Please, stop calling these other vehicles tanks - We Are The Mighty
MIGHTY CULTURE

Please, stop calling these other vehicles tanks

Look, we get it. It can be hard to write about the military. What’s the difference between soldiers, troops, and service members? Are Coast Guardsman sailors? Are they Navy personnel at all? Do those guys really prefer to be known as “seamen?”

There’s a lot of terminology to get straight, but still, it’s not that hard. And, frankly, we’re tired of seeing anything with more than 2 inches of armor being described as a “tank.” So, here’s a quick primer on America’s only current tank — and a whole bunch of armored vehicles that are not tanks:


Please, stop calling these other vehicles tanks
A U.S. M1A2 Abrams tank fires during a 2015 exercise in Estonia.
(U.S. Army Sgt. Juana M. Nesbitt)

First, the only current American military vehicle that is actually a tank: the M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank. The first ones rolled out in 1976, but numerous upgrades have been made since. The modern M1A2 SEPV3 has ceramic armor made from depleted uranium and fires a 120mm cannon with everything from high explosive rounds to sabot. Sabot rounds are fast-flying darts that exit from the main gun.

Thousands of them exist in the U.S. arsenal and hundreds more are in service around the world, mostly in places like Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and Australia. It’s easy to pick out because of its large size, free-moving turret with a large gun, and the massive tank treads that propel it across the ground.

Please, stop calling these other vehicles tanks
U.S. Army Arkansas National Guard soldiers fire paladins.
(U.S. Army Arkansas National Guard)

Next, the Paladin. This is probably the most convincing of the non-tanks out there. It’s significantly smaller than the Abrams and weighs less than half as much, but it is large, propels itself on two big tank treads, is well-armored, and has a big gun.

But it’s the gun and the mission that makes this artillery instead of a tank. The 155mm howitzer is made to primarily fire in an indirect fire mode, arcing the shells over the battlefield instead of engaging directly, like an Abrams. Its armor and speed also aren’t really up to snuff for direct combat.

You can differentiate it from a tank by focusing on the arm that supports the cannon barrel, the smaller size, and the reduced armor. Especially important is the lack of explosive reactive armor, the boxy armor panels on the skirts of Abrams tanks.

Please, stop calling these other vehicles tanks
A U.S. Army Soldier assigned to 3rd Armored Brigade Combat Team, 1st Armored Division, Fort Bliss, Texas, ground guides an M2 Bradley Infantry Fighting Vehicle.
(U.S. Army Spc. Esmeralda Cervantes)

Bradley Infantry Fighting Vehicle

Confusing a Bradley Infantry Fighting Vehicle with a tank is pretty reasonable. It’s armored, propels itself on two tracks, and is often seen with the explosive reactive armor common on Abrams. It even has a free-turning turret like a tank and fights on the frontlines.

But the difference comes in the vehicles’ mission and the size of the main cannon. Bradleys have lighter armor and a much smaller gun, typically 25mm compared to the Abrams’ 120mm. They’re made to move quickly on the battlefield and carry up to 8 infantrymen into combat, though other variants drop the infantry carrying capacity to serve other missions, instead.

To differentiate it from the Abrams, focus on the size, reduced armor, and the much smaller gun.

The M113 armored personnel carrier is the predecessor the the Bradley. It, also, is not a tank. It’s smaller, has less armor, and lacks a turret.

Please, stop calling these other vehicles tanks
The M1150 Assault Breacher Vehicle is based on the M1 Abrams tank, but it has no 120mm gun and is designed for breaching obstacles rather than defeating enemy forces in direct combat.
(U.S. Army Sgt. Patrick Eakin)

M1150 Assault Breacher Vehicle

The M1150 Assault Breacher Vehicle is based on the M1 Abrams, so getting mixed up makes sense. But M1150s lack the 120mm main gun of an Abrams.

They boast some kind of large plow on the front instead, usually a 15-foot-wide, bulldozer-like plow, but sometimes they’re seen with other mine-clearing equipment. They’re also equipped with a mine-clearing line charge, or MICLIC, that fires from the turret.

Please, stop calling these other vehicles tanks
The Marine Corps amphibious assault vehicle is an impressive piece of hardware, but still not a tank.
(U.S. Marine Corps Lance Cpl. Christine Phelps)

Amphibious Assault Vehicle

These monstrosities are pretty sweet. They’re swimming armored vehicles with treads and the ability to carry up to 25 combat-equipped infantrymen (nearly always Marines).

But their primary offensive armament is a .50-cal. machine gun or a 40mm grenade launcher, a far cry from the cannons used on tanks, especially the 120mm on the Abrams. They also have armor that’s perpendicular to the ground, something that tank designers avoid in key areas since it helps the enemy round penetrate during fights.

Please, stop calling these other vehicles tanks
Marines fire the main gun of the LAV-25 during gunnery training. This impressive bit of armor is super useful, but it’s still smaller, less armored, and less powerful than a main battle tank.
(U.S. Navy Petty Officer 1st Class Daniel Barker)

LAV-25

This is another armored vehicle that swims across open ocean. Used primarily by the U.S. Marine Corps, it has a 25mm chain gun and some light armor, but it’s still underpowered and underarmored compared to main tanks.

But the easiest way to tell the LAV-25 from a tank is that it has rubber road wheels instead of metal ones on treads. In fact. lots of armored platforms that are sometimes described as tanks are rolling on rubber road wheels, something tanks don’t do.

So, just like the LAV-25, Army Strykers are not tanks. Nor are any of the lighter vehicles, like humvees, MRAPs, or M-ATVs.

If all of this leaves you wondering what, exactly, a tank is, well, sorry — it’s changed over time. But modern tanks are typically heavily armored vehicles with large guns, rotating turrets, and treads. They’re designed to engage in direct combat with other forces, including enemy armor, by using their armor and the terrain for protection while firing their main gun as their primary offense.

When dealing with anti-tank infantry, they may rely more heavily on their machine guns, but many countries field shotgun-like ammo for their tanks for this scenario.

If it doesn’t fit all of these categories, it’s almost certainly an infantry fighting vehicle, self-propelled artillery, or a similar platform.

MIGHTY CULTURE

Alone time is the key to staying married. Find it.

