The 1st Texas Infantry Regiment was a group of veteran soldiers by the time they took part in the Battle of Antietam on Sept. 17, 1862. That day still stands as the bloodiest single day for American soldiers in history, and the hardest hit was the 1st Texas.
Antietam was the disastrous end to Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee's attempt to liberate Maryland from the Union ahead of the 1862 midterm elections. Lee's advance north was initially successful as the Southerners hit Union garrisons in Maryland and forced the surrender of 13,000 Union soldiers at Harper's Ferry.
But Union Gen. George B. McClellan had found a copy of Lee's strategic plans and used them to maneuver into position on the Confederates, and Lee's army was woefully undersupplied and had low morale.
The two armies finally came together on Sep. 16 and began scoping out each other's positions. By that night, small skirmishes were breaking out as forces maneuvered for better position for the following day.
On Sep. 17, the 1st Texas Infantry was part of a defensive position near a church. A Union advance through a nearby cornfield was overzealous, and the Union forces were relatively scattered when a Confederate brigade that included the 1st Texas suddenly leaped up from the ground and began firing on the soldiers in blue.
Union Maj. Rufus R. Dawes would later say, "Men, I can not say fell; they were knocked out of the ranks by dozens."
Dawes and his men retreated, and the Confederates gave chase, led by the 1st Texas Infantry.
But the 1st Texas made the same mistake that the Union soldiers had. The men advanced too fast and became disorganized.
"As soon as the regiment became engaged . . . in the corn-field, it became impossible to restrain the men, and they rushed forward," 1st Texas Commander Lt. Col. Philip A. Work later said.
The 1st Texas had advanced until there were Union soldiers not only to their front, but also to their flank and rear. Its flanks were especially hard hit as Union 12-pound guns began firing into it.
Work ordered a retreat and the regiment began a disorganized withdrawal, but three Union regiments chose that moment to hit the 1st Texas with volleys.
The regimental colors were dropped at least twice as the men carrying them were shot. The colors were lost and the 226-man regiment suffered 186 men killed.
That was a loss rate of 82.3 percent, most of whom were killed in those few minutes in the cornfield. This was the greatest casualty rate suffered by any infantry regiment in the entire war, and most of the men were lost in the 45 minutes between the counterattack at the church and the retreat from the cornfield.
The regiment's Company F was wiped out. Companies A, C, and E combined had only six men. In total, the regiment had only 40 men.
The 1st Texas was later partially rebuilt. It was one of the Confederate units that attempted to take Little Round Top at Gettysburg and then helped break the Union lines at the Battle of Chickamagua.
The lost colors were found by Union soldiers and taken as a trophy, but were returned to Texas in 1905 by President Theodore Roosevelt.