MightyScopes for the week of March 25th - We Are The Mighty
MIGHTY CULTURE

MightyScopes for the week of March 25th

Okay everybody, calm down. Noadamus is here. I know you are scared you are gonna f^ck up and ruin your life. Well…. you probably are, but that’s no reason to get down! Mistakes are a part of life. Seems like you would have gotten used to that by now, but hey, everyone learns at their own pace. The good news is this week will provide everyone with plenty of opportunities to practice self-destructive patterns of behavior or creative innovation and radical self-discovery. The bad news is, we will all probably do both at the same time. On the other hand, there is no good or bad, there only is.

Life is a rollercoaster, a really fun rollercoaster that will eventually kill you. Hang on, have fun, and try not to f^ck up more than necessary.

Sincerely, Noadamus.

P.S. Don’t be a No Go at this station.


MightyScopes for the week of March 25th

Pisces

If you find yourself in a high-stress position where success depends on your ability to perform a specific set of actions, you will come out on top this week—if you are focused on your intent and workman-like in application of said required actions that is… If not, hang on cause it’s about to get bumpy. Forget about the consequences and only see the process. In doing so, you will swim through this storm like a dolphin. Yeah, I said dolphin. You know they can kick a shark’s ass, right? No? You best write that down, then Major.

MightyScopes for the week of March 25th

Aries

You may find yourself the only calm in the middle of spinning madness. Resist the urge to join in the fray, yeah you might have some fun, but you are on a mission, and this is a distraction. If the chaos forces you to join in, try to be calm and grounded, keep churning those wheels until the issue is in your rearview. Your finances, while slightly unstable, are improving. Keep adding to that retirement account, Gunny.

MightyScopes for the week of March 25th

Taurus

You need space and time to yourself to maintain your inner reserve of calm. This week will not provide you with much of it. If you don’t meditate, you should probably start, today. You will have the energy to handle everything you encounter this week, if you can keep your cool. Which is likely to be challenging, but doable. Stay calm, be precise, and be generous. You got this, boo. Oh yeah, whatever sort of person you enjoy is likely to find you this week, probably a few actually. Even if you are not looking for it.

MightyScopes for the week of March 25th

Gemini

This week will attempt to pin you down and restrict your movement. If you try to resist these forces pulling at you, this week will rip you apart. Instead surrender to the pull; you are going that way regardless. So go with the flow, literally. If you have to roll with a new squad during a patrol, do it and do it with precision. Use the momentum of every new event to propel you forward to the next. Just don’t go believing your own illusions, especially when it comes to relationships. But hey, you are gonna do what ever dumb stuff you were gonna do anyway, so don’t blame me. I tried to warn you.

MightyScopes for the week of March 25th

Cancer

It’s likely you will deal with numerous authority figures this week. If the stress begins to weigh you down, remember you were made to interact with authority. You have an innate understanding of what powerful people really need. So do what is asked of you, while guiding them to what they actually need. Oh yeah, and look good doing it. I mean, damn, you’re pretty/handsome/clever/emotionally mature, and I believe in you. The disruption in your home and family life need not be disastrous. It merely reveals the existence of a worn out pattern; adapt to this new reality, and it will vanish.

MightyScopes for the week of March 25th

Leo

Money or assets which do not belong to you, but are your responsibility, are likely to be a problem. No, no, not problem—leadership challenge, yeah, that’s it. My advice, find said problem, fix said problem, do so quickly and quietly, and don’t become your boss’s problem. I mean, leadership challenge. Oh yeah, if you are fraternizing at work, not only will it end terribly, but everyone at work will know all the details. And I do mean all the details… Besides, can’t you just date outside of work, Tech Sergeant?

MightyScopes for the week of March 25th

Virgo

If you are attending advanced studies or training, prepare to be occupied. Not just in a bad way, just in every single way you can think of and then a few more ways on top of that. In the relationship sector, just accept people for who they are, they aren’t going to change for you anyway. A problem with your home is likely to cost you more money than it should, but again, just accept it, this week nothing will change for you just because you get mad about it. That actually never works, but this week it hurts even more than usual.

MightyScopes for the week of March 25th

Libra

It hard to be a Libra, trust me, I know. Everyone gets so used to how flawlessly you move through life. You make one tiny little misstep, and they start pointing their fingers at you. So what? Let ’em, they’re just jealous they can’t glide through their mistakes with the kind of grace you can muster. So instead of pretending everything is perfect, allow yourself to be human. You are, after all. Besides, the chaos about to erupt in your home and family life will make your mistake vanish in the wake of required action. Stay safe, balance options, stay decisive.

MightyScopes for the week of March 25th

Scorpio

You’re a little spider spinning your web of illusions and desires. It’s hot, but don’t get caught in your web. This week your relationships are a combination of authoritative diplomacy and exuberance, resulting in success. All except your romantic relationships—that’s a war zone. An incredibly fun and creative battlefield to be sure, but if you don’t see things clearly, you will not be prepared to deal with reality. Don’t live in a dream, Private, wake up. The real world is pretty awesome.

MightyScopes for the week of March 25th

Sagittarius

Sometimes you amaze even me, the great Noadamus. And as your legal counsel (not a legally binding agreement, btw) I must advise you to stay at work as much as possible this week. Hey, I’m not gonna tell you to go home and deal with your home and family problems, or your money and credit issues, or your shady ass internet “business,” because I know you aren’t going to. But if you are going to avoid dealing with said problems, it’s probably best if you remain out of sight as much as possible. You just work your little heart out this week and stay in your car or something. As long as it doesn’t break down from lack of maintenance or anything. All that aside, your luck just won’t quit, so you will probably win the lottery or something as equally lucky (again, this is not legally binding, unless you win; then my take is 7%). You’re welcome.

MightyScopes for the week of March 25th

Capricorn

You may be beginning to feel some fatigue from your relentless pace. Your output is still high, and your creative engine is hammering, but you need to practice some self-care. The illusion you can overcome any abuse you subject yourself to, is just that, an illusion. You can’t finish your project if you break yourself. You have the energy and the mission, so grind away; just take a break and go outside once in a while, Colonel, you’re gonna get the rickets.

MightyScopes for the week of March 25th

Aquarius

I want to say you are going to get away with whatever dumb ass secret caper you are about to set in motion and you might. But you probably won’t. Unless, it’s not a secret. That’s right, you do your wacky scientist stuff, or your conspiracy propagation, or internet multi-level marketing, or whatever, just do it where everyone can see it. Try complete honesty. I know it’s a radical idea, but you can pull it off. When someone asks, just as direct as possible. Unless it’s illegal, in that case, you’re f^cked. Pull out, it’s never too late… until it’s too late.