The COVID-19 pandemic hasn’t just stretched us thin; it’s made us damn near translucent. The majority of parents are balancing a bigger burden than they ever have before. Scheduling. Schooling. Social distancing. Masking up. Working from Home. All with little or extremely reduced access to childcare or the older family members who once pitched in. Gone, too, are ways to find alone time. We are all cooped up, unable to do the activities that once brought us balance. Time apart is crucial to a marriage. Absence does, in fact, make the heart grow fonder. But how can partners ask for alone time without it ending in resentment or anger?

If you went to a couples’ therapist today and told them, “I need some time to myself,” chances are, they would agree. “Some couples thrive on being together all the time, but most are struggling at least a little right now,” says Carol Bruess, PhD, professor emeritus of family studies at the University of St. Thomas and author of What Happy Couples Do. “We don’t have models for [living like] this. We are not taught how to do it.”


More importantly, time apart from our partners is essential for our health — and the health of our relationships. So, if you feel even the slightest hint of guilt about your itch for a few hours of fishing on the lake in solitude — don’t. You may even find that by bringing up the topic, your spouse is equally eager for time alone after all these months at home.

Healthy relationships are healthiest when there’s constant push and pull between autonomy and connection, Bruess explains. “Living in the same space with someone 24/7 tends to send this dynamic into a place of significant disequilibrium. It’s out of whack,” she says. “You have too much togetherness without enough autonomy.”

Right now, too much togetherness is the norm. And it’s not just the fact that the bathroom is your only place to get away. We’ve also lost our rituals and routines and had to establish a whole new set of “rules” about who works where, who’s quiet when, who’s cooking breakfast, and who’s teaching the kids what. Add the stress of worrying about loved ones’ health, possibly losing a job, and everything else and it only exacerbates the tension.

“We bring those [outside] stressors into our relationship, and it disintegrates our ability to be our best self in the relationship,” Bruess says. With all of these challenges, no wonder you may sense an overall increase in conflict, irritation, or anxiety between you and your partner and find yourself arguing over minuscule things like how to load the dishwasher.

True time apart could help rebalance your autonomy-connection dynamic and benefit both your relationship and the two of you as individuals. The answer is simple: It gives you a chance to “recharge,” says psychotherapist Joseph Zagame, LCSW-R, founder and director of myTherapyNYC. When you come back together, you’ll have more to offer emotionally, mentally, and physically. Additionally, that space can make our partners more attracted to us. “When you have some level of distance and come back together, you see each other in a new way and may even desire each other more,” Zagame says.

Still, knowing the benefits doesn’t necessary relieve any guilt you may feel about wanting to go over to your friend’s house for beers on the patio once a week. If that’s the case, it’s important to remember that this is not only about you — it’s about your relationship as a whole, Zagame says.

Communicating about a need for space can be tricky. It can easily be read as a slight or add to already built-up resentment. Bruess recommends first identifying and telling your partner exactly what you are feeling and what you need. For example, “I’m feeling a little overstimulated. We are both here all day, working and taking care of the kids, and the dog is running around, and I’m realizing one thing I need is to find 30 minutes of alone time.” Include how this will benefit your relationship to have this time, such as that you’ll be less stressed and more likely to pause and think rather than simply react.

Next, Bruess suggests inviting your partner to problem solve with you so you can find that solo time. Even if the solution is taking an hour every night to read in one room while your partner watches TV in another while the kids are in bed, it can have a positive effect. Just be sure to set some boundaries: “I need no interruptions, not even a knock on the door. Here’s why…”

This may seem like a lot, but explaining your need and asking for your partner’s assistance can help head off any possible defensiveness from them, Bruess explains. “You are literally inviting them into your heart, as opposed to, ‘The house is noisy, I need time away,” which distances you emotionally and creates the opportunity for defensiveness in the other person,” she says.

After you discuss your time alone, don’t forget to ask if there’s anything your partner needs right now. “You may be surprised to hear they want their space too,” Zagame says. “It doesn’t mean that you are struggling or don’t love each other.” Encourage them to do the things they love and retain those friendships that you know make them thrive.

“Marriage is not about becoming one. We are interdependent. Together we create something bigger and different than our individual parts,” Bruess says. “And in a great partnership, it’s essential that each person is developing and sustaining parts of themselves. We should want to encourage the flourishing of the other person’s passions and interests.”

Making sure both of you get some time away — whatever that looks like — will keep you both happier and support your relationship even after you’re no longer together nonstop.

This article originally appeared on Fatherly. Follow @FatherlyHQ on Twitter.

MIGHTY CULTURE

The art of a killer cartoon: The CO can’t hit the broad side of a barn.

Master Sergeant George Hand US Army (ret) was a member of the 1st Special Forces Operational Detachment-Delta, The Delta Force. He is now a master photographer, cartoonist, and storyteller.

Being the unit’s cartoonist is an incredible responsibility. For one, you have to decide what will live on in the annals of history and two, you have to find stories that are funny. A gift that has come to me throughout my life. Yes but a gift… or a curse?

I was approached on so, so many occasions by a chuckling brother to the effect: “Geo! ha ha ha, hey listen, ha ha ha, how ’bout you do a cartoon of Bob spilling his juice in the chow hall and all the guys are saying, like: ‘awww man… you spilled your juice!” ha ha ha ha ha ha!!”

The inherent humor in Bob spilling his juice is debatable at best, but let’s say for the sake of argument that it’s there. The narrative of the man’s snappy comeback… not so funny. I had two choices in the matter strictly from my perspective:


1. Let the man down gently: “Man, I’m really sorry, but that scenario just doesn’t pass the acid test, my brother. Look, it has nothing to do with you personally; it’s really just a business decision, a very difficult business decision. I got mad love for you my brother, but I have a reputation to maintain here in the Unit. I’m sorry, but my hands are tied.”

2. Freakish exaggerations are the very core of the power of the cartoon. I can take the pallid tale of Bob spilling of his juice coupled with the vapid remarks from the men and wildly exaggerate the whole scenario to make it so ridiculous as to be funny.

I can show a dozen men being washed out of the chow hall door by a flood of red liquid (Bob’s juice), with men donned in various levels of gear associated with waterborne operations and perhaps one man yelling: “Hey, do we get paid dive credit this month for this?!?

Not really funny? I feel you, dawg. There isn’t a set “formula” for hilarity, but two variables that help are mistakes and commanding officers. The poor Commanding Officer of our squadron had been out on the flat range one day with a new assault rifle in an effort to adjust his gun sites for accuracy. In some cases, new gun sites can be wildly off the bull’s eye.

