'Top Gun' is a classic and arguably one of the most visually stunning aviation movies ever made. Few movies in cinematic history have been as prolific in contributing to the pop culture lexicon, as well. (Who among us hasn't said, "I feel the need for speed" in random social situations?) And if you ask military aviators who signed up for flight school after 1986 why they did it chances are they'll list 'Top Gun' as one of the reasons.
Paramount had a huge challenge when they decided to make 'Top Gun.' Real-life air-to-air combat doesn't lend itself to the silver screen in that it's super technical, very chaotic, and generally takes place at ranges that would prevent two jets from being in the frame at the same time. So, of course, writers Jim Cash and Jack Epps, Jr. and the late-great director Tony Scott had to take some liberties to make the dynamic world of fighter aviation into something that might entertain movie-goers.
But, even allowing for that, 'Top Gun' has a bunch of cringe-worthy technical errors that cause it to be as much cartoon as tribute. Here's WATM's list of the big ones (annotated by the exact time they occur). After reading them we guarantee you'll never look at the movie the same way again.
(4:23) CATCC controller is sweating. Those spaces on the ship are usually freezing cold to protect the electronics.
(4:26) Bald-headed guy (played by actor James Tolkan) walks in wearing cover, something the crew doesn't do on Navy ships unless they're on watch on the bridge. What is this guy's billet anyway? CAG? Carrier CO? Tomcat squadron skipper? (He's an 0-5, so that would make him too junior for the first two, but he acts like he's in charge of everything.)
(4:33) (Not an error but a technical note): MiGs-28s are actually F-5Fs painted black. (Top Gun still uses F-5s as aggressor aircraft.)
(4:45) GCI controller refers to crews by their callsigns: "Cougar and Merlin and Maverick and Goose." A controller would refer to jets by aircraft side numbers.
(4:56) Maverick and Goose are sweating in the cockpit, which they'd only do if the pilot had the environment control system (ECS) jacked up uncomfortably high and the RIO didn't bitch at him to turn it down.
(5:00) RIO's radar presentation shows a 360-degree PPI presentation. Tomcat's radar only sweeps 65 degrees either side of the nose. (Wouldn't want a radar that pointed back at the crews. That would be a huge radiation hazard, to put it mildly.)
(6:00) Tomcat's wings are swept fully aft, which means -- at that altitude -- that the aircraft is going supersonic or the pilot commanded them into that position, which he wouldn't do because the airplane doesn't turn that well in that configuration.
(7:21) Standby gyro is un-caged as Maverick "goes for missile lock" by twisting a nob on the mid-compression by-pass selector -- a system that has nothing to do with the Tomcat's weapons suite.
(8:00) Cougar transmits: "This bogey's all over me. He's got missile lock. Do I have permission to fire?" Well, whatever the ROE, the question is moot until you do some pilot shit and actually maneuver your jet into a position to commit a weapon.
(9:01) As far as Maverick's "4-G inverted dive" (as Charlie later labels it) goes, if the two airplanes were that close the Tomcat's vertical stabs would be jammed into the MiG-28.
(9:03) The RIO wouldn't be carrying a Polaroid camera. He'd have a regular "intel" camera, and if he didn't get good photos of an airplane that nobody had ever been that close to before (as Goose says) then he would have failed in his part of the mission, big time.
(9:59) Merlin taps on a fuel gauge that doesn't exist in the rear cockpit of the F-14, only in the front cockpit. (The RIO only has a fuel totalizer.)
(10:06) Cougar rips his oxygen mask off to breathe more oxygen, which would be in short supply at high altitude.
(10:12) Cougar has a photo of his wife and baby taped over the airspeed gauge to the left of the altimeter. Meanwhile the vertical speed indicator shows he's descending at 6,000 feet per minute, which would be an aggressive dive. At the same time the altimeter, which shows he's at 31, 500 feet, is set to standby with the barometric pressure dialed to 28.32 when it should be at 29.92.
(10:26) ICS comms (intra-cockpit chatter) can be heard in air ops.
(10:48) A ball call (the transmission indicating the pilot sees the Fresnel lens that gives him glide slope information for landing) would not include the pilot's call sign.
(10:57) Goose has the same non-existent rear cockpit fuel gauge as Merlin.
(10:58) Maverick crosses the ramp with his hook down and then a second later he has the hook up. (It takes several seconds to cycle between fully up and fully down.) Then he pulls the throttles aft to go around, which would reduce engine power, as somebody screams "Cougar!" over the radio.
(11:06) Maverick instantly bolters -- in full burner, no less -- with the hook down again.
(12:25) Cougar never calls the ball when instructed but gets a "roger, ball" from the LSO.
