NEWS

How the Iraq War inspired North Korea to build nukes

North Korean leader Kim Jong Un has been called many things — crazy, mad, insane, and "rocket man" — because of his program to build nuclear bombs and missiles capable of launching the weapons to the U.S.


But experts say he is not crazy to want a nuclear arsenal. And Kim doesn't necessarily want nukes because of a desire to use them on the U.S. or any other country, contrary to what bellicose political rhetoric might suggest.

"He is not crazy — he has consolidated control over that country in a very effective and ruthless manner," Jeffrey Lewis, a nuclear-policy expert at the Middlebury Institute of International Studies at Monterey, told Business Insider. "He's just willing to do really terrible things to protect himself, which I think tells us something about the credibility of their nuclear threat."

Such a threat is the purpose of the weapons, Lewis says, but almost certainly not their goal.

"If I were Kim Jong Un, I would want nuclear weapons, too," added Lewis, who also publishes Arms Control Wonk, a site about nuclear arms control, disarmament, and nonproliferation.

Kim Jong Un New Years speech (Image KCNA)

Here are the most likely reasons Kim wants a nuclear arsenal.

The U.S. has a track record of breaking its word with rulers

A watershed moment for U.S.-North Korea relations occurred during the Bush administration in the mid-2000s: the six-party talks, initiated after questionable accusations that North Korea was cheating on an agreement not to pursue the production of nuclear materials led to its collapse.

"They very sincerely tried to put Humpty Dumpty back together again," Lewis said.

But one of the problems the Bush administration ran into was the U.S.'s track record with Iraq, formerly led by Saddam Hussein.

"How do you assure the North Koreans, when they sign a deal, that they don't end up like Saddam? Because Saddam had actually given them the WMDs, and we still went ahead and said he had them, and we still went ahead and invaded," Lewis said, using the abbreviation for weapons of mass destruction.

Kim Jong-un next to the newest and most powerful missile in the North Korean arsenal, Hwasong-15. (Photo from Rodong Sinmun)

The Americans "realized they had to find a way to convey to Pyongyang that if they went ahead and gave up their nuclear program, we wouldn't invade them," Lewis added.

So, Lewis said, the Bush administration pointed to how the U.S. had held up its end of a disarmament agreement with Libya and its ruler at the time, Muammar Gaddafi.

"I know why they did it at the time — it was the right decision," Lewis said. "But we had a disarmament deal with that guy. We told the North Koreans to go look at how well things had worked out with Libya, and then we turned around and toppled the Libyan government."

These foreign policy decisions happened during the rule of Kim Jong Il, the father of Kim Jong Un. But his son has not forgotten them.

"Kim Jong Un, I think, is fearful of ending up like Saddam Hussein or Muammar Gaddafi," Lewis said. "He is terrified that we will do to him what we did to them and has decided that nuclear weapons are the best way to ward that off."

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It's unlikely North Korea has nuclear and thermonuclear weapons as reliable as those in the U.S.'s arsenal, if North Korea has deliverable weapons at all. But Lewis says this doesn't really matter in the big picture.

"Every military system has developmental problems and issues, and maybe not work as well as it should," Lewis said. "But they have all of the skills and expertise in place, and they've demonstrated the vast majority of things."

He added: "If tomorrow they were going to put a nuclear weapon on a missile and fire it at my house, and you asked me, 'How do you like your odds?' I would say, 'I don't like my odds at all.' ... This is now a serious-enough capability that we have to start assuming, on a bad day, a lot of their stuff is going to go well."

But nuclear weapons as a stick against the U.S. is not the only reason North Korea wants them.

A risky play for better diplomacy?

Some reports suggest Kim wants to use nuclear weapons to strong-arm South Korea into reunifying with North Korea. Lewis doubts this is true, though he says Kim is "insatiable" for power.

Kim Jong Un in a nuclear facility in North Korea. (KCNA)

"I am sure if given the choice between controlling North Korea or North Korea and South Korea, he would clearly prefer to control everything," Lewis said. "I don't think, though, that this explains their nuclear behavior."

That may be because Kim's ability to take over South Korea — at least not as a smoldering crater — is virtually nil. Lewis also says North Korea isn't building the kinds of nukes "that would be consistent with that goal."

What is possible, if not likely — and perhaps surprising to many Americans — is that North Korea sees obtaining nuclear weapons as a way to improve its relations with other countries, including the U.S.

Lewis, who has studied the history of China's nuclear-weapons program, says it has many similarities to North Korea's path toward nuclearization.

China set off its first nuclear device in 1964 during the presidency of Lyndon B. Johnson, and two years later it launched a live nuclear warhead atop a missile to prove the capabilities of its program. The U.S.'s view of these events during the Cold War was grim. But over time, something shocking transpired.