Please, stop calling these other vehicles tanks

(Outdoor shooting flat range where the distance to the target is Known Distance, or KD)

His first mistake, well… his ONLY mistake, was to guest himself onto a range where the boys were already conducting *Blaze Ops. There are always those occasional line-walkers that feel the urge to stroll the target line to see how those around them fair in accuracy. Well, a brother noted that the boss’ cupboard was bare; he had slick paper with no bullet impacts on it. The launch sequence was initiated; the man couldn’t get to me fast enough to tell me all about how the boss himself had flown all of his rounds off his target:

“Ha, ha ha… Geo, you could show — ha, ha, ha, — the boss with a clean target — ha, ha, ha, — and the guys could all be saying, like, ‘Hey there boss… it looks like you missed your target!’ — ha, ha, ha!”

“Yeah, man… that’s a total riot — I’ll get right to work on that.”

Hence the morass (morass is what you use when you don’t have enough ass). I didn’t think it was necessarily funny that the boss had rounds off paper, but if anyone else had done that his chops would have been busted. I couldn’t let the boss off the hook so easily. I ginned up ideas that came to mind.

What is generally said to a person who launches with poor accuracy whether it a gun or a rock or a baseball? One of my more obscure phrases is: “He couldn’t hit a bull in the butt with a bass fiddle,” said during WWII of the inaccurate pilot of a dive bomber.

Please, stop calling these other vehicles tanks

(American SBD Dauntless dive bomber. It was this same bomber that sank all fourJapanese aircraft carriers during the pivotal battle of Midway.)

Ok then: “He couldn’t hit the side of a barn.” That nicely anchored the theme: Everyone’s target is the usual half man-sized cardboard target on a plank, with the boss’ target being an entire barn facing sideways… silo and hay loft… the nine yards. Then I added a Range Safety Officer in the parapet calling out the disposition of the bullet strikes to the men at the firing line.

It was a done deal. All that was left was to jones over that future moment when the boss and I would inevitably pass each other in the hall, just he and I… awkward!

popular

The dopest generation of soldiers are clearly kids of the ’90s

What do you get when you combine a ’90s childhood with military training? The best damn generation of soldiers, that’s what. Written by an elder millennial, this is the completely unbiased reasoning behind that statement.


Raised with an abundance of empathetic statements like “get out of the house and don’t return until the streetlights are on” gave future service members eighteen years to prepare for the nuances of military life. What exactly did an eight-year-old do with a 12-hour Saturday? They figured it out, and not with GPS, cell phones or viral videos to stream.

Please, stop calling these other vehicles tanks
Lima Co. Pugil Sticks and Confidence Course media.defense.gov

 

Military life aims to sharpen core human skills like navigation, an awareness of terrain, and stamina. ’90’s kids roamed in the back 40, hopped fences, dug foxholes (just for fun) and played the rudimentary version of land navigation-hide and go seek. Yes, the last generation outside became the last generation with an abundance of experience honing this primal skillset. Weekends were for pushing the limits of both physical boundaries, the body, and the mind. Getting lost made you better made you distinctly aware of how important it was to pay attention, because no one was coming to find you until well after dark.

Nicknames were so brutal, you longed for the days where the military would rebrand you into something (hopefully) better. Feelings were completely unacceptable in the ’90’s. The closer you became to a human Terminator, the emotionless badass who knew and did everything right, the better chance you stood at surviving childhood without the need for therapy.

If you’ve ever wondered why your current Staff Sergeant lacks empathy or seemingly takes joy in the majestic poems of correction spewing from his mouth, it’s because that was affection that was displayed. The harsher the nickname, the greater the chance some sort of affection was behind its origination.

’90’s kids firmly believe in coming in first. Competition flows through their veins, and the flashbacks to being pointed at and laughed off the dodgeball courts in gym class ensures they will do everything in their power to crush you and anyone else standing in their way. Participation ribbons did not exist, and even if the rare ones did, it would have been too embarrassing to ever admit they owned any. Trying is failing unless of course, you win.

Not only will they do whatever it takes to win, they will wait…patiently plotting, as dial-up internet taught them to. While newer generations become disgusted with anything less than instantaneous results or satisfaction, service members with ’90’s childhoods are the last to be taught patience through the agonizing experiences of rewinding videotapes, gluing their fingers together (for fun), or waiting until the show aired on prime time. The enemy can hide, but they are trained to wait.

Generation Y (elder millennials) was raised in a deeply patriotic time. G.I. Joe’s appeal hadn’t faded within the early years of this crop, instilling the message that military service was something to not just admire, but aspire to. Their grandparents remembered the Depression and World War II. Their parents lived through or served in Vietnam or the Gulf War. At every turn, the sacrifice of serving was remembered and valued.

Please, stop calling these other vehicles tanks
India Company Pugil Sticks Mar. 15, 2019 (media.defense.gov)

 

If a history of roaming free or honing early marksmanship skills via NERF or BB guns hadn’t tipped the scales in Uncle Sam’s favor, witnessing 9/11 through their innocent eyes did. American flags flew abundantly in yards, while many awaited the day they became eligible to enlist, to do their part and keep their hometowns safe.

’90’s culture still reigns king with sitcoms and music, which has yet to go out of style. This space in time produced a “fly” crop of service members if you ask us.

MIGHTY CULTURE

This charity paid the mortgage for a fallen Coastie’s family

The Stephen Siller Tunnel to Towers Foundation may not be as recognizable as the Wounded Warrior Project or have a famous person attached to them, but the effect it can have on a family is just as powerful – and just as immediate. Just ask the family of recently deceased Coast Guard Chief Warrant Officer Michael Kozloski, who no longer have to worry about their house payment every month.


Please, stop calling these other vehicles tanks

Michael Kozloski and his family.

The Tunnel to Towers Foundation is named for Stephen Siller, a New York City Firefighter who was killed at Ground Zero during the Sept. 11, 2001, attacks on the World Trade Center. To honor Siller and his sacrifice, the Tunnel to Towers Foundation uses its 5 million endowment to pay off the mortgages of families related to military personnel and first responders who are killed in the line of duty. Sadly, that’s how Coast Guard Chief Warrant Officer Michael Kozloski died.