(12:27) There's no way Cougar wouldn't have been waved off based on that wild approach. He gets at least five "power" calls and no "wave off" call. The Air Boss would have had Paddle's ass after that.
(12:51) Cougar traps, leaves lights on (Case I or Case III approach? Unclear here), and immediately shuts the jet down instead of taxiing out of the landing area. Maverick is still airborne, low on gas, and needs to land but can't now because Cougar has fouled the landing area and has to be towed out of the wires.
(13:00) Nice stateroom for a squadron CO. (He's an 0-5, fer crissakes.) Again, what's this guys' billet?
(13:58) First glimpse of random patch assortments on flight suits as Maverick and Goose get chewed out by skipper in his really nice stateroom. (And everybody's sweating.)
(14:19) Ship's captain/CAG/squadron skipper says, "With a history of high-speed passes over five air-controlled towers." Not sure what those are but they must be different than ground- or water-controlled towers.
(15:36) Ship's captain/CAG/squadron skipper says, "You can tell me about the MiG some other time" and dismisses the crew to head for Top Gun, thereby committing professional suicide by not getting the only information that anyone above him in the chain of command would care about that particular day.
(16:06) "Um, tower, there's some dork riding a motorcycle down one of the taxiways shaking his fist at us."
(16:59) There is no Santa Claus. And there's no such thing as the Top Gun Trophy.
(17:46) Slider is a lieutenant (junior grade). That's too junior for a Top Gun slot.
(18:32) Navy leaders would be reprimanded for encouraging arrogance because the Navy spent money on posters that read "excellence without arrogance."
(20:02) Goose quips, "Slider, thought you wanted to be a pilot, man; what happened?" So he's a RIO slamming a fellow RIO for being a RIO? Not likely. And the "RIOs as second class citizens" vibe left the community with the F-4.
(25:52) A hangar isn't the most conducive place for detailed flight briefs.
(26:29) Charlie briefs, "The F-5 doesn't have the thrust-to-weight ratio that the MiG-28 has." Must be because black paint is lighter than other colors.
(26:37) Charlie briefs, "The MiG-28 does have a problem with its inverted flight tanks." Those must be different than upright flight tanks.
(26:54) Anybody who showed up to a flight brief wearing a cowboy hat would have his or her wings pulled on the spot.
(27:36) Maverick makes a big deal about how the information regarding his MiG encounter is classified and then proceeds to reveal it in front of the entire group with no idea of whether they have clearance or not. Again, they're briefing in a hangar. Not exactly a SCIF.
(28:42) Jester says, "All right, gentlemen, we have a hop to take. The hard deck on this hop will be 10,000 feet. There will be no engagements below that." Of course we haven't briefed any of the other details of this event -- including ACM rules of engagement -- because Charlie has wasted our time hitting on Maverick, but whatever . . .
(29:53) Smoke effect is actually the Tomcat dumping fuel . . . a stupid idea when you're about to enter a dogfight.
(30:01) First merge happens very low to the ground over the desert, not exactly a hard deck of 10,000 feet.
(30:51) Goose says "Watch the mountains!," words never spoken during an air combat maneuvering event with a hard deck of 10,000 feet.
(31:31) Maverick "hits the brakes" by pushing the throttles forward, which would increase power, not decrease it.
(31:49) Jester's evasive maneuver in the A-4 is an aileron roll – not exactly an effective move in terms of creating the sort of lateral displacement that might defeat an enemy's weapons solution.
(32:08) Goose says, "We're going ballistic, Mav. Go get him," which makes no sense because a pilot has no control over a ballistic airplane.
(33:34) Maverick does a barrel roll after the tower fly-by in full afterburner, a violation of Federal Aviation Regulations to the extreme without an FAA waiver, which he certainly didn't get at the spur of the moment. That would have cost him more than an ass chewing by Viper. He would have lost his wings.
(35:52) Maverick explains, "We weren't below the hard deck for more than a few seconds. I had the shot. There was no danger. So I took it." The hard deck simulates the ground, so basically Maverick is saying, "We didn't hit the ground for more than a few seconds . . ."
(37:10) Any lieutenant whose fitness report reads "He's a wildcard. Completely unpredictable. Flies by the seat of his pants" would be done flying, not to mention unqualified for a Top Gun slot.
(38:26) Goose says to Maverick, "They wouldn't let you into the Academy 'cause you're Duke Mitchell's kid." There are lots of reasons not to get admitted into a service academy -- low SAT scores, for instance. Being the dependent of a veteran isn't one of them; in fact, that status qualifies the candidate for a Presidential nomination.
(39:26) Maverick explains to Charlie during a TACTS debrief, "If I reversed on a hard cross I could immediately go to guns on him." She replies, "But at that speed it's too fast." Um, what are you guys talking about, and what language are you even speaking?