Articles

This Marine tweaked his body armor to instantly treat a gunshot wound

A Marine corporal may have come up with a brilliant way to treat a gunshot wound the moment a bullet pierces body armor.


Cpl. Matthew Long, a motor transport mechanic, designed a tear-proof package filled with a cocktail of blood clotting and pain-killing agents that sits behind body armor, which would be released instantly if pierced by a bullet. Though Marine body armor, called “flak” jackets, come with small arms protective insert (SAPI) plates to stop bullets, they can have trouble stopping multiple rounds.

Also read: The Army is preparing its medics for a war without medevac helos

Long’s invention, if fielded, would render first aid immediately, without a Marine having to do anything. The seemingly-simple tweak could save lives when a medic is not immediately available.

MightyScopes for the week of March 25th
U.S. Marine Corps Cpl. Matthew A. Long, right, a motor transport mechanic with Motor Transport Company, 3rd Marine Logistics Group, III Marine Expeditionary Force, was recognized by Lt. Gen. Lawrence D. Nicholson, the commanding general for III MEF. | U.S. Marine Corps photo by Sgt. William Hester

The corporal was selected as a winner for his invention in September during the Corps’ Logistics Innovation Challenge.

“We thought we’d get one, maybe two ideas, but thanks to your support, we got hundreds,” Lt. Gen. Mike Dana said in a video announcing the winners. “We’re going to send all winners out to DoD labs to prototype their idea. These ideas might end up in the Marine Corps.”

Long and the nearly two dozen other winning projects will be considered for further use by the Marine Corps. As part of this, challenge winners are being partnered with government-affiliated labs to prototype, experiment, and implement their idea.

Other winners include a team of enlisted Marines who came up with a way to make affordable 3d-printed drones, an officer with an idea for a wrist computer, and glasses made for medical tele-mentoring.

MIGHTY TRENDING

Israel is not even a little threatened by Iran – this tweet proves it

Israel trolled Iran on June 4, 2018, with a gif from the film “Mean Girls” after Iranian Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei called for their complete annihilation.

Khamenei tweeted that Israel is a “cancerous tumor” that needs to be “eradicated,” and referenced the Palestinian “March of Return” movement which has seen several large-scale protests along the Gaza border in recent weeks.


The Israeli Embassy in the US responded to Khamenei’s colorful language with a gif from the 2004 film “Mean Girls,” in which Regina George, played by Rachel McAdams, Cady Heron, played by Lindsay Lohan’s character, “Why are you so obsessed with me?”

The embassy’s response has over 18,000 likes and 7,000 retweets.

Many of the commenters praised Israel’s witty response to Iran’s threats of annihilation. One user asked in Hebrew: “Who is the 15-year-old boy responsible for the embassy’s Twitter?”

—YaronR (@yaronriko) June 4, 2018

Some called for the poster to receive a raise.

Israel and Iran have recently been sparring online and offline; in May 2018, the two exchanged fire in Syria.

This article originally appeared on Business Insider. Follow @BusinessInsider on Twitter.

MIGHTY CULTURE

How the Spartan Pledge is working to prevent veteran suicide

“I will not take my own life by my own hand until I talk to my battle buddy first. My mission is to find a mission to help my warfighter family.”

These words constitute the Spartan Pledge, a solemn oath meant to reverse the disturbing trend of suicide among veterans of the U.S. military and active duty personnel.

According the 2018 Annual Suicide Report released by the U.S. Department of Defense, 541 service members died by suicide in 2018, including 325 active duty troops. The data collected for this report show the suicide rate is 24.8 per 100,000 service members, up from 21.9 in 2017 and 18.7 in 2013. These 2018 numbers represent a six-year high.


Similarly, the 2019 National Veteran Suicide Prevention Annual Report published by the U.S. Department of Veteran Affairs is bleak as well: 6,139 U.S. veterans took their own lives in 2017 — 16.8 per day, up from 5.9 in 2005. This rate is one and a half times that of the general (non-veteran) population.

MightyScopes for the week of March 25th

Boone Cutler on deployment when he was a member of the U.S. Army.

(Photo courtesy of Boone Cutler’s Facebook page.)

In 2010, retired U.S. Army paratrooper Boone Cutler decided it was time to do something about these tragic statistics. Cutler came from a family with a long-standing tradition of military service. His father served in Vietnam, his grandfather in World War II. “My grandpa was actually the longest held POW in World War II,” Cutler said. “We take a lot of pride in that and give him a lot of respect. He was captured the day after the Pearl Harbor attack and was held from December 8 until the end of the war.”

Cutler was inspired to join the Army after learning about the U.S. invasion of Panama in 1989. “I remember the headline,” he said. “The 82nd Airborne Division had just jumped into Panama. I left home at 17 and joined the Army Airborne Infantry when I was 18. He later reclassed his military occupational specialty (MOS) and joined the psychological operations (PSYOP) community. Cutler deployed to Sadr City, Iraq, in 2005 as a PSYOP Team Sergeant. Serious orthopedic and traumatic brain injuries sent him to Walter Reed Army Medical Center for two years. While there, doctors told him he was suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a diagnosis he had no intention of accepting at the time.

The years that followed were difficult. Cutler was on several prescription drugs, and he grappled with violent outbursts and suicidal thoughts. In 2010, he was shocked to learn that he wasn’t alone. In a conversation with his closest “battle buddy” from Iraq, Cutler asked his friend if he’d ever considered suicide. “Every day,” his buddy answered.

Holy fuck, thought Cutler. How could guys be so close on active duty — literally covering each others’ backs in a kinetic environment, know everything about each other, every hiccup, every burp, every fart … literally everything … and we don’t know this about each other after we come home?

Shortly thereafter, he called another friend who had been on his team. He discovered that teammate was struggling, too. He had been contemplating taking his own life and hadn’t left his home in two years. This was the genesis of the Spartan Pledge — a battle drill that, in Cutler’s words, helps warfighters “know what to do when they don’t know what to do.”

“We made an agreement,” Cutler said. “We knew we couldn’t actually stop each other from killing ourselves, but it was kind of a respect thing — if you’re going to do that, I can’t stop you. But don’t leave me spinning around on this planet for the rest of my life, wondering what happened and if there was something I could have done. Now [the pledge] is two sentences, but it literally started out as, ‘Motherfucker, you’d better call me.'”