Kozloski was killed in a crane accident in Homer, Alaska, in early 2019. The Upstate New York native joined the Coast Guard at age 18 and was 35 when he was killed. His wife and four children would be forever without his love and guidance, unsure of how they would be able to stay in their Port St. Lucie, Fla. home. That’s where the Tunnel to Towers Foundation stepped in.

Please, stop calling these other vehicles tanks

Stephen Siller, an FDNY firefighter killed on 9/11, who’s memory is changing lives nationwide.

“I was left wondering how I was going to provide for our four kids and give them the life they deserve,” Brienne Kozloski, Michael’s wife, said in a statement. “The outpouring of support we received from the Coast Guard, family, friends, and many organizations that help Gold Star families was amazing. When I heard from Frank Siller that Tunnel to Towers was going to pay the mortgage on our new home, I was overwhelmed… I will forever be grateful for this.”

Kozloski’s home is the 15th home the Tunnel to Towers Foundation has purchased this season alone. From Massachusetts to Iowa and beyond the Stephen Siller Tunnels to Tower Foundation has an incredible record of supporting military, veteran, and first responder families when a loved one is killed in the line of duty. Even victims of the Parkland, Fla. School Shootings were recognized by the foundation – teachers killed while protecting their students. Chief Warrant Officer Kozloski is one more in a line of brave, hardworking public servants who lost it all while doing their every day jobs.

To learn more about the Stephen Siller Tunnels to Towers Foundation, see who the foundation has helped with its Fallen First Responders Home Program, or to donate, visit the Tunnels to Towers website.

MIGHTY CULTURE

Cybersecurity is a national security issue. Here’s what you can do.

Sponsored by Trident at American Intercontinental University.

Now more than ever, the United States needs skilled cybersecurity and information technology professionals.

The same people who took an oath to support and defend the Constitution of the United States with their own lives on land, sea, or air are needed to do the same with their post-military skills – in cyberspace.


Cybersecurity is not just a needed career field, it’s one that is understaffed in the United States. The Bureau of Labor Statistics states that demand for information security professionals over the next decade will be very high, with employment projected to grow 31 percent between now and 2029*.

With an estimated 200,000 military members leaving their respective services every year and a veteran unemployment rate hovering around 6 percent, military veterans may be the key to helping secure America’s national cybersecurity front and the industry may be a good solution to veteran’s unemployment across the country.

But getting into this career field isn’t easy. If the military didn’t train someone on information technology skills, they will need the skills necessary to potentially join the ranks of cyber warriors. The good news is that there are many options available to help start this journey.

Demands on the lives and careers of military members can make attending a brick and mortar school somewhat difficult, but there are many accredited online schools that can help make educational goals more accessible. One of those schools is Trident at American Intercontinental University.

Trident offers an associate degree program in Cybersecurity and for those who want to take their learning further, they can continue their education at Trident with a Bachelor’s degree in Computer Science with an emphasis on cybersecurity.

They can even step up to a master’s level education with programs in Homeland Security and Information Technology Management. Students can use military Tuition Assistance, if applicable, and the school also offers grants for military service members** at all degree levels.

Military members shouldn’t wait until transition assistance classes start and there’s only six months of service left on their enlistment. Now could be the time to start preparing to pursue your educational options.

*Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, Information Security Analysts, on the Internet at https://www.bls.gov/ooh/computer-and-information-technology/information-security-analysts.htm (visited September 30, 2020). This data represents national figures and is not based on school-specific information. Conditions in your area may vary.

**University grants or scholarships are based on established criteria as published in the University’s Catalog or on its website and are awarded after verification that the conditions of eligibility have been met.

Trident cannot guarantee employment, salary, or career advancement.

MIGHTY CULTURE

Marines return from deployment just in time for Thanksgiving

The Marines and sailors of the 11th Marine Expeditionary Unit are concluding their 2019 deployment this week, just in time for Thanksgiving.

Departing in waves from the three ships of the Boxer Amphibious Ready Group, the 11th MEU conducted an amphibious landing aboard Camp Pendleton, California, and aircraft landings at Miramar, California, and Yuma, Arizona.

At each site, Marines and sailors were greeted by family members and welcomed home after seven months away.


During the deployment, the Boxer ARG and 11th MEU spent time in the U.S. 7th Fleet and U.S. 5th Fleet areas of operations, and conducted training in Kuwait, Jordan, Djibouti, Brunei, the Philippines, and Malaysia.

Please, stop calling these other vehicles tanks

Families and friends of Marines with Marine Medium Tiltrotor Squadron (VMM) 163, Marine Aircraft Group 16, 3rd Marine Aircraft Wing (MAW), await their loved ones at Marine Corps Air Station Miramar, Calif., Nov. 25, 2019.

(U.S. Marine Corps photo by Lance Cpl. Jaime Reyes)

“We have traveled a long way and the Marines and sailors of the 11th MEU have risen to every challenge. They have built important partnerships and have been ready to help, ready to respond, and ready to fight if necessary,” said Col. Fridrik Fridriksson, commanding officer of the 11th MEU. “I am incredibly proud of each and every Marine and sailor in the ARG/MEU team.”

11th MEU consists of the command element; the aviation combat element comprised of Marine Medium Tiltrotor Squadron (VMM) 163 (Reinforced); the ground combat element comprised of Battalion Landing Team 3/5; and the logistics combat element comprised of Combat Logistics Battalion 11.

Boxer ARG is comprised of amphibious assault ship USS Boxer (LHD 4), San Antonio-class amphibious transport dock USS John P Murtha (LPD 26), and Harpers Ferry-class amphibious dock landing ship USS Harpers Ferry (LSD 49).

The ARG/MEU departed their home port of San Diego and began their deployment May 1, 2019.

MIGHTY CULTURE

This is the death cult the FBI says is spreading among drug cartels

The drug war has been going on for so long, the inward, secret lives of narcotics traffickers are beginning to take on a life all of their own, separate from the national borders we know as their homes. They have their own rituals, coded languages, technology, and now, even a secret religion has sprung up around their lives.

It’s called the cult of Santa Muerte – “Holy Death” – and it’s more intense and deadly than anything that came before it.


Please, stop calling these other vehicles tanks

A Santa Muerte follower announces its adherence.

(FBI)

Since Mexican President Felipe Calderon upped the ante on the Drug War in 2006 by taking down the highest-ranking members of certain cartels, violence in the country has increased exponentially. Since then some 45,000 people have died in the drug war. The level of violence and death without warning has spurred the spread of the Santa Muerte religion in Mexico and beyond. Santa Muerte, in turn, spurs the narcos to become more and more violent.

