History

This is how the poppy became a symbol for fallen troops

On Nov. 11, Americans celebrate veterans and honor those who served, but the date holds special meaning beyond our borders and around the world.


In fact, the 11th of November is a solemn day to our many of our nation's allies. To them it is Remembrance Day or Armistice Day, commemorating the end of World War I hostilities at the eleventh hour, of the eleventh day, of the eleventh month in 1918.

The red poppy became synonymous with the fallen troops during the First World War — and has remained a symbol of their sacrifice ever since. But the poppies adopted this meaning because of the war poem "In Flanders Field" written by the Canadian Physician, Lieutenant Colonel John McCrae.

The poem and red poppies used to sell Canadian victory bonds

It was at the second battle of Ypres, Belgium in April to May 1915 where McCrae saw the devastation firsthand. The Germans had just begun using chlorine gas against their enemies. Within the first ten minutes of the battle, there were already six thousand French casualties. After only the first seventeen days, half of McCrae's brigade had died in battle.

McCrae's close friend, Alexis Helmer, was killed in action on May 2nd. He chose to perform the burial service himself.  As he laid his friend to rest, he saw beauty in the hellscape around him.

Red poppies are a hardy flower. Where the land had been destroyed by mortar fire, chlorine gas, and countless other environmental concerns, the poppies grew around the graves — not even the high sodium or increased levels of lime could deter the red blooms.

Nearly every grave was decorated, as if it were a symbol from above.

The next day, in the back of an ambulance overlooking the battlefield, McCrae wrote what would arguably become Canada's most well-known literary work.

The Second Battle of Ypres by Richard Jack (Painting via Canadian War Museum)

"In Flanders fields the poppies grow

Between the crosses, row on row,

That mark our place; and in the sky

The larks, still bravely singing, fly

Scarce heard amid the guns below.

British 1st Btn Cameronian Highlanders wear gas masks & fix bayonets in anticipation of German gas attack 2nd Battle of Ypres on 20th May 1915 (Photo via Forces War Record)

We are the Dead. Short days ago

We lived, felt dawn, saw sunset glow,

Loved and were loved, and now we lie

In Flanders fields.

Poppies growing on the graves of British and Australian soldiers in a cemetery near Daours, France in June 1918. (Photo via Australian War Memorial)

Take up our quarrel with the foe:

To you from failing hands we throw

The torch; be yours to hold it high.

If ye break faith with us who die

We shall not sleep, though poppies grow

In Flanders fields."

-In Flanders Field by John McCrae

McCrae would be promoted to the consulting physician of the First British Army just four days before succumbing to pneumonia on Jan. 28, 1918. He would never know the end of the war or see the true impact of his poem. Canadians, Brits, Aussies, and New Zealanders wear a red poppy to remember the fallen of all wars. Americans borrow from this tradition for Memorial Day.

Memorial Day in America falls on the last Monday of May — and it's no coincidence that it occurs during the time of year when flowers, including the red poppy, are most in bloom.