Spartan Pledge FINAL CUT

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Around this same time, Cutler learned about GallantFew, a then-new organization with a mission to help veterans in transition. GallantFew executive director Karl Monger soon became a close friend and mentor to Cutler. While talking on the phone, the topic of veteran suicide came up, and Cutler mentioned how he and his buddies were dealing with it. Monger stopped him mid-sentence. “Boone,” he said. “I think you’ve really got something there. This is something we should promote.” GallantFew began to introduce the pledge through its network, during one-on-one meetings with veterans in crisis. From there, it took root around the country and continued to grow organically.

A 2017 video, aptly titled “The Spartan Pledge,” featured commentary by Cutler and conversations with others who were inspired to “pay the pledge forward” in unique ways. Army veteran and Redcon-1 music artist Soldier Hard shared his idea to incorporate the pledge into his concerts. “Every warfighter knows about taking an oath,” he said. “We take oaths very seriously. Why not invite warfighters in the audience to come up on stage and take the Spartan Pledge?”

The video also featured U.S. Navy veteran and New York City firefighter Danny Prince, who told Cutler he wanted to honor the victims of 9/11 — those who died in the attacks, as well as our fallen military in the Global War on Terrorism. Prince had collected some steel from the World Trade Center wreckage. He and former U.S. Marine and commercial airline pilot Steve “Luker” Danyluk proposed to forge that steel into a commemorative sword. Two months later, the project was complete.

MightyScopes for the week of March 25th

U.S. Navy veteran and New York City firefighter Danny Prince used steel collected from the wreckage of the World Trade Center to forge this commemorative sword.

(Photo courtesy of Boone Cutler.)

“Every warfighter who joined in this current era is there because of what happened at the World Trade Center and the Pentagon on 9/11,” Cutler said. “So we’ve come full circle now by creating a sword out of that tragic event that inspires people to live. That’s humbling. That’s something that touches your heart. When people touch that sword, it’s like connecting with all the souls that were lost.”

In 2011, Cutler launched a weekly talk radio show in the Reno, Nevada, area, called “Tipping Point with Boone Cutler,” which served as a platform for the former paratrooper’s raw, no-holds-barred style. That show aired through 2016. These days, Cutler spends his time spreading the word about the Spartan Pledge and connecting with his brothers and sisters in arms, both active duty and retired. “We’ve built a solid network from all walks of life,” he said. “We put our differences aside to save lives. It’s an amazing unifier.”

Cutler was a featured guest at the 2019 VetXpo conference in Dallas in October, which was sponsored by the GallantFew. His presentation, one of the many highlights of the weekend, was a spot-on snapshot of the state of the veteran community, the civilian world’s perception of warfighters, and why warfighters have such a challenging time with transition.

MightyScopes for the week of March 25th

A dog tag stamped with the Spartan Pledge.

(Photo courtesy of Boone Cutler.)

He shared his observation that, after Vietnam, Hollywood and the media habitually portrayed warfighters as “crazy vets.” As late as 2010, nearly half of all human resources managers said it was “difficult to hire” veterans due to PTSD — but they didn’t have a real understanding of PTSD. Cutler concluded that it was “PTSD phobia” that made it difficult to hire veterans, not PTSD itself. If PTSD was truly the problem, he continued, a woman who was raped or a person who lived through a natural disaster or a car wreck would also be difficult to hire. Yet, strangely, that did not seem to be the case — only veterans with PTSD posed this difficulty. Fortunately, due to advancements in mental health and organizations like GallantFew, the civilian population is beginning to understand PTSD, those affected by PTSD are talking about it more openly, and the associated phobias are fading.

As critical as he was of the civilian population, Cutler made it a point to hold his fellow warfighters accountable, too. He acknowledged that the transition to the civilian world is difficult, calling it a “different set of rules.” In the military, it is understood that everything can change and adjustments must be made. “If we’ve adjusted to those environments,” Cutler challenged the audience, “why are we so stubborn to adjust to this one?”

His answer was startlingly simple: At a time when most young people are learning to become independent — starting families, getting careers and making their own decisions — those who join the military are entering an authoritarian environment, in which they rely upon someone else, a squad leader, to tell them what to do and when to do it. The upshot? Warfighters have to develop their own “inner squad leader.”

MightyScopes for the week of March 25th

Boone Cutler.

(Photo courtesy of Boone Cutler.)

“My squad leader talks to me all the time,” he admitted. “I’m gonna do some stupid shit. BAM! Squad leader talks to me: ‘Don’t do that.’ Every one of us needs to build that squad leader [into your brain] who tells you what to do. You’re not doing your PT? Squad leader ought to have a knee up your ass pretty quick!” As you can imagine, Cutler’s presentation was peppered by frequent, self-deprecating laughter.

However, the humorous tone quickly turned somber when he invited Annette, a Gold Star mother, to join him at the front of the room. Cutler shared Annette’s story with the audience, recounting how her son had tragically ended his own life after transitioning out of the military. He then asked everyone to come forward, circle around, and lay hands on Annette while he led the group in the Spartan Pledge.

“I authored it,” he said later about the pledge, “but it doesn’t belong to me. It’s important to me that your readers know [the Spartan Pledge] is hallowed ground. There’s a fiefdom everywhere in our community these days, so I don’t want to attach my personality to this thing. To be clear, I legally own it, but that’s just to make sure no one pulls any bullshit.”

The Spartan Pledge has been featured on a NASCAR vehicle, inked on the bodies of warfighters, and incorporated into special ceremonies across the country. In the final minutes of Cutler’s 2017 Spartan Pledge video, he said that people frequently ask what he plans to do with it next.

“I’m just the author,” he said, laughing. “I’m not doing anything with the Spartan Pledge because it belongs to the community. The question is: What are you going to do with it?”

Buy a Bag, Give a Bag: Our first donated bags arrive to deployed troops in Iraq

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This article originally appeared on Coffee or Die. Follow @CoffeeOrDieMag on Twitter.

MIGHTY TRENDING

Back from the dead ISIS leader is calling on jihadists to ‘resist enemies’

The Islamic State group released a recording Sept. 28 of what it says is its leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, calling on jihadists under pressure in Syria and Iraq to “resist” their enemies.


