fun and major part of their mission) in complex tasks at Camp Pendleton, California.


So, it’s a bunch of badass sailors playing with machine guns and boats in Southern California. Wanna see some photos? Yeah, of course you do.

Voice technology created the 1963 speech JFK never gave

(U.S. Navy Hospital Corpsman 1st Class Kenji Shiroma)

Voice technology created the 1963 speech JFK never gave

(U.S. Navy Hospital Corpsman 1st Class Kenji Shiroma)

Engineman 2nd Class Christian McCain of Arlington, Texas engages opposing forces while dismounted with a M240 machine gun.

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Voice technology created the 1963 speech JFK never gave

(U.S. Navy Hospital Corpsman 1st Class Kenji Shiroma)

Voice technology created the 1963 speech JFK never gave

(U.S. Navy Hospital Corpsman 1st Class Kenji Shiroma)

Voice technology created the 1963 speech JFK never gave

(U.S. Navy Hospital Corpsman 1st Class Kenji Shiroma)

Voice technology created the 1963 speech JFK never gave

(U.S. Navy Hospital Corpsman 1st Class Kenji Shiroma)

Voice technology created the 1963 speech JFK never gave

(U.S. Navy Hospital Corpsman 1st Class Kenji Shiroma)

Voice technology created the 1963 speech JFK never gave

(U.S. Navy Hospital Corpsman 1st Class Kenji Shiroma)

Voice technology created the 1963 speech JFK never gave

(U.S. Navy Hospital Corpsman 1st Class Kenji Shiroma)

MIGHTY TRENDING

Terror comes home in Iran as militants kill 3 security forces

Three Iranian security personnel and three militants have been killed in a clash in the southeast of the country near the border with Pakistan, Iran’s state media report.

Reports said the fighting took place in the border city of Mirjaveh in Sistan-Baluchistan Province late on June 25, 2018.


Iran’s Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps (IRGC) said its ground forces killed a “terrorist group” as it tried to enter Iran.

Voice technology created the 1963 speech JFK never gave

A Sunni militant group called Jaish al-Adl (Army of Justice) claimed that its fighters killed 11 Iranian security personnel. None of the casualty figures could be independently verified.

Iranian security forces frequently clash with militants and drug traffickers in Sistan-Baluchistan. The province lies on a major smuggling route for Afghan opium and heroin.

The population of the province is predominantly Sunni, while the majority of Iranians are Shi’a.

This article originally appeared on Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Follow @RFERL on Twitter.

MIGHTY SURVIVAL

U.S. Air Force relief mission to COVID-19 crisis in Italy begins from Ramstein AB

USAF C-130s Flew Self-Contained Care Unit to Aviano Air Base in Italy on Friday.


The U.S. Air Force has deployed a C-130J Hercules transport from the 86th Airlift Wing from Ramstein Air Base in Germany to Italy’s Aviano Air Base in the ongoing coronavirus relief mission. The U.S. aircraft arrived on Mar. 20, 2020, and joins other relief aircraft in the region, including a number of Russian Aerospace Forces Il-76 transports that departed Russia earlier today.

Photos released by the USAF show Airmen from the 721st Aerial Port Squadron loading pallets of medical equipment on board a Lockheed C-130J Super Hercules transport.

Part of the cargo deployed to Italy in the U.S. relief mission is the En-Route Patient Staging System, or “ERPSS”. The system can support the medical transport of up to 40 patients in a 24-hour period. It is equipped with 10 patient staging beds for treatment of patients.

Commander of U.S. Air Force, Europe (USAFE-AFAFRICA), General Jeff “Cobra” Harrigian, told reporters, “The COVID-19 pandemic requires that we work with our allies and partners to [meet] the challenges together. This effort demonstrates our mutual support as we team together in response to this public health crisis. We are working closely with our Italian friends, the U.S. Department of State, and U.S. European Command (EUCOM) to ensure we provide the right equipment in a safe and timely manner. It’s our privilege to support the Italian response, and our continued commitment reflects the values of the American people to provide to whenever and wherever it is needed.”

Voice technology created the 1963 speech JFK never gave

A USAF Airman assigned to the 721st Aerial Port Squadron at Ramstein Air Base, Germany, loads pallets of medical supplies and equipment onboard a C-130J Super Hercules in preparation for relief flights to Aviano Air Base in Italy on March 20, 2020 in support of the COVID-19 relief effort.

