The Sea Cobras and Super Cobras have been flying for five decades, but as the Cobra line gives way to the Vipers, it's a good time to look back at the Marine version of the first attack helicopter. With two engines, a 20mm cannon, and multiple hardpoints for mounting missiles and rockets, these things have been striking enemy targets for 50 years.
The venerable Sea Cobra first flew in 1969. Now, 50 years later, it's descendant the Super Cobra is still a mainstay of Marine offense and defense, using missiles to destroy enemy strong points and firing its cannon to break up maneuver forces trying to hit American lines. Here are 11 photos from the Super Cobras of today and history.
1. AH-1W Super Cobra sends 2.75-inch rockets into an enemy mortar position during a close air support mission at Wadi-us-Salaam cemetery, near Najaf, Iraq, in Aug. 2004.
(U.S. Marine Corps Capt. Jason Grogan)
The Sea and Super Cobra variants of the AH-1 have decades of service. But their predecessor, the AH-1 Cobra, dates back even further to Vietnam. It was originally pitched to the Army as the UH-1G, basically a "tweaked" utility helicopter.
While anyone with eyes could easily see the design was something new, Bell had just lost an attack helicopter competition to Lockheed, and a brand new attack helicopter would've required another competition, delaying the weapon's debut and potentially setting up the craft for a loss to another manufacturer. So Bell played fast and loose with the rules and the Army played along.
2. An AH-1W Super Cobra helicopter and UH-1Y Huey helicopter fly off the coast of the island of Oahu, toward Marine Corps Base Hawaii during maintenance and readiness flights, June 13, 2013.
(U.S. Marine Corps Sgt. Reece Lodder)
But the Army eventually admitted the UH-1G Huey Cobra was an all-new craft, and it was re-designated the AH-1. According to an Air & Space history, "Cobras would launch with twice as much ammunition as Huey gunships, would get to the target in half the time, and could linger there three times longer." Troops loved it.
The Marines in Vietnam loved the helicopter as much as soldiers did, but when the Corps went shopping, they wanted a bird with two engines so that an engine failure between ship and shore wouldn't doom the crew.
And so the AH-1J Sea Cobra was born, first flying in 1969 and making its combat debut in 1975, barely making it into the Vietnam War. Over the following years, the Marines upgraded the guns, missiles, and rockets and proceeded to the AH-1W Super Cobra designation in 1986.
3. Aviation Boatswain's Mate 1st Class Patrick Henry braces Airmen Andrew Jerauld as he signals to an AH-1W Super Cobra helicopter as it lands on the flight deck of the amphibious transport dock ship USS Green Bay.
(U.S. Navy Mass Communication Specialist 3rd Class Patrick Dionne)
But the era of the Super Cobra is coming to an end. With the debut of the AH-1Z, the Marine Corps moved to the "Viper" designation, and the Vipers have already proven themselves in combat. So the last Super Cobras in the American inventory, the AH-1Ws, are slated to be pulled from active units in 2020 and sold or gifted to overseas allies.
4. A Marine Corps AH-1W Super Cobra helicopter supports a beach assault during Rim of the Pacific 2016, a maritime exercise in Hawaii, July 30, 2016.
(U.S. Marine Corps Lance Cpl. Matthew Casbarro)
The Super Cobras are all-weather and have carried a slew of weapons like the XM197 20mm Gatling cannon, Hydra 70 rockets, 5-inch Zuni rockets, TOW missiles, Hellfire missiles, Sidewinder missiles, and AGM-122 SideArm anti-radiation missile.
Typically, it carries the 20mm cannon as well as pods for 2.75-inch Hydra rockets and Hellfire missiles, but it can still carry and employ those other missiles and rockets easily when necessary, giving commanders a flexible, fast platform that can kill everything from enemy radar sites to helicopters to ground troops and vehicles.
5. U.S. Marine Corps Cpl. Philip A. Gilbert supervises the preflight ground maintenance of an AH-1W Super Cobra helicopter on Camp Bastion in Helmand province, Afghanistan, June 24, 2013.
(U.S. Marine Corps Sgt. Gabriela Garcia)
Updates to the AH-1W granted it the ability to see in night vision and infrared, helping pilots to more quickly acquire and destroy targets at night or in bad weather. During Operations Desert Storm and Desert Shield, 48 AH-1Ws destroyed 97 tanks, 104 armored personnel carriers and other vehicles, 16 bunkers, and two anti-aircraft artillery sites with zero losses.
6. A UH-1Y Venom and an AH-1W Super Cobra shoot 2.75 inch rockets through the night sky and meet their targets during close air support training operations at a range near Fort Drum, N.Y., March 16, 2017.
(U.S. Marine Corps Cpl. Mackenzie Gibson)
Typically, the AH-1Ws, and now the AH-1Z Vipers, are deployed alongside UH-1s in Marine light attack helicopter squadrons. These units specialize in close air support, reconnaissance, and even air interdiction. The Super Cobras' Sidewinder missiles are crucial for that last mission, allowing the Marine pilots to take out enemy jets and helicopters.
7. A U.S. Marine Corps Bell UH-1Y Huey helicopter and a Bell AH-1W Super Cobra take off on one of the first flights for the new Huey from Bastion Airfield, Helmand Province, Afghanistan in 2009.
(U.S. Marine Corps Lance Cpl. Samuel A. Nasso)
While the Super Cobras are faster and have more weapons, the Hueys can carry multiple gunners which can spray fire in all directions. And the UH-1Y Hueys can also carry and deploy up to 10 Marines each, allowing the helicopters to drop an entire squad on the ground and then protect it as it goes to work.
8. An AH-1W Super Cobra Helicopter takes part in a live fire exercise at Pohakuloa Training Area, Hawaii, May 15, 2013.
(U.S. Marine Corps Cpl. Kevin Jones)
The aircraft can fly up to 18,700 feet above sea level, allowing it to clear many mountain ranges while serving on the frontlines. But commanders have to be careful sending the helicopter into the thin air that high as its crews aren't typically equipped with the robust oxygen equipment of bombers or jet fighters. So the Super Cobras try to stay at 10,000 feet or below.
Check out more photos of the Super Cobra:
9. A U.S. Marine Corps AH-1W Super Cobra launches rockets at simulated enemy targets and deploys flares during a tactical demonstration at Yodaville, Yuma, Ariz., April 4, 2018.
(U.S. Marine Corps Lance Cpl. Ashley McLaughlin)
10. Major Dennis "Pez" Pyszczymuka fires a Hellfire missile into a mock enemy position as part of the Integrated Training Exercise at Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center Twentynine Palms, June 13, 2014.
(U.S. Marine Corps Sgt. Russell Midori)
11. Capt. Reiss and Capt. Cox of Helicopter Light Attack Squadron Three Six Seven (HMLA-367) fire precision-guided rockets from their "Cobra" Helicopter during a training mission, off the coast of Okinawa, Japan, Sept. 25, 2002.
(U.S. Marine Corps Gunnery Sergeant Dean B. Verschoor)
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