In his first alleged message in nearly a year, and following reports of his possible death, the elusive jihadist leader called on his supporters to target the “media centres” of countries fighting his group.

“The leaders of the Islamic State and its soldiers have realized that the path to… victory is to be patient and resist the infidels whatever their alliances,” the speaker said.

It was not clear when the message, released by the IS-affiliated Al-Furqan media group, was recorded.

MightyScopes for the week of March 25th
ISIS patrol the streets of Raqqa, Syria. Image from Raqqa Is Being Slaughtered Silently.

In it, he lashed out at “infidel nations headed by America, Russia, and Iran” who, along with their allies, have inflicted losses on the jihadists during separate offensives against IS in Syria and Iraq.

“We will remain, we will resist and be patient… We will not give in,” he said, a day after Iraqi forces defeated IS fighters who had seized areas in a surprise offensive around Ramadi, west of Baghdad.

The apparent IS leader called on “soldiers of the caliphate” to pursue their “jihad,” or holy war, and attacks.

He urged his followers to “target the media centers of the infidels,” without providing further details.

MightyScopes for the week of March 25th
Under ISIS reign, the city of Raqqa has been turned into a veritable hell for its residents. Photo from Raqqa is Being Slaughtered Silently.

A US intelligence community source said they were examining the audio message.

“We are aware of the audio tape purported to be of Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi and are taking steps to examine it,” the source said in a statement.

Related: The US response to confirmation of ISIS leader’s death is priceless

“While we have no reason to doubt its authenticity, we do not have verification at this point.”

The Sept. 28 audio message is the first said to be of Baghdadi since November 2016, when he spoke in a defiant tone in urging his supporters to defend the city of Mosul against a massive operation by Iraqi forces.

MightyScopes for the week of March 25th
Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi. Still from an image released by Al-Furqan media group.

That recording, also released by Al-Furqan, was a rare sign of life from Baghdadi.

In July, Moscow said it was struggling to confirm if Baghdadi was dead or alive, a month after reporting his possible demise in a May air strike near the one-time IS stronghold of Raqqa in Syria.

With a $25 million US bounty on his head, Iraq-born Baghdadi has successfully avoided an intense effort to seek him out for six years or more.

Rumours have abounded about Baghdadi’s health and movements, but his whereabouts have largely remained unclear.

MIGHTY CULTURE

Why are so many politicians vets? The reason is hiding in plain sight.

American politics is a touchy subject, but voters from any party can easily observe how many veterans go into politics. Currently, the House of Representatives includes 76 military veterans; roughly a fifth of all members. Historically, veterans used to be even more active in Congress. So why are so many politicians vets, and what do they bring to the table that other candidates don’t? 

The timing for vets to run for political office is perfect. 

America loves our patriots, but it goes beyond that. The age at which people typically leave the military and pursue other careers lines up perfectly with the age requirements for elected officials. Some people know they’re going to pursue politics from the start. They start working in the field right out of college so that running for office becomes a natural career progression. 

If you’re hoping to get into politics from a completely different field, however, it’s not that easy. Unless, that is, you’re a vet. Most Americans would be hard-pressed to make a major career change in their 30s. There are no guarantees in politics. You can work on a campaign for months and walk away without a job. It’s a big risk; too big for average Americans to justify. 

Members of the military, on the other hand, often change careers in their 30s and 40s. Unlike the rest of the population, they’re free to explore new opportunities with fewer concerns about job security. 

Why do so many vets move into politics in the first place? 

The reasons for vets to become politicians are, for the most part, pretty self-explanatory. If you joined the military because you wanted to serve your country, getting elected to office provides another way for you to contribute. 

John Kerry is a former naval officer turned politician
Before going into politics, John Kerry was a Naval Officer.

While veterans can always volunteer instead, many are driven to serve their country in a more concrete way. By getting involved in government, they have the opportunity to make a difference for future members of the US Armed Forces, as well as the civilians they swore to protect. 

Do veterans actually make better politicians?

Military experience isn’t an automatic qualifier for political office. Whether or not a veteran will make an exceptional politician depends on their motives. If they’re changing careers because they’re driven to serve- because they have strong views and strong values that they hope to share with their countrymen, that’s a good sign that they have political leadership potential. 

Former President George became a politician after leaving the Air Force Bush
Former President George W. Bush was a First Lieutenant in the Air Force before becoming a politician.

If a candidate is just running for office to follow in their family’s footsteps, being a veteran won’t magically make them a worthy candidate. In that same vein, their military experience is only valuable if their motives for enlisting were pure. Enlisting just to advance their future political career is a shady move that undermines the values of the veterans who run for the right reasons. 

That said, for veterans who are in it for the right reasons, their military experience can be a tremendous asset. The values of respect, discipline sacrifice, and dedication to a greater purpose can all make a person a better politician. Whether or not they put their military values to work in their policies is entirely up to them.

popular

The surprisingly long history of the flamethrower

One of the most intimidating standard-issue weapon fielded to troops is, without a doubt, the flamethrower. Yes, bullets are intimidating, but nothing shocks and terrifies the primitive side of our human brains like a wave of fire surging toward you.


In contemporary warfare, the use of flamethrowers has tapered off in favor of more accurate weapons. Contrary to popular belief, they are not outlawed by the Geneva Convention — they just can’t be used anywhere near civilians. The most notable modern example of a flamethrower being used against another person was in 2014, when it was used as an execution tool by North Korea against its Deputy Minister of Public Safety.

The flamethrower, as we know it, was first created by Germany in 1901 and was known as the flammenwerfer. The flamethrower would find immense popularity among troops in the trenches of WWI, the all-out war of WWII, and the forests and jungles of the Korean and Vietnam Wars.

MightyScopes for the week of March 25th
Only problem is there’s still no place to attach a bayonet. (Courtesy of the National Archive)

However, the ancestor of what we call the “flamethrower” today got its start early in history with the Byzantine Empire. In 672, Crusader navies would spew a napalm-like substance, called “Greek Fire,” on their enemies. The actual composition of Greek Fire was a closely guarded secret that is now lost to time, but scholars generally agree that pine resin was used to make it sticky.

As technology evolved, Greek Fire was then launched out through a hand siphon that a troop could carry into battle. This was called a “cheirosiphon.” Crusaders would station a hand siphon atop a ladder or wall and spray the Greek Fire down, raining chaos onto their enemy.