The worshippers of Santa Muerte are primarily disenfranchised, poor Mexicans who turn to the cartels as a means of employment but soon begin the same cycle of murder and torture as those who came before them. The activities they’re forced to conduct aren’t accepted by pure Catholicism, so they turn elsewhere for comfort.

Please, stop calling these other vehicles tanks

And now, you can buy the figurines on Amazon.

Santa Muerte has developed as a belief system for over 50 years or more. According to the FBI, “The Santa Muerte cult could best be described as [following] a set of ritual practices offered on behalf of a supernatural personification of death…she is comparable in theology to supernatural beings or archangels.” Unlike Death or the Virgin of Guadalupe, as she is often represented, her scales don’t actually work, a reflection of her amoral nature. Since many narco foot soldiers will end up dying a brutal death, the appeal of worshipping a death-like figure is obvious. In the meantime, Santa Muerte advocates are enjoying the world’s earthly pleasures.

While the FBI stops short of calling the worship of Santa Muerte a full-blown religion, it does have its own belief system, as well as priests, temples, and shrines, along with all the rituals associated with religion – including ritual killings.

Please, stop calling these other vehicles tanks

A statue of Santa Muerte in a practitioner’s home.

Ritualistic Santa Muerte killings are abundant in Mexico and South America amongst narco-traffickers, but the killings are now making their way into the United States, albeit, primarily close to the border cities already struck by violence that has become the signature of the War on Drugs, and only four have been confirmed as related to Santa Muerte.

Border agents and local police have been thoroughly trained on the ins and outs of the religion and its followers, but luckily very few have been seen on the U.S. side of the border.

MIGHTY CULTURE

These are the states with the largest National Guard units

As of December 2018, nearly 430,000 Americans served in the US Army and Air National Guard, according to Department of Defense data.

Guard members sign up to commit one weekend a month and two weeks per year for training — but are often asked to sacrifice much more in service to their state and country.

Between September 2001 and September 2015, some 428,000 members of the National Guard were sent on deployments.

These troops also answer the call when disaster strikes their home states, like the recent fires in California and during Hurricane Harvey.

When it comes to capabilities, no two states are alike — we ranked the top six, measuring everything from sheer size of force to whether the state has special forces, strike, and a brigade combat team. Overall, we found Texas has the most capable National Guard.


Please, stop calling these other vehicles tanks

Texas Army National Guard soldiers from the 143rd Infantry Regiment conduct a live fire exercise at Fort Hood, Texas in October 2018.

(Texas National Guard photo by Sgt. Kyle Burns)

1. Texas

Don’t mess with Texas’ National Guard.

Texas has a number of capabilities that elevate the Lone Star State to the #1 position.

Its sheer size is a significant factor — the Texas National Guard is host to nearly 21,000 troops, including its army and air components.

Texas is also home to two companies of the 19th Special Forces Group and Air Guard fighter and attack wings that provide strike and drone capabilities.

Please, stop calling these other vehicles tanks

A California National Guard soldier from the 19th Special Forces Group descends for a landing during a high altitude, high opening training near Los Alamitos, California in February 2018.

(Air National Guard photo by Senior Airman Crystal Housman)

2. California

California’s National Guard forces nearly equal those found in Texas, including Green Berets in the 19th Special Forces Group.

But because the nation’s most populous state only yields roughly 18,000 troops, they fall in at #2.

Please, stop calling these other vehicles tanks

A Pennsylvania National Guard soldier looks out the side of a UH-60 Black Hawk helicopter near Nichols, South Carolina, in September 2018.

(Pennsylvania National Guard photo by Capt. Travis Mueller)

3. Pennsylvania

Pennsylvania hosts more guardsmen than California, with a force almost 18,500 members strong.

But because the state does not have Special Forces troops — the most elite forces in the Army, who are called upon for the most dangerous missions — it slid back to take the #3 spot.

Please, stop calling these other vehicles tanks

F-16 Fighting Falcons assigned to the Ohio Air National Guard’s 180th Fighter Wing, sit on the flight line at Patrick Air Force Base in Florida, where they fly to conduct training and maintain readiness during winter months.

(Air National Guard photo by Senior Airman Hope Geiger)

4. Ohio

Though small in geographical size, census data shows Ohio to be the 7th most populated state in the US, so it’s no surprise that it has a highly capable National Guard.

Its 16,500 guard members include Green Berets, jet pilots, and an infantry brigade combat team that has deployed to Afghanistan.

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Soldiers assigned to the 101st Cavalry Regiment of the New York Army National Guard off load from a CH-47 Chinook during cold weather training in January 2019.

(Air National Guard photo by Tech. Sgt. Ryan Campbell)

5. New York

Although New York does not have Special Forces, its force is sizable at 15,500 strong.

It hosts not one but two air attack wings — who fly MQ-9 Reaper drones — and an infantry brigade combat team.

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Georgia Army National Guard helicopters fly over the Georgia State Capitol during the inauguration of Governor Brian Kemp on Jan. 14, 2019.

(Army National Guard photo by Spc. Tori Miller)

6. Georgia

Georgia may not have Special Forces, but it hosts the sixth-largest National Guard in the US, with roughly 14,000 troops including an infantry brigade combat team.

This article originally appeared on Business Insider. Follow @BusinessInsider on Twitter.

MIGHTY TRENDING

How the Vietnam draft actually worked

Winning the lottery has likely never crossed your mind to be anything short of a celebration of newfound riches. Yet, for American men born before 1958, finding your number selected at random on television didn’t generally translate to wealth.

Ever wondered how the Vietnam draft actually worked? We’re combing through the history pages to find out just how birthdates and the Selective Service System mattered throughout the 20th century.


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Your grandfather, father and I

Coming of age doesn’t come close to holding the same meaning as it did for the nearly 72 million “baby boomers” born into the Vietnam era draft. Requirements for registration varied over the decades, ranging from eligible age ranges beginning at 21 and eventually lowering to age 18.

Uncle Sam had called upon its fighting-age citizens as far back as anyone alive could recall, as both World Wars and the Korean War utilized draftees. The Selective Service Act of 1917 reframed the process, outlawing clauses like purchasing and expanding upon deferments. Military service was something that, voluntary or not, living generations had in common.