"If you had gone into Lyndon Johnson's office in October 1964 and said, 'The Chinese are about to test a nuclear weapon,' he would have said, 'That's terrible,'" Lewis said.

Also Read: This top-ranking Pentagon general wants to stick with the Iran nuke deal

"But if you would have then said, 'No, no, no, it's great — this is really going to improve Chinese security, and as a consequence of that, China is going to reorient its foreign policy, and they're going to become anti-Soviet and pro-American, and we're going to have a diplomatic relationship with them,' Johnson would have asked you: 'Really? What president is going to go to China and meet with Mao Zedong?' And you would have said, 'Richard Nixon.' Then he would have thrown you out of its office and said you were an idiot."

But that is exactly what happened: When China's proven nuclear capabilities deterred U.S. military action and opened the door for increased local aggression or international diplomacy, China chose the latter.

"The reason it happened is because the people who wanted nuclear weapons in China also wanted a better relationship with the United States," Lewis said.

His point is that North Korea's motivations, notwithstanding its accusations of horrifying human-rights abuses, may not be so nefarious as rhetoric and propaganda suggest when it comes to nukes. In fact, it could be that North Korean nuclear scientists see themselves more as doves than hawks.

But the country's direction is ultimately up to its leader.

"It is possible that the North Koreans will take the security they are given by these weapons and spend it on being awful — sinking more South Korean ships, shelling more South Korean islands, initiating more crises," Lewis said. "It will depend on how the North Koreans choose to act now that they have this capability. They could be easier to get along with; they could be worse."

North Korea's Hwasong-14 missile. (Photo from KCNA)

Instead of always assuming the worst, we should practice being "more neutral" about how having nuclear weapons might change North Korea, Lewis said.

"I don't want to be optimistic, because it could really, truly go either way — North Korea could become more aggressive; North Korea could become less aggressive," Lewis said. "But we should wait and see."

He added: "You don't want to prejudge something like that and foreclose what could be a chance at peace."

But this likely isn't the U.S.'s current thinking. President Donald Trump has expressed hopes to expand nuclear-weapons capabilities, and American military forces appear to be quietly training to face a conflict on the Korean Peninsula.

History

This pilot shot down an enemy fighter at Pearl Harbor in his pajamas

Comfort is important when doing a hard job. If it's hot on the work site, it's important to stay cool. If it's hazardous, proper protection needs to be worn. And comfort is apparently key when the Japanese sneak attack the Navy. Just ask Lt. Phil Rasmussen, who was one of four pilots who managed to get off the ground to fight the Japanese in the air.

Rasmussen, like many other American GIs in Hawaii that day, was still asleep when the Japanese launched the attack at 0755. The Army Air Forces 2nd Lieutenant was still groggy and in his pajamas when the attacking wave of enemy fighters swarmed Wheeler Field and destroyed many of the Army's aircraft on the ground.

Damaged aircraft on Hickam Field, Hawaii, after the surprise Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.

There were still a number of outdated Curtiss P-36A Hawk fighters that were relatively untouched by the attack. Lieutenant Rasmussen strapped on a .45 pistol and ran out to the flightline, still in his pajamas, determined to meet the sucker-punching Japanese onslaught.

By the time the attack ended, Wheeler and Hickam Fields were both devastated. Bellows Field also took a lot of damage, its living quarters, mess halls, and chapels strafed by Japanese Zeros. American troops threw back everything they could muster – from anti-aircraft guns to their sidearms. But Rasmussen and a handful of other daring American pilots managed to get in the air, ready to take the fight right back to Japan in the Hawks if they had to. They took off under fire, but were still airborne.

Pearl Harbor pilots Harry Brown, Phil Rasmussen, Ken Taylor, George Welch, and Lewis Sanders.

They made it as far as Kaneohe Bay.

The four brave pilots were led by radio to Kaneohe, where they engaged 11 enemy fighters in a vicious dogfight. Even in his obsolete old fighter, Rasmussen proved that technology is no match for good ol' martial skills and courage under fire. He managed to shoot down one of the 11, but was double-teamed by two attacking Zeros.

Gunfire and 20mm shells shattered his canopy, destroyed his radio, and took out his hydraulic lines and rudder cables. He was forced out of the fighting, escaping into nearby clouds and making his way back to Wheeler Field. When he landed, he did it without brakes, a rudder, or a tailwheel.

There were 500 bullet holes in the P-36A's fuselage.

Skillz.

Lieutenant Rasmussen earned the Silver Star for his boldness and would survive the war, getting his second kill in 1943. He retired from the U.S. Air Force in 1965, but will live on in the Museum of the United States Air Force, forever immortalized as he hops into an outdated aircraft in his pajamas.

(U.S. Air Force photo)

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