MightyScopes for the week of March 25th
Who needs a long bow when you have a mother f*cking flamethrower? (Codex Vaticanus Graecus 1605)

In the East, China invented their own version in 919, during a time known as the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. The Pen Huo Qi worked nearly identically to the Crusaders’ flamethower, but it was more elaborate and was made to resemble metal dragons breathing fire.

Outside of the Crusaders, Vikings may have also created their own version of Greek Fire in 1041 (albeit with a different name) after they laid siege on Constantinople. The Saga of Yngvar the Traveler tells the story of a man (Ingvar) as he learns the art of flame-throwing — because apparently regular vikings weren’t terrifying enough.

When guns and gunpowder became the dominant weapon on the battlefield, the comparatively short range of flamethrowers made it less appealing — but it wasn’t ever forgotten. Threats of using Greek Fire even persisted through the American Civil War.

MIGHTY TRENDING

See how crews cleared and raised that sunken Norwegian frigate

The Norwegian frigate HNoMS Helge Ingstad was lost on Nov. 13, 2018, five days after it collided with a Greek oil tanker and began taking on water. Now, the Norwegian Navy has recovered the wreck and begun salvage operations, and videos showing the process from the early underwater surveys to now have been released online.


Norwegen Military KNM Helge Ingstad-Raised and Breathing Air Again-

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The ship suffered severe damage and seemed to leak water in what were supposed to be watertight compartments (Norway and the ship’s builder, a Spanish firm, are fighting over whether a design and construction failure led to the sinking or not). But the ship sank slowly, giving the crew some time to get a tug to push it into shallow water.

This was too little to save the ship, but has made salvage easier. Divers were sent in to collect sensitive documents and to remove the ship’s dangerous ordnance, from torpedoes to missiles. Surprisingly, as seen in the video above the torpedoes were placed into what was, essentially, a modified dumpster.

After removal, the munitions were detonated in a remote location, and two large barges with cranes were moved over the wreck to very slowly raise it up in late February. It took time for the water to run out of the wreck, and salvage crews were sent in to help open hatches and valves to get as much of the water out as possible.

Now, the ship’s remains are at Haakonsvern, Norway’s primary naval base, where salvage operators are taking careful steps to preserve as much evidence of how the sinking played out as possible while also preserving what components might still be saved.

MightyScopes for the week of March 25th

The HNoMS Helge Ingstad was heavily damaged in the crash and sank slowly over five days.

(Norwegian Armed Forces)

In fact, the ship could see active service once again. America re-floated seven combat ships sunk at Pearl Harbor and sent them back into the fight, and the Norwegian Navy is taking similar steps pioneered there to salvage as much of Helge Ingstad as possible.

Sensitive electronics exposed to seawater are being transferred into freshwater or chemical baths as saltwater becomes more corrosive when exposed to air. Approximately 1,400 parts have been scheduled for this treatment.

And, the ship still had some buoyancy when resting on the ocean’s floor, so crews are looking for where air pockets might have protected some components from damage. And the hull itself might be able to be repaired and re-used.

In the meantime, the Norwegian Navy is in a tough spot. They maintain only a small fleet, and they had five main surface combatants when the Helge Ingstad was lost, meaning they’re down 20 percent of the primary combat power.

MIGHTY CULTURE

TMF President Ryan Manion has one speed…GO!

It’s pouring rain as the photographer and I run through the cobbled streets of Philadelphia. You can see it in the locals’ faces and the Colonial buildings still standing strong just blocks from the Liberty Bell that this city is tough. For over 300 years, Philly has been the home of patriots, presidents and even movie characters such as Rocky Balboa. Yet, there is one theme that continues to define Philadelphians. No matter how much they struggle, get kicked around or scarred, there will be a moment when they rise, gritty and determined, and GO on with their mission.


We arrive at the Union League, a brick and brownstone club, which has supported the military and veterans since 1862. As we pass two statues of soldiers marching off to war, I receive a text, “Finishing a board meeting. Use the side entrance. You won’t be allowed in unless you are in a jacket. Which I assume you are not.” The subject of our next interview is 100% correct and I instantly know we are in the place where Ryan Manion and her team hold court each December.

Ryan is the President of the Travis Manion Foundation, co-author of the Knock at the Door, mother, Gold Star sister and marathon runner. She’s busy. Always on the go, and the second week of December is her Super Bowl.

The night before our interview, she led the annual If Not Me, Then Who gala, which honors fallen heroes, veterans, active-duty troops and military families. Today, she’s leading the TMF board meeting, which includes current CEOs and former generals. Tomorrow, she’ll go on Fox Sports to represent TMF at the Army-Navy game where Navy will take home the win (but we don’t know that yet). Ryan has thankfully given us thirty minutes of her downtime for a one-on-one interview which she tells me is “no big deal” after I thank her again.

The Travis Manion Foundation is a big deal. The non-profit, which started as a small family effort, is now an organization that coordinates thousands of community volunteers across the nation. Ryan, who lost her brother, 1st Lieutenant Travis Manion, and her team are driven by the mission to “empower veterans and families of fallen heroes to develop character in future generations.”

The most amazing thing about Ryan Manion is not only all that she and her team have accomplished since 2007 but the fact that she is still going, and going strong. Ryan, who grew up in the Philadelphia suburbs, is a former smoker who now runs marathons and does ruck marches. She talks fast and moves faster. “Come on, let’s GO,” she tells us when we see her. I follow, knowing without a doubt that Ryan is the next generation of tough as nails leader that Philly is known for.

WATM: How’s your Army-Navy week going?

Ryan’s phone rings. It’s a family call. She answers while we start taking photos. Then she’s back.

Ryan Manion: It’s been a little heavy this week. We started off Tuesday with a meeting for all our senior TMF leadership, which we did for the first time. They flew in from all over the country. Then Tuesday night, we had a huge book event here in Philly, and my son has pneumonia.

WATM: OMG, that is a lot.

Ryan: He’s fine. Home with the family. He had a cold for three days. It didn’t even seem like a big cold. You know, it’s been kind of crazy.

WATM: How do you manage everything on your plate?

Ryan: I love what I do, and I get to work on wonderful things. We’ve been working on a project for tomorrow’s Army-Navy Game. We’re bringing 30 wounded warriors and their families to meet the President during the third quarter.

WATM: Wow, that is amazing. Did you ever see yourself doing this kind of work? Especially leading an organization such as the Travis Manion Foundation?