Low was high and high was low

When the lottery took effect, men were assigned a number between 1 and 366. (365 days per year plus one to account for leap year birthdays.) In 1969, a September 14birthday was assigned a number 001. Group 001 birthdays would be the first group to be called upon. May 5 birthdays were assigned number 364 or would have been the 364group to be required to report. Even if called upon, screenings for physical limitations, felony convictions or other legal grounds resulted in candidate rejection.

This method was determined to be a “more fair and equitable process” of selecting eligible candidates for service. Local draft boards, who determined eligibility and filled previous quotas for induction, had been criticized for selecting poor or minority classes over-educated or affluent candidates.

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Grade “A” American prime candidates

In addition to a selection group, eligible males were also assigned a rating. These classifications were used between 1948 and 1976 and are available to view on the Selective Service System’s website.

1-A- eligible for military service.

1A-O- Conscientious Objector. Several letter assignments are utilized for various circumstances a conscientious objector may fall under.

4-G- Sole surviving son in a family where parent or sibling died as a result of capture or holds POW-MIA status.

3-A- Hardship deferment. Hardship would cause undue hardship upon the family.

Requests for reclassification, deferments, and postponements for educational purposes or hardships required candidates to fill out and submit a form to the Selective Service.

Dodging or just “getting out of dodge”

Options for refusing service during Vietnam varied. Frequently called “draft dodgers” referred to those who not just objected, but literally dodged induction. Not showing up, fleeing to Canada, going AWOL while in service or acts such as burning draft cards were all cards played to avoid Vietnam.

Failing to report held consequences ranging from fines, ineligibility of certain benefits, to imprisonment. In what has widely been viewed as a controversial decision, President Jimmy Carter pardoned hundreds of thousands of “draft dodgers” eliminating the statuses like “deserter” from countless files.

Researching the history of “the draft” in American history dates back to that of the Civil War. While spanning back generations and several wars, the Vietnam era draft is still viewed as the most controversial and widely discussed period in its history.

In case you’re wondering, The Selective Service System’s website still exists, as men are still required to register even today.

Articles

Video game writer, novelist and Marine sergeant Justin Sloan shares his life journey

Writer for the “Game of Thrones” and “The Walking Dead” video games and science-fiction novelist Justin Sloan once lived a warrior life in the Marines before following his artistic passions. The former Marine sergeant gives us the skinny on his passion for the Corps, transitions into government finance and then to the world of writing. In a continuing series that features former and retired Marines and their contributions to entertainment, We Are The Mighty asked Sloan to discuss how his past led to the present and to provide learning points he gathered along the way.

Sloan was born and grew up in the state of Washington and he had, “a good childhood.” He went to a public school system and took a lot of the opportunities offered to him. He grew up next to his best friend in school that later joined the Marines with him. He also convinced a few more of his buddies to join the Corps as well and about six of them went off to join the Marines together. He wrote and illustrated comics in his youth and considered being an artist at the time. He was initially informed by a guidance counselor, incorrectly, that the only creative profession he could pursue was as an advertising executive. That didn’t interest him, so he looked elsewhere for a career.

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Sloan with his sister and great grandmother. Photo courtesy of Justin Sloan.

While in high school, Sloan met a Japanese teacher that changed his life forever. In his junior year he signed up for the Japanese course and the teacher turned his life around. He had a less-than-ideal grade point average before taking the class and vastly improved his grades after being in it. The teacher allowed Sloan to take three Japanese classes at one time to include first, second-and third-year Japanese. His mother told him if he got a 4.0 GPA, she would pay for half of his trip to Japan. When he did, although she was surprised, she kept her word. He paid for the other half of the trip working a dishwashing job.

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Sloan with his cousin. Photo courtesy of Justin Sloan.

He learned that, “If I work hard, then I can see results, and getting straight As was not that hard. Japan was mind-blowing when I went where they had cell phones in 1999 which America did not. The trip was a big part of me in joining the Marines.” Sloan’s love for the Japanese culture drove him to join the Corps and he specifically requested Okinawa as his first duty station. In preparation for going to boot camp, Sloan, “watched a lot of Full Metal Jacket to get in the right mindset.”

In the Corps, Sloan was a Cryptologic Linguist (MOS 2673). His fluency in Japanese played a large role in getting the specialty and he studied Kung Fu while stationed in Okinawa. Sloan did want to be a “ninja” once he graduated from boot camp and his martial arts training would come later in his career. His job required him to review numbers and codes. He worked with code machines using propeller logic and cards that were fed into machines. That job was phased out, so he was given the MOS of Special Intelligence System Administrators (MOS 2651) and did Special Security Officer (SSO) work, working on clearances for Marines in the unit and determining if they were allowed in the Security Compartment Information Facility (SCIF). His service in Japan was busy and kept him focused on his intelligence specialty.

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Sloan during his time in the Corps. Photo courtesy of Justin Sloan.

Sloan was highly interested in studying the Marine Corps Martial Arts Program (MCMAP) and the Marine Corps warrior ethos had been a key motivator for him to join. He became a MCMAP instructor and a Kung Fu instructor. Sloan shared, “MCMAP reinforced the positives of the Corps for me and saved me from not reaching my highest potential in the Marines….the whole warrior ethos training and going over the Medal of Honor winners…it helped motivate us…and MCMAP helped me appreciate everyone in a more professional manner.” He was one of the first Marines in the fleet to be trained in MCMAP as the Corps had just switched from the Close Combat training program. Sloan, “thoroughly enjoyed the warrior ethos training….and was a black belt instructor in MCMAP,” by the time his service ended. He earned the secondary MOS of 8551 – Martial Arts Instructor. He left the Corps to pursue his desire to have a family and be settled in one place. He taught Muay Thai kickboxing for years after he got out of the Marines and he continued pursuing the warrior ethos learned while in the Marines. He trained in Japan, Thailand and Italy in martial arts. 

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Sloan standing next to a Vietnamese tank. Photo courtesy of Justin Sloan.

Sloan decided to do professional schooling and he just, “rolled right into the education, which was a lot of fun.” He earned a BA in Japanese from the University of California, San Diego and he studied abroad at Keio University for Japanese and then Kyung Hee University to study Korean for the State Department’s Critical Language Program in Suwon, South Korea. He earned his Master of Arts in International Relations and International Economics from Johns Hopkins. He took his education and worked for the Department of Commerce as a Management Analyst/International Trade Specialist.