(51:43) Charlie says, "That's a big gamble with a $30 million plane." Tomcat unit cost (cost per jet) circa '86 was $42 million. Maybe she wasn't including the cost of the two engines, which could have been a subtle dig on his energy management skills.
(55:31) Why is Hollywood eating an orange on the flight line?
(55:45) More dumping of gas going into a dogfight.
(56:30) Crews are surprised that Viper is one of the bandits. They would have briefed with him (in accordance with safely of flight rules).
(57:26) Logic of the engagement is ridiculous. Maverick lets Jester go and then flies in parade formation behind Hollywood who's saddled in super-close behind the other bandit. Hollywood whines at Maverick not to leave him when he should just shoot the bandit right in front of him, and then Maverick leaves to go after Viper and ultimately winds up getting shot because Goose does a shitty job of keeping their six clear (at 59:23).
(57:49) More fuel dumping.
(58:42) HUD display looks nothing like the real thing.
(59:04) Maverick switches to guns but HUD symbology stays the same.
(1:06:16) Iceman transmits, "I need another 20 seconds then I've got him" while flying so close that if he took a gun shot he'd probably FOD his own engines with the debris from the airplane in front of him. What does he need 20 seconds for?
(1:06:56) Goose says "Shit, we got a flameout. Engine 1 is out." The RIO has no engine instruments in the rear cockpit of the F-14.
(1:07:13) Iceman transmits, "Mav's in trouble. He's in a flat spin and headed out to sea." When an airplane is in a flat spin it is not heading anywhere except straight down.
(1:07:22) Goose reports, "Altitude 8,000. 7,000. Six, we're at six." They should have ejected already. NATOPS boldface (immediate action steps committed to memory) procedures read like this: "If flat spin verified by flat attitude, increasing yaw rate, increasing eyeball−out G, and lack of pitch and roll rates: 8. Canopy - Jettison. 9. EJECT - RIO Command Eject."
(1:07:23) Goose says "We're at six [thousand feet]" while the altimeter shows 2,200 feet.
(1:07:48) See step 8 above. If Goose had followed procedures he wouldn't have died.
(1:14:20) A Field Naval Aviator's Evaluation Board (FNAEB -- pronounced "fee-nab") would not look like a judicial proceeding held in a courtroom.
(1:23:08) Viper tells Maverick about the day his dad died like this: "His F-4 was hit. He was wounded but he could have made it back. He stayed in it. Saved three planes before he bought it." And Maverick doesn't respond by saying, "That makes no sense, sir. How does a pilot save three planes after his jet is hit? Why are you bullshitting me?"
(1:23:20) Viper explains, "It's not something the State Department tells dependents when the battle occurred over the wrong lines on some map," which ignores the fact that the Pentagon would be pissed if some random State Department dude spoke to surviving family members at all.
(1:26:50) Aviators wouldn't get orders at the Top Gun graduation. They'd get them via a frustrating process of arguing with their detailers on the phone over the period of a few months.
(1:27:24) Again: What. Is. This. Guy's. Billet?
(1:28:56) Pilots salute cat officers for launch with oxygen masks off.
(1:29:08) Maverick walks on the flight deck during flight ops without his helmet on.
(1:32:10) Tomcat does an aileron roll right off the cat, which it wouldn't have the speed to do -- not to mention that maneuver would be a gross violation of Case I departure procedures.
(1:33:08) Random lieutenant reports, "Both catapults are broken. We can't launch any aircraft right now," which ignores the fact that modern aircraft carriers have four catapults.
(1:34:47) Controller says, "Maverick's re-engaging, sir." There's no way his radar displays would give him any indication of that.
(1:36:41) Ice says, "I'm going for the shot" while at close range behind a bandit, but he switches from 'Guns' to 'Sparrow/Phoenix' -- the long range, forward-quarter weapons.
(1:36:54) Missile magically transforms from an AIM-7 Sparrow into a AIM-9 Sidewinder in flight.
(1:37:48) Maverick shoots a Sparrow in the rear quarter at short range, which wouldn't work because the AIM-7 needs a lot of closure to guide.
(1:38:02) Again the missile magically transforms from a Sparrow into a Sidewinder in flight.
(1:38:54) Once again Maverick 'hits the brakes' by advancing the throttles, which would make the airplane speed up.
(1:39:47) Maverick leads a two-plane fly-by next to the carrier with a wingman that's been riddled with bullets and most likely has sustained major damage to the hydraulic system that powers the flight controls.
(1:41:14) Iceman says, "You can be my wingman any time," which ignores the fact that unless he's the ops officer or schedule officer or squadron CO who signs the flight schedule then he just needs to shut up and fly with whomever he's assigned to fly with.
(All photos courtesy of Paramount Pictures except as otherwise indicated.)