Ryan: Today, one of our board members said it best, “It all just gets back to Travis, saying, if not me, then who?” And that kind of simplified the journey for me. I thought to myself, ‘Oh my God. I’m sitting here with all these people because of my brother.’

WATM: You and your family established the organization as a way to carry on Travis’s legacy. Does it still feel that way a decade later?

MightyScopes for the week of March 25th

Ryan and her brother Travis at the Army-Navy Game.

Ryan: Last night, somebody at the gala who was a Marine that served with Travis came up to me and said, “You know, I’ve been at this gala for eight years now, and every year gets better and better. It’s unbelievable. But I got to tell you, I was sitting there thinking, these people don’t know who Travis Manion was.”

WATM: How did that make you feel?

Ryan: Travis is my personal driver, but this organization is bigger than one person. I am excited for so many to see the fruits of what he stood for through this organization.

WATM: If Not Me, Then Who?

Ryan: Exactly. My brother wrote those words before he deployed to Iraq, and they represent the character, leadership and selfless service that is the backbone of all our programs. Whether it is our strength-building seminars, expeditions, fitness events or service projects, we unite our volunteers, both civilian and veteran, in the common cause to better their communities by living the mantra of “If Not Me, Then Who…”

WATM: What do you think draws people to the foundation and your work?

Ryan: It’s funny because our board was just asking me the same thing.

WATM: And?

Ryan: I have to tell you, the thing about our organization is that it’s like the feeling you get when you’re around your family. It started out as a family affair. It was a small family that was grieving the loss of their loved one. But even as we’ve grown, it doesn’t matter what event you’re at or how many show up. You know, tomorrow there will be a thousand people at our tailgate, everyone’s going to feel like they’re part of a team, a family.

WATM: Was that the plan from the beginning?

Ryan laughs. I’ve been to a few TMF tailgates, and we both know the answer.

Ryan: I can’t articulate in words why that is. But you’ve been around it, you see it, and I don’t know what drives that. We come from a very different place from a lot of other traditional veterans service organizations, especially those in the post 9/11 world. I think they’re all doing great work. They came with an idea, “Ok, this is the problem, and this is how we’re going to solve it.”

We came with, “I just lost my brother, my mom and dad just lost their son. And we want to make sure that we continue his legacy.” So when you come at it from that place, there’s no chance that it’s gonna be anything but super authentic in what you’re doing. Since then, it’s been, “Ok, we’re going to do this. Oh, people are into it. Ok? Let’s keep doing it. Oh, wow. We’re really doing something here now.” That’s the plan.

Ryan smiles as I point to her new book, The Knock At the Door.

MightyScopes for the week of March 25th

Ryan Manion with a copy of her book, The Knock at the Door.

WATM: So let’s talk about the book. First of all, congratulations.

Ryan: Thank you. Yes, it’s pretty awesome.

WATM: What’s the feedback you’re getting so far?

Ryan: The feedback has been tremendous. We’ve found that this book, to some degree, breaks down the wedge between the civilian and military worlds because everyone receives some type of knock at the door. We all have challenges that we weren’t expecting to appear in our lives.

The Knock At the Door shows what a military family goes through when they lose someone. But this story doesn’t end there. Our story just begins there. So it’s set in a much different context. The Knock At the Door empowered me and my co-authors into another chapter of our lives. We all had different journeys from shock to finding purpose.

WATM: In the book, you describe how physical fitness helped you find focus. Specifically moving from smoking to running the Marine Corps Marathon?

Ryan: I totally recognize the extreme of it all. Physical fitness is huge both in general and in times of grief. It was truly eye-opening when I discovered the effect it had on my daily psyche. I mean, people say, exercise is a little bit of a drug and they’re right. That’s why I had to write about my physical journey alongside my emotional one. I went through some dark times after I lost my brother. I struggled with anxiety and depression and was ultimately diagnosed with PTSD. It was realization that I was not ok that helped me to pick up the pieces.

WATM: Is there anything that people are really responding to or the people are coming to you afterwards and saying, I love this. That you’re finding people are really resonating with?

Ryan: I think for me, people were surprised about how vulnerable I was in the book. You know, I’ve been given the opportunity to run a veteran serving organization that requires a lot of professional appearances and public speaking. People get to meet me as the President of the Travis Manion Foundation, but this book showed a whole different side of me.

WATM: Was it scary to be that vulnerable and open?

Ryan: Yes. You know, the other thing that’s been really great about the book is the response from the Gold Star community. If you would have asked me before I wrote, what’s your biggest fear? It would be that like the Gold Star community doesn’t connect with this. And they have.

MightyScopes for the week of March 25th

Ryan with her TMF GORUCK.

WATM: What do you think Travis would say about all of this?

Ryan: I don’t know what Travis would be doing now. I don’t know if he’d still be in the Marine Corps, if he’d be out and working in corporate America or doing something less traditional. I have no idea. But I know that he would be involved in this world. He would not be the veteran that takes off the uniform, goes away and is unconnected to what’s happening in their community. But would I be connected to this world? Probably not, because my brother would have been. I think he would be proud that I am involved and active with the Travis Manion Foundation, but he would have hated that it’s named after him.

WATM: I think I can understand that.

Ryan: We were years into this thing, and my dad’s like, “I just feel like I don’t think Travis would like that his name is everywhere. It’s nameless, maybe we should change the name?” And my response was something like, “Dad, you’re kidding. We’re in too deep. Travis’s name represents this generation.” And so, that’s my rebuttal. I think Travis would be super proud of what’s happening in his name.

WATM: Is there anything that you’re looking forward to in 2020? Maybe something you’re scared about or something we should keep on our radar?

Ryan: The next big thing I’m doing is going to Puerto Rico at the end of January for one of our service expeditions. We have eight or nine of these service expeditions a year, but this one is special. I will be traveling with a Marine who was with Travis when he was killed. We will be doing rehab projects for veterans’ homes effected by the hurricane a couple of years ago. I am looking forward to that.

WATM: Will you keep us updated on the trip?

Ryan: Of course.

WATM: Last question. Who do you think will win the Army-Navy Game tomorrow?

Ryan: Navy all the way. (Turns out she was right)

For more information on Ryan Manion or the Travis Manion Foundation visit www.travismanion.org.


MIGHTY HISTORY

This mayor saved his town by drinking 3 liters of wine at once

There are no wars like religious wars, and the wars between early protestants and Catholics are no exception. They tend to be particularly destructive and brutal. Such was the 1618-1648 Thirty Years War, which was one of the most destructive in human history. The German town of Rothenburg ob der Tauber might have met the same fate as many before it were it not for the legendary wine it produced and the extraordinary consumption ability of its Bürgermeister, Georg Nusch.