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Sloan winning a fight. Photo courtesy of Justin Sloan.

During this period, he was a part of the, “…Presidential Management Fellowship Program, which is a fast-track system, which I was invited to join, where it was exciting to participate in…” Sloan was then selected for a position in the Commerce Department called the, “…Post Conflict and Reconstruction for a couple of years where we were basically working with policy…with how the government can go get involved in post-conflict situations and help stability like Sudan and Haiti just after the earthquake….to get the economy moving.” His experience as an analyst led to him working for the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco as a Supervisory Analyst and Country Manager. He wrote political, economic and banking analysis papers on Asia while at the bank.

After working at the reserve bank, he decided it was time to go back to his creative roots. “My life came full circle to where when I was 12, I was drawing comics and trying to design a video game with a friend then. We reached out to video game companies and were trying to sell them on it. They responded with, ‘You are like 12 and this is not how we do things.’ (In 2010) I had started writing books about my experiences and adventures overseas seeing the world,” which was based on encouragement by his grandmother. He had just taken a class on the Peloponnesian War, which he used as inspiration for his first book. He wrote his first fiction book on what he had done in a Peloponnesian War setting. He completed it in three months and found out how much he loved writing.

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Sloan coaching a kickboxing fight. Photo courtesy of Justin Sloan.

He decided to start down the path of being creative and did a lot of networking. Sloan completed a Master of Arts in creative writing from Johns Hopkins during this period as well. He had conversations with anyone in the field who would talk with him. Through networking, he was able to secure a job with Telltale games in 2014. Telltale was hailed as the “HBO of gaming,” by the New York Times. Sloan said, “They really liked my writing samples and screenplays I had done at that time.” He brought his experience with war games at the Commerce Department into gameplay during his interview.  Sloan credits his experience in the Corps with getting his first job as well. “The experience in the Marines really helped, to where a lot of employers are looking at that past experience and thinking this is someone who is reliable, dependable and someone who cares about their country.”

He was a writer on video games such as “Minecraft: Story Mode,” “The Walking Dead: Michonne” and “Game of Thrones.” He was also a contributing writer on “Tales from the Borderlands.” He eventually moved on to a different firm in video game writing and then on to being a full-time novelist. His proudest achievement thus far has been, “…working on the ‘Game of Thrones’ games. Waiting for the ‘Game of Thrones’ book is what spurred me on to write my first novel….it was a full circle process….I worked on a mobile ‘Avengers’ game which was great too….I am proud of my own novels as well where it was just me working on the book.”

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Sloan during his time at the Commerce Department with Secretary Locke. Photo courtesy of Justin Sloan.

Sloan credits Corps values such as, “…camaraderie where a lot of veterans out there want to keep loyalty and brotherhood together and we are part of the community….some veterans throw that away once they get out which I don’t understand….We get ahead by working together and I have had good experiences with veteran groups in entertainment. We should rise up together as, ‘a rising tide lifts all boats.’” He credits the Marine leadership traits in leading artists and co-authors, “…it is about knowing how to treat the people who work for you… Hiring fellow veterans for a project or job to work on feels great and you know what you are getting. Hiring civilians, you get a broader range of what they can and can’t do. In some essence, I prefer to hire veterans because you know what you are getting into.”

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Sloan during his time at the Japanese Research Internship. Photo courtesy of Justin Sloan.


Sloan believes Marine Corps values can find their way into Hollywood by “…maintaining our camaraderie and working together after our time in service. We need to find more of a J.R.R. Tolkien style of Inklings (author C.S. Lewis was part of the group) where they all worked together. They shared their poetry. They came up together where if we could get more involved like that it would be awesome. We need to find civilian groups that have similar values as the Marine Corps. Some people are too busy asking, ‘How can you help me?’ and don’t get the long-term approach.”

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Sloan at Telltale 2014. Photo courtesy of Justin Sloan.

He commented that Marine Corps stories can find their way into Hollywood “by working together more. When trying to sell a screenplay it is about you and why would we want to work with you. It is not just about your screenplay and being awesome. It is about selling you and the big picture view.” Sloan brings up how, “I recently wrote a story on a Marine that gets in trouble in Thailand. It is a personal story I can sell because it comes from me. I lived in Asia and was in the Marines where I can understand what my character is going through…People then have a reason to believe in you.” 

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Sloan at the Disney D23 Conference. Photo courtesy of Justin Sloan.

Sloan likes filmmaker Quentin Tarantino and his, “poetry between the lines.” In Sloan’s first novel, he wrote to ensure having the “military between the lines,” to make it real and as if it was a part of him in the writing. He described, “You must impart your sense of ideals and for your time in the military….you can stress when telling people about the story.” Sloan wants to get into directing his own films here next. He has taken storyboard classes and finds his transition to be “the next logical progression.”

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Sloan at the NETWO Writer’s Conference. Photo courtesy of Justin Sloan.

He has spoken at the Austin Film Festival, LA Comic-Con and San Francisco Writers Conference. He optioned a TV show recently as well. He is going to be spending the next two years focusing on studying directing. He shared his insights: “You will have a couple of years of low times when pursuing your dream, but I have had some great years as a writer as well.” Sloan offers these insights and words of encouragement for those seeking to journey into the creative side of Hollywood. His journey, as with others, requires patience, perseverance and a purpose-driven focus. Sloan’s novels include “Gateway to the Universe: In Bad Company,” “Claimed by Honor,” “Justice is Calling” and “Shadow Corps.” 

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Sloan at the Austin Film Festival as a panelist. Photo courtesy of Justin Sloan. 
MIGHTY CULTURE

Is the Air Force headed to new galaxies?

People were left scratching their heads last year when the Air Force’s top intelligence officer said the U.S. was looking for ways to expand its multi-domain operations and intelligence gathering into galaxies, far far away.

When Lt. Gen. VeraLinn “Dash” Jamieson made the observation in August 2018, it sounded to many more like visions from movies like “Interstellar” and “The Matrix” than military policy.

“I only talk about the domains we know about today,” Jamieson told Aviation Week’s Steve Trimble following a briefing where Jamieson discussed the service’s future intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance flight strategy.


“I am convinced that there are more domains — man-made domains — that will come, and I would offer you that if we look at galaxies — sounds nuts — but there’s going to be a man-made domain in galaxies,” she said last August. “Space has got different galaxies. And in those galaxies, in the future, we’re going to actually have capability that we have right now in the air. We don’t know what it is because we haven’t freed our mind to think about what is that space and how we are going to utilize it,” she said.