(Photo: USAF Airman 1st Class John R. Wright)

The 86th Airlift Wing received one of their most recent, new C-130J Super Hercules transports from Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company in Marietta, Georgia in early December, 2017. The C-130J Super Hercules is the most advanced version of the celebrated C-130, which first flew over 65 years ago in 1956. The C-130J is the only version of the C-130 that remains in production today. The aircraft features a fuselage that is 15-feet longer than previous versions of the C-130. The aircraft is also designed to work with advanced loading/unloading equipment for specialty palletized cargo like the En-Route Patient Staging System.

The aid from the U.S. military several days ago, and Russia’s air force beginning today, along with missions from China, Cuba and other nations, support the Italian government’s escalating response to the COVID-19 crisis. The Italian government has deployed troops in some areas to monitor quarantine and help slow the spread of the deadly disease.

This article originally appeared on The Aviationist. Follow @theaviationist on Twitter.

Articles

Three female grunts to join Marine infantry battalion today

The Marine Corps makes history today as three enlisted female Marines with infantry jobs join an infantry battalion that was closed to them at this time last year.


The milestone comes more than four years after the Corps began to study the effects of opening infantry units to women and just over a year after Defense Secretary Ashton Carter issued a mandate in December 2015 requiring all services to open previously closed jobs to women.

Also read: This is the bond between soldiers in combat summed up in one video clip

The three Marines are all bound for 1st Battalion, 8th Marines, out of Camp Lejeune, North Carolina, 2nd Marine Division spokesman 1st Lt. John McCombs told Military.com. While McCombs would not identify the women or reveal their ranks, citing privacy concerns as they acclimate to the fleet, he said they have the military occupational specialties [MOS] of rifleman, mortarman and machine gunner.

Marine Corps Times, which first wrote about the arrival of the Marines, reported that all three graduated from the School of Infantry at Camp Lejeune as part of the Corps’ multi-year effort to study the gender integration of the ground combat ranks.

Voice technology created the 1963 speech JFK never gave
U.S. Marines from Delta Company, Infantry Training Battalion (ITB), School of Infantry-East (SOI-E) take a break after completing their 10k hike before navigating their way through the obstacle course aboard, Camp Geiger, N.C., Oct. 04, 2013. | U.S. Marine Corps photo by Chief Warrant Officer 2 Paul S. Mancuso,  Combat Camera

During this test period, some 240 female Marines graduated from Lejeune’s Infantry Training Battalion course. While at the time this accomplishment did not make them eligible to hold an infantry MOS or serve in an infantry unit, the Marine Corps announced last January that these infantry graduates were now eligible to request a lateral move to serve in a grunt unit.

In keeping with the Corps’ plan to help female infantrymen adapt to the new environment, 1st Battalion, 8th Marines, has incorporated a small “leadership cadre” of more senior female Marines in support specialties, placed within the unit ahead of time, McCombs said.

“That leadership consists of a logistics officer, motor transportation officer, and a wire chief,” he said. “They will have been in place for at least 90 days prior to the first female infantry Marines arriving to the unit. This process ensures the Marine Corps will adhere to its standards and will continue its emphasis on combat readiness.”

McCombs said he could not speak to why that battalion had been chosen to receive the first female infantry transfers, and did not immediately know when the unit is next slated to deploy.

Voice technology created the 1963 speech JFK never gave
Lance Cpl. Falande Joachin fires the M4 Modular Weapon System during a zeroing exercise at Range 106, Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center Twentynine Palms, California, Feb. 24, 2015. | U.S. Marine Corps photo by Sgt. Alicia R. Leaders

More female infantrymen may soon join the fleet. Military.com broke the news last week that the first group of female infantry enlistees is set to graduate boot camp this month.

The Corps reaches the milestone of adding female infantrymen to its ranks despite previous misgivings at the most senior levels. In September 2015, the service released the summary results of a study showing that in a year-long test of gender-integrated infantry units, teams with both male and female Marines had shot less accurately and performed more slowly than all-male teams.

Ultimately, then-commandant Gen. Joseph Dunford, now the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, requested to exempt women from certain infantry units, a request that was denied by Carter. The nominee for secretary of defense, retired Marine Gen. James Mattis, has also voiced concerns about whether women are suited to the “intimate killing” of close ground combat.

Asked about women serving in infantry units at a Washington, D.C., event in December, Commandant Gen. Robert Neller noted that women have been serving in combat while deployed for years, and said the Marine Corps is implementing its current guidance.

Neller declined to speculate about whether the question of women in ground combat roles would resurface during the administration of President-elect Donald Trump, but said service leadership would address the issue if called upon.

“If we’re asked what our best military advice is, we’ll make that known at that time,” he said.

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