A Russian Makarov PM pistol with its 9x18 mm ammunition, a common sidearm anywhere in the world where the Soviet Union had influence. Public domain photo.
If you are a Russian cosmonaut, you've got more than a space suit to protect you.
The Russians have been packing heat in low Earth orbit for decades.
Along with fishing gear and a first aid kit, the Granat-6 survival kit in every Soyuz spacecraft has a Makarov PM semi-automatic pistol and plenty of ammunition.
Presumably available to hunt game or provide a self-defense option, the pistol is just one more tool for the space-faring Russian to use if things go wrong.
But the Makarov PM – for Пистолет Макарова, or pistolet Makarova in honor of its chief designer Nikolay Makarov – has plenty of down-to-Earth uses.
Concealable and compact, it fires the Russian 9 x 18mm Makarov round, which is slightly shorter and fatter than the 9-mm NATO pistol round used throughout the rest of the world. It has a double-action mechanism – if a round is already chambered the pistol can be fired by pulling the trigger without manually cocking the hammer.
Even though it is heavy for its size and has a stiff trigger pull, it's a natural for police work and covert operations. The designer even copied features from the Walther PP (police pistol) designed in 1929, including its size and the shape of the pistol's frame.
Not surprisingly, since its introduction in 1951 the Makarov was frequently the handgun brandished by state security agents in the U.S.S.R. or the old Eastern Bloc when they said, "Comrade, come with us."
Even in the age of polymer-frame pistols, the Makarov has its adherents.
Spetsnaz (Russian special forces) team members often carried the Makarov as their sidearm, particularly team commanders, deputy commanders, and radiomen. They sometimes carried a suppressed version of the weapon for so-called "wet works" – kidnappings and assassinations where stealth, surprise, and silence were necessary for mission success as well as personal survival.
With the fall of the Soviet Union, many Makarovs flooded the market and eventually ended up in the hands of shooters in the United States.
"The Makarov is more reliable than most of the more expensive small pistols, is well made of good material, and is surprisingly accurate," writes Matthew Campbell, author of 21st-Century Stopping Power: What Works, What Doesn't, and Why. "This makes the Makarov a superior choice to most of the double action first-shot .380 ACP pistols in this size and weight class."
Despite the fact it was officially phased out in 2003 by the Russian Ministry of Defense, thousands of the pistols remain in service with police officers, soldiers, and intelligence personnel. It is frequently in the hands of combatants fighting the Russia-Ukraine War, serving as the sidearm for both sides.
And like many weapons, the Makarov has a "bad boy reputation."
Noted terrorist Ilich Ramírez Sánchez (a.k.a. Carlos the Jackal) carried a Makarov. During the Vietnam War, many senior ranking North Vietnamese Army officers and Communist Party officials carried the pistol – special operators from the U.S. military or the CIA often found the weapon when they searched live prisoners or dead bodies.
To this day, Makarovs frequently appear on the battlefield in Iraq, Afghanistan, and Syria – a testament to the staying power of a rugged, Soviet-era pistol with few frills but incredible reliability.