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Lt. Gen. VeraLinn “Dash” Jamieson.

In her comments last year, Jamieson wasn’t describing plans to insert physical national security space assets into space systems light years away, she recently told Military.com.

Instead, the term “galaxies” was meant to invoke how the Pentagon should be streamlining and blending intelligence from anywhere in the world and beyond.

“Envision if you will, the ISR constellation of sensors that are all interconnected by a common data architecture, operating with precision, clockwork, and movements of a galaxy,” Jamieson said in an interview at the Pentagon.

“So we took that and from that we went, ‘well, let’s put it down on paper.’ That’s where we came up with the collaborative sensing grid,” she said.

The sensing grid, she explained, is a map of data fused from sensors that is processed through artificial intelligence and machine learning to produce an “all-domain picture.”

“It helps us open up our minds to new ways to approach things,” she said.

In 2016, Jamieson became the service’s deputy chief of staff for intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance on the Air Staff at the Pentagon, known as the A2. This year, the Pentagon merged the A2 position with that of deputy chief of staff for Information Dominance, or A6. Following a senate vote in March, Jamieson also added cyber effects operations to her job title.

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Galaxy cluster.

(NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope)

Jamieson, the first female intelligence officer to be a director of ISR for the Air Force in more than a decade, and the first intelligence officer to hold the A2 position, has been seen as a proponent of avant-garde ideas in ISR: she has put a high emphasis on artificial intelligence and machine intelligence as a necessity to process information from every domain, including space, more quickly.

“It incorporates everything,” she said. For that reason, the days of PED, or processing, exploitation and dissemination of each individual piece of intel, without putting it into greater context, are “dead,” she said last year.

For her, “galaxy” was a “sexy word to say. How do I actually look at things through a different lens? How do I look at the interconnectedness of space? Because that gets me thinking very differently than terrestrial examples,” Jamieson said. “If I can look at [the] interconnectedness of the solar system, can I look at an interconnectedness of my sensors, whether I have them today or I’m going to attain them tomorrow?”

With the sensing grid, “I can look at an adversary’s intent in a much clearer way … and attain decision advantage,” she said.

This article originally appeared on Military.com. Follow @militarydotcom on Twitter.

Articles

One of Napoleon’s best generals returned to France after almost 200 years

Charles-Étienne Gudin’s heart has always been with France. More specifically, it’s been in France since his death fighting the Russians with Napoleon in 1812. His body, unfortunately, was mostly lost to history. Gudin was just one of 380,000 members of Napoleon’s Grande Armée who never made it back to France. 

Well, mostly, anyway. His remains were recently discovered in a park in Smolensk, Russia, a find that can finally close the door on the emperor’s disastrous march to Moscow and his hasty retreat. 

Gudin served the French Army faithfully for decades, first under the reign of King Louis XVI, then under the revolutionary government of France. Somehow, Gudin’s noble life didn’t end with the guillotine and he continued his service when Napoleon finally ascended to power, unifying France – and the rest of Europe against France. 

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Born in 1782, died in 1812. All Gudin really knew was war and violence. (Museum of the History of France/ Wikimedia Commons)

He first became a general while Napoleon was First Consul of France. By the time Napoleon finally became emperor, Gudin had already fought for France in the Wars of the First and Second Coalitions. By the time he fought against the Third and Fourth Coalitions, he was one of the emperor’s most trusted leaders. 

His service earned him the title of Count of the French Empire, Governor of Fontainebleau, and a division command in the Grande Armée during Napoleon’s planned invasion of the Russian Empire. Russia was not complying with Napoleon’s Continental System, a blockade of Great Britain that was forced on European powers. Anyone not complying would have to face Napoleon in battle, which was not an appetizing idea to any world leader at the time. 

When he learned that much of Britain’s exports were flowing into Spain, he launched an invasion of the country, which was already in the middle of a war of independence. In 1812, realizing Russia was not complying, he decided to create the world’s largest army and bring Tsar Alexander I to his knees. 

It wouldn’t be the first time France had whipped the Russian Bear. He defeated the Tsar at Friedland in a pretty evenly matched battle. At Austerlitz, the outnumbered Napoleon inflicted a humiliating defeat against both the Russian Empire and the Austrian Empire, which completely reshaped the continent, ceded Italy and parts of Germany to France and effectively ended the Holy Roman Empire. 

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Charles Thevenin’s painting of Napoleon accepting the surrender of 23,000 Austrian troops (Palace of Versailles/ Wikimedia Commons)

The thought of the most effective military leader the world had ever known massing an army of nearly half a million men and heading for Russia was not a good one for Alexander but the sheer size of the Grande Armée would be its own undoing. It was not able to feed itself and depended on foraging to sustain its men. When the Russians under Marshal Mikhail Kutuzov began its scorched-earth policy and subsequent retreat, refusing battle with Napoleon, the French Army began to dwindle away. 

When the emperor arrived in Moscow, he found it on fire. As the army finally turned around and headed back for France, it was a shadow of its former self. Winter set in and decimated the retreating French, who were suffering from widespread disease and couldn’t even build campfires, let alone fight. 

But Gudin never even made it that far. At the August 1812 Battle of Valutino, near Smolensk, Russia, French forces engaged a small Russian defensive position on the Stragan River. Gudin led the final assault on the position. It was a success and the French won the day, but Gudin was hit by a cannonball and lost a leg in the effort. Three days later, he died of gangrene. His heart was removed from his body and returned to France. 

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The Battle of Valutino, where Gudin was mortally wounded (unknown artist/ Wikimedia Commons)

The rest of Gudin was found in a coffin in a park near Smolensk in 2019. Almost two years to the day later, Russia returned the general’s remains. In a ceremony held near a Moscow airport, a horse-drawn cart accompanied by men in 19th-century French military uniforms accompanied the remains as it was repatriated to France. 

“Gudin represents a reconciliation between France and Russia, because Gudin was a Russian enemy in 1812. He came to attack Russia. Now, when Russia honours him and gives (the remains) to France, it’s the biggest symbol of reconciliation between our two countries,” Pierre Malinowski, president of the Foundation for the Development of Russian-French Historical Initiatives told reporters at the ceremony.

Feature image: Georges-François-Marie Gabriel/ Wikimedia Commons

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