MightyScopes for the week of March 25th

Prost. Prost to the Max.

Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly led the Catholic armies of the Thirty Years War. For 11 of those 30 years, Tilly dominated the protestant forces, sacking and destroying town after town with a demoralizing effect. When he arrived at Rothenberg, he was prepared to do the same to it as he had done so many other times. Legend has it he sent the city’s councilmen to death and prepared to burn the town. At the last second, he was convinced to take a glass of wine – in a large, beautifully ornate cup.

Tilly was as taken with the nearly one-gallon flagon as he was the wine itself. With his mood changed, either by the townsfolk or because of a delicious, intoxicating beverage, Tilly decided to offer the town a bargain. He said he would spare the town if anyone could slam an entire glassful of the wine – the 3.25 liter glassful – in one drink.

MightyScopes for the week of March 25th

When your future rests upon the fate of a bar bet.

Anyone in the town was free to try, but there was a catch. Anyone who failed to down the full glass in a single go would be put to death. The choice was clear: die trying to drink the wine or die by the sword when the Catholics torch the town. That’s when fate the mayor stepped in.

The glass itself was new. No one had ever really downed a whole glass tankard of wine in one drink. No one knew they should have been practicing all these years. But that was okay. The people of Rothenberg elected him to take care of the town, and by choice and by duty, Georg Nusch was going to be the first man to make the attempt.

MightyScopes for the week of March 25th

And ever since, no one could stop talking about it.

When Nusch walked in, he took the tankard, and downed the entire 3.25 liters of wine, all in one go. Everyone watching, especially Tilly, was suitably impressed. True to his word, Tilly spared the town, and the locals have been telling the legend of Der Meistertrunk (the Master Drink) for some 400 years now. They even wrote a play about it, which is retold better and better (like most bar stories) with every retelling.

But most notably, the story is retold in the clock tower of Rothenburg ob der Tauber, the 17th-century Ratstrinkstube. When the clock strikes the hour, a door opens and out comes Count Tilly on one side, and the other side comes Mayor Nusch, who puts a drink to his lips for as long as the clock chimes.

popular

Lyrics you shouldn’t text your friends if you’re in the Air Force

The “Mileygate” witch hunts, the scandal over four instructor pilots and searches of their personal cell phones conducted with dubious legality, hit a new low. Despite no evidence of actual drug use, and each passing every drug test, three were stripped of their wings and given reprimands which will effectively end their careers. All because they were texting Miley Cyrus, JellyRoll, and other artists’ songs whose lyrics contain references to “molly,” slang for the club drug Ecstasy.


 

The text messages were originally found as the Office of Special Investigations (OSI) was looking into a case of an unprofessional relationship between another pilot and his student. One of the four pilots was ordered to give his cell phone up after being told OSI had a warrant for the phone, except the warrant was signed the day after the seizure. One pilot was refused a lawyer. Despite the ridiculous misunderstanding, the Air Force continued its persecution of the officers and is in full damage control mode. Lt. Col. Julie Huygen, chief of the military justice division, Air Force Legal Operations Agency, wants airmen to realize they are expected to abide by Air Force standards of professionalism at all times, even when they are off duty:

You must avoid offensive and/or inappropriate behavior on social networking platforms and through other forms of communication that could bring discredit upon on [sic] the Air Force or you as a member of the Air Force, or that would otherwise be harmful to good order and discipline, respect for authority, unit cohesion, morale, mission accomplishment, or the trust and confidence that the public has in the United States Air Force.

With Lt. Col. Huygen’s warning in mind, WATM felt it necessary to help the Air Force bring you a few examples of other lyrics airmen should be careful of texting to their friends.

“She a hot tamale when she pop a molly, it’s time to party, we party hard/Drink and smoke it, drink and smoke it, drink and smoke it, we high for sure”

Try to remember you and your friends are airmen in the world’s greatest air force and not Chief Keef, 50 Cent, and Wiz Khalifa.

“How dare you bring another chick in my bed / You lucky I’m doing my yoga or you might be dead.”

This Miley Cyrus lyric is problematic at best, as adultery is punishable for military members under Article 134 of the UCMJ. Also, the military looks down upon threats of violence off the battlefield.

“I’m tryna give Halle Berry a baby and no one can stop me.”

Drake threatening to force a baby on Halle Berry is not only prejudicial to good order and discipline, it’s also punishable under Article 120 of the UCMJ.

“Yeah I smoke pot, yeah I love peace, but I don’t give a f-ck, I ain’t no hippie.”

Miley strikes again.

“Loaded up the Smith with the hollow TIPS/It’s time to FLIP/And blast my way to the top ten LIST”

Big Pun can use hollow tip bullets, but under the Hague Convention of 1899, as a military member, you are forbidden.

“Put Molly all in her champagne/She ain’t even know it/I took her home and I enjoyed that/She ain’t even know it.”

There’s so much wrong with this Rick Ross lyric, I don’t know where to begin. Mr. Ross, you need to attend SHARP training.

“A 50, 60 grand, prob’ a hundred grams though… I be smoking dope and you know Backwoods what I roll”

Fetty Wap can do a lot of things forbidden to U.S. military personnel.

“Let him hit it cause he slang cocaine/He toss my salad like his name Romaine”

Trading sexual favors for illegal drugs is forbidden under Article 112b and Articles 134-138 of the UCMJ. Even if it’s with Nicki Minaj.

“Coke on her back made a stripe like a zebra”

Kanye can say this because he’s not A1C West.

“MDMA got you feeling like a champion” Jay Z

“I’m used to Promethazine in two cups, I’m screwed up” – Lil Wayne

“Enough Oxycontin to send a f–king ox to rehab.” – Eminem

popular

This Spanish hero defeated an invading Muslim army — as a corpse

When your reputation as the greatest warrior in Spain precedes you, the sight of your lifeless corpse armored and atop a warhorse at full gallop can be enough to send the enemy running away in terror. Take the case of Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar, for instance.


Díaz de Vivar was born into the Spanish nobility in 1043 and raised in the court of King Ferdinand the Great. He eventually became the standard-bearer of Castile for Ferdinand’s son, Sancho II. He led military campaigns against the younger king’s brothers as well as the Moorish (Muslim) kingdoms in Andalusia was renowned for his military skill and strategy. He never lost a battle and was never beaten in combat.

