The axiom we know as "Murphy's Law" today has been kicking around for centuries. Instances of similar phrases can be found as early as 1877, and even George Orwell (himself a veteran of the Spanish Civil War) used it in his diaries. But when something truly catches on, it's kept alive for posterity – and that's how "Murphy's Law" is remembered nowadays.
What was once quoted as, "It is found that anything that can go wrong at sea generally does go wrong sooner or later." Is now – forever – the much snappier "Whatever can go wrong, will." But who was the Murphy whose name is now synonymous with accidents and mishaps?
A strapping young man, that's who.
Edward Aloysius Murphy was a West Point graduate, Army Air Forces veteran of World War II and an Air Force officer. Later in life, he would continue his work with the Air Force in testing experimental vehicles. This, of course, required a degree of delicacy; not only because building rocket sleds is as incredibly dangerous as testing them, but also because testing them requires exact parameters to record exact results.
*Rocket* Science. DAB.
Seriously, after World War II, Murphy became the research and development officer at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base's Air Development Center, where they conducted rocket sled tests. A rocket sled is exactly what it sounds like: a chair, a rocket, all on a sled-like slab on which someone sits. And is then propelled forward. In order to remind his crews to plan for the worst-case scenario in every experiment, he began telling them "whatever can go wrong, will."
This was especially true when they decided that 18 Gs was probably not the most a human could withstand and set out to test the limitations of G-forces on the human body. One Air Force officer, John Stapp, proved that humans could take at least 35 Gs and that anyone who passed out after 18 probably shouldn't be in his Air Force. Murphy was designing new sensor setups to measure everything that would happen on these sled runs. One day, something went wrong.
Here's Stapp's face as he becomes the fastest man ever, in what is essentially an open-top rocket convertible. Man, the Air Force used to be fun.
The details of the snafu that caused Murphy to remind his crews to check every detail are disputed. All we need to know is that something went wrong and Stapp's test run did not acquire any sensor data. Basically, Stapp put his life on the line for funsies, because other than a rocket boom, nothing else was recorded. Upon realizing this, Murphy apparently yelled at an assistant, "whatever can go wrong, will."
And it became their mantra. Then it became everyone's mantra when Stapp told a group of reporters at a press conference that they keep fatalities at zero because everyone on their team repeats "Murphy's Law" to prevent any oversights or mishaps. Once the press got hold of it, that was it. Murphy's Law is now enshrined in everyone's lexicon, not just the military's.