President Xi Jinping said China will "fight the bloody battle against our enemies" in a speech on March 20, 2018, striking a nationalistic and hawkish tone.
In his closing speech of the country's annual legislative meeting, Xi discussed the benefits of China's socialism, the Belt and Road initiative, and a string of domestic policies, zeroing in on Hong Kong and Taiwan.
"We are resolved to fight the bloody battle against our enemies ... with a strong determination to take our place in the world," Xi said, according to CNN.
Xi also said any separatist action to seek independence in these territories would be doomed to fail.
"The Chinese people have strong determination, full confidence, and every capability to triumph over all these separatist actions. The Chinese people and the Chinese nation have a shared conviction which is not a single inch of our land will be and can be ceded from China," Xi said.
While it was not clear if China's president was referring to any particular incident, state-run media one day earlier threatened "military pressure" and drills would resume if US and Taiwanese officials began visiting one another under the new Taiwan Travel Act.
China considers the self-ruled, democratic island to be a province of China that will one day be reunified with the mainland. Beijing refuses to have diplomatic relations with any nation that treats Taiwan as a country, and relations between China and Taiwan worsened since Tsai Ing-wen, Taiwan's independence-leaning leader, became president in 2016.
Taiwan's President, Tsai Ing-wen.
Xi, who oversees all Taiwan affairs, also focused on reunifying Taiwan and China during a major speech to the Communist Party in 2017. Analyzing that speech, some experts estimate that Xi's is hoping for reunification by 2050 — by peaceful means, or by force, if necessary.
In 2013, Xi said the issue needed to be resolved, and couldn't be passed on "from generation to generation." Even still, Taiwan has noticed a tougher stance coming from Xi of late as he begins to focus on his goal of "national rejuvenation."
Xi also focused on increasing the "national identity" and patriotism of citizens in Hong Kong and Macau.
On March 20, 2018, Human Rights Watch issued a report on plans for Hong Kong legislators to discuss a law that criminalizes the insulting of the Chinese national anthem. The punishment for those who alter the lyrics, score, or sing in a derogatory manner, could be up to three years in prison.
"Hong Kong Chief Executive Carrie Lam has played down fears the bill could be politicized, saying it merely aims to encourage 'respect' for the anthem. Yet she has not acknowledged citizens' concerns about forcing their political loyalty to Beijing, or how mainland authorities' frequently jail people for peaceful criticism," Maya Wang, Human Rights Watch's senior researcher on China.
"Enacting this law will merely remind Hong Kong people just how tenuous their rights to free speech are."
An excerpt of Xi's speech:
"We will continue to implement One Country, Two Systems principle: Hong Kong people governing Hong Kong, Macau people governing Macau, and a high degree of autonomy in the Special Administrative Regions (SARs). We will continue to stick to the constitution and basic laws in governing the two regions and support the SARs and its chief executives in implementing its functions and supporting Hong Kong and Macau in integrating into the larger picture of the country.
We will continue to strengthen and foster the national identity and patriotism of people in Hong Kong and Macau SARs and maintain long-term stability and prosperity in Hong Kong and Macau SARs.
We should continue to stick to the One China principle, 1992 consensus, advance the development of cross-strait relations, and expand the economic and cultural exchanges between the two sides. By doing so, we will make sure that people both in Taiwan and the mainland will share in the development and improve its well-being and also advance the unification of the country.
We should safeguard the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the country and achieve full reunification of the motherland. This is the aspiration of all Chinese people and this is also in line with the fundamental interests of the Chinese nation. Faced with this very important question of our nation and history, any action that aims to separate the country is doomed to fail.
And these separatist actions will be met with the condemnation of the people and the punishment of the history. The Chinese people have strong determination, full confidence and every capability to triumph over all these separatist actions. The Chinese people and the Chinese nation have a shared conviction which is not a single inch of our land will be and can be ceded from China."