 

MightyScopes for the week of March 25th
And here I thought combat veterans grew awesome beards these days. Wow.

 

Rodrigo became legendary in Europe, known by his nickname throughout the Christian and Muslim lands of the Middle Ages. While fighting King Sancho’s brothers, he earned the moniker that would echo through history when the Muslims began referring to him as just El Cid – The Lord.

The battle lines of this time weren’t as easy as Christian vs. Muslim or brother vs. brother. City-states fought one another with Christian and Moorish allies as well as allied city-states. The Iberian “Reconquista” – the series of wars that pushed Muslims out of Spain ­– was in full swing and the peninsula was full of different tribes, ethnicities, religions, and races, all with different alliances.

 El Cid’s future father-in-law slapped around El Cid’s patron – so he took the man’s head and then his daughter.

When King Sancho was assassinated, his brother Alphonso, whom Rodrigo expertly crushed in battle on more than one occasion, came to power in Castile. El Cid suspected Alphonso was responsible and dragged the new king from his bed to the city cathedral. He forced Alphonso to swear he had nothing to do with Sancho’s death. The new king professed his innocence, but never forgot the humiliation.

 

MightyScopes for the week of March 25th
This painting makes the scene look way less violent than it really was.

Regardless of El Cid’s acceptance of Alphonso’s reply, the embarrassing incident didn’t sit well with the new king. Eventually, El Cid found himself exiled and working for the Muslim rulers of Zaragoza. In 10 years serving the Emir of Zaragoza, El Cid built a good life for himself, including owning his own lands. But he was soon called up to serve Spain again.

MightyScopes for the week of March 25th
El Cid executed everyone who helped the Moroccans take Valencia. (It was just what you did back then.)

 

In 1086, the Almoravids, Muslims from Morocco, invaded Spain and advanced quickly throughout the peninsula. Alphonso was thoroughly beaten while trying to repel the invaders (he wasn’t very good at the whole “war” thing) and begged El Cid to return to meet the Almoravids. El Cid did return, but not for Alphonso – it was time for him to win some glory for himself.

El Cid and his troops struck back, taking the Muslim city of Valencia in 1091 and devastating the Almoravid army. They tried to recapture the city just three years later, but El Cid again sent them packing. Though it took another 400 years of fighting to expel the Muslim invaders from the Iberian Peninsula, they would never advance past Valencia while El Cid was still alive.

And one occasion, even dead.

El Cid stayed in the city and in 1099, the hero and his beloved Valencia found itself again under siege by the Almoravid army. El Cid, age 56, died from the famine caused by the siege. Legend has it his wife Jimena ordered El Cid’s corpse be armored and strapped on top of his horse to lead one last cavalry charge to break through the siege.

When the Almoravid army saw El Cid leading a counterattack at the head of his men, they broke ranks and fled as the Spaniards cut them down.

Valencia did eventually fall to the invading army after El Cid’s death and would not be recaptured by Christians for another 125 years. Jimena took the dead legend’s body to the nearby city of Burgos, where he was buried in the city’s cathedral – in one piece, and eventually, next to his wife.

MIGHTY TACTICAL

Everything you need to know about the 155mm Howitzer of WWI

WWI was an interesting time for the military. Our force was still new to being centralized, and converting state-led militias into one cohesive force took time and money. At the start of WWI, the Army had a scant 127,000 soldiers with 181,000 National Guard service members. What we needed were millions of soldiers to help the forces in France and England defeat Germany. In addition to needing qualified troops for ground movements, the US needed to find a way to offset its paltry military artillery units with the latest and greatest fighting technology.


But what is a howitzer, anyway?

If you don’t have a Red Leg in your family, you might not know the difference between artillery equipment. Never fear! We’re here to help. Here’s a quick primer on the difference between a howitzer compared with cannons.

Let’s take it way back to the early 1830s when the Army realized they needed a smaller, lighter, and more versatile cannon that could still have almost the same range as a regular cannon. Their answer to this problem was to shorten the barrel and change the shape to be more funnel-shaped instead of cylindrical.

The result was what we now know as a howitzer, a name taken from the Prussian word Haubitze, which means sling or basket.

Cannons can be direct fires weapons or indirect fires weapons, whereas a howitzer is strictly used for indirect fire – incredibly useful when the terrain of a battlefield is challenging to navigate. Howitzers can hit targets by arching rounds over objects, whereas cannons are directly aimed at a target and fired.

In full swing production since the 1830s, howitzers in all their forms have proved to be incredibly useful as part of the war effort … when they’re available.

There weren’t enough regiments

Before the US involvement in WWI, the Army only had nine authorized artillery regiments. By comparison, the Army currently has 27 active duty artillery regiments and 42 Reserve components. To say that we needed to grow our force quickly at the onset of WWI. But in lieu of a well-trained and combat-ready force, military leaders looked to other types of ways to bridge the gap. This is the story of the 155mm Howitzer of WWI and how it helped win the war.

Shortly after entering the war, the US formed 12 additional artillery units, bringing the total up to a rounding 21 regiments. These units helped supplement the National Guard and organized reserve artillery regiments, but it wasn’t nearly enough to stand up to German forces.

Regiments are great, but they weren’t enough

Sure, 21 units were better than nine, but it wasn’t enough since we didn’t have experienced personnel to arm the guns. In addition to needing soldiers, the Army also didn’t have enough guns or ammunition. The simplest solution for the WWI Army was to supply our forces with guns from France since there were plenty of qualified French artillery instructors and more than enough guns and ammunition.

Light artillery wasn’t the best choice

As the US entered the war, we only had a handful of 3-inch guns and 6-inch howitzers. The French forces replaced those with 75mm guns, 155mm, and 240mm howitzers. However, Army leaders held onto the idea that light artillery was more suitable for the current conditions. They couldn’t have been more wrong.

The changing face of battle

In fact, WWI’s trench warfare increased the need for heavy artillery like the 155mm howitzer and decreased the need for light field guns, like those in our arsenal. Howitzers have a greater range and are far more powerful, better suited for destroying fortified enemy targets, and reaching rear areas of the battlefield.

Without the use of the 155m howitzer, it’s possible that the conclusion of WWI would have looked very different. And, if it weren’t for the French, who were willing to share their artillery, ammunition, and knowledge with us, the US involvement in the war might have been incredibly altered, as well.

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