6 Army Chaplains who made the ultimate sacrifice - We Are The Mighty
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6 Army Chaplains who made the ultimate sacrifice

Chaplains have long held a special place in many troops’ hearts. In fact, at times, they become legends. In the Army, the first chaplains were authorized on July 29, 1775. They’ve been with the troops on the front lines ever since.


Some chaplains have made the ultimate sacrifice. The most famous instance was that of the “Four Chaplains” who were on board the transport SS Dorchester when it was torpedoed by U-223 at 12:55AM on Feb. 3, 1943.

6 Army Chaplains who made the ultimate sacrifice
Painting of the rescue of USAT Dorchester survivors by USCGC Escanaba (WPG-77) on Feb. 3, 1943, in the North Atlantic Ocean. (U.S. Coast Guard image)

According to HomeofHeroes.com, when the transport was hit, the four chaplains, Rabbi Alexander Goode, Rev. George L. Fox, Rev. Clark V. Poling, and Father John P. Washington promptly began to aid the troops who were on the stricken vessel.

One sailor was heading back to his bunk for gloves, but Rabbi Goode instead handed his over. Despite a loss of power, they got some of the troops to the deck. Then, they began handing out life jackets, even as the Dorchester was rapidly headed to a watery grave.

Finally, when the life jackets ran out, they gave up their own. They were among the 668 who went down with the Dorchester, but many of the 230 men who were saved owed their lives to the Four Chaplains, each of whom received the Distinguished Service Cross posthumously.

6 Army Chaplains who made the ultimate sacrifice
Army Capt. (Chaplain) Emil Kapaun performs Mass in the field, Oct. 7, 1950. (Photo: U.S. Army Col. Raymond Skeehan)

In the Korean War, two other chaplains notably made the ultimate sacrifice. Chaplain Emil Kapuan, a Catholic priest, was captured during the Chinese offensive of 1950 — and shortly after his capture, he shoved a Chinese soldier who was trying to execute an America.

Then, while held as a POW, he would steal drugs and smuggle them to a doctor. He continued to steal supplies and bolster the morale of his fellow prisoners. He would die in captivity on May 25, 1951. In 2013, he was awarded the Medal of Honor posthumously.

6 Army Chaplains who made the ultimate sacrifice
Chaplain Herman Gilbert Felhoelter. (U.S. Army photo)

Then there was the case of Chaplain Herman G. Felhoelter, also a Catholic priest, who, during the initial salvos of the Korean War, offered to stay behind with a medic to help the wounded. As he was providing comfort, North Korean troops attacked and wounded the medic, who escaped.

The North Koreans then proceeded to carry out what became known as the Chaplain-Medic massacre, killing the wounded Americans and the chaplain. Felhoelter received the Distinguished Service Cross posthumously for his actions.

These cases only begin to scratch the surface of why the troops love their chaplains.

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This WWI Navy vet stole the 1920 Olympic flag

Haig Prieste was born in 1896 in Fresno, California. His parents were Armenian immigrants who gave up their original surname of Keshishian. Prieste changed his birth name, a traditional Armenian name, to Harry and later Hal.

6 Army Chaplains who made the ultimate sacrifice
Prieste at the 1920 Olympics (Public Domain)

Upon America’s entry into WWI, Prieste joined the Navy. It was during his service that he discovered his natural ability for swimming and diving. A shipmate reportedly teased Prieste that he should try out for the Olympics. So… he did.

After he left the Navy, Prieste attended the Olympic tryouts in Alameda, California. There, he came first in diving, beating out national champion Clyde Swendsen. From there, Prieste went to New York to prepare for the Olympics.

At the 1920 Antwerp games, Prieste was part of the U.S. diving team. After three compulsory dives at 16 feet, Prieste was in last place. However, things changed with the 32-foot dive.

“They let you do whatever you wanted. You could get more points by doing harder dives,” Prieste recalled. “I did the hardest because I wanted to get the most points.” With this, Prieste came back from last place and took home a bronze medal for the USA.

6 Army Chaplains who made the ultimate sacrifice
Kahanamoku at the 1920 Olympics (IOC)

Prieste became good friends with surf legend and fellow Olympic medal winner Duke Kahanamoku. The Hawaiian swimmer dared Prieste to steal the Olympic flag before they left the games. Not one to back down from a challenge, Prieste took the dare. Near the end of the games, he climbed the 15-foot flagpole and retrieved the Irish linen flag. Along with his medal, Prieste brought the flag home with him to Los Angeles.

It wasn’t until 1997 that the stolen flag resurfaced. That year, the U.S. Olympic Committee hosted a banquet which Prieste attended. A reporter brought up the missing flag and wondered where it had been for nearly 80 years. “I can help you with that,” Prieste told the reporter. “It’s in my suitcase.” Prieste did not realize the importance of the 1920 flag, the first to bear the now iconic five Olympic rings.

In fact, he would often show it to his guests as a souvenir of his Olympic experience and a great story with the Duke. “I had it a long time,” Prieste said. “A lot of my friends have seen it. You can’t be selfish about these things. It’s no good to me. I can’t hang it in my room. People will think more of me by giving it away than by keeping it.” And that’s exactly what he did.

6 Army Chaplains who made the ultimate sacrifice
Prieste returns the 1920 Olympic flag (IOC)

At the 2000 Sydney Olympics, Prieste returned the flag to the International Olympic Committee. In return, the IOC honored Prieste, the oldest living Olympic medalist at the time, with a commemorative Olympic medal. Today, Prieste’s flag is on display at the Olympic Museum in Lausanne, Switzerland.

Prieste passed away the next year at the age of 104. He is the first known Olympian whose lifespan covered three centuries from 1896 to 2001.

Feature image: IOC

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This is where North Korea would strike if it had a nuclear missile

North Korea is squaring off with a superpower, and propaganda has offered insight into the targets the North might aim for in the event of a conflict.


North Korea’s missile and nuclear weapons technology is advancing rapidly. The North successfully tested a Hwasong-12 intermediate-range ballistic missile Sunday that some observers suspect may be the foundation for a future intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM), the key to threatening the U.S. mainland.

“The objective is to preserve the regime, right?” Vipin Narang, a MIT professor with a deep knowledge of nuclear strategy, told The Washington Post. “You really have to stop the invasion. If you think you need nuclear weapons to do that, how do you deal with the fact that the U.S. is going to make you a smoldering, radioactive hole at the end of that? Well, if you can hold American homeland targets at risk, that might induce caution.”

The North is still developing the technology to strike the U.S. with an ICBM, despite their aggressive threats. Nonetheless, North Korean propaganda offers insight into the targets they might shoot for if they had one.

A North Korean photo from 2013 reveals a map, which some analysts call the “Map of Death,” identifying U.S. targets for potential nuclear strikes.

Open source intelligence analysts suspect that the four targets identified on the map are Hawaii, San Diego, Barksdale Air Force Base in Louisiana, and Washington, D.C. The U.S. Navy’s Pacific fleet is headquartered in Hawaii, and its home base is in San Diego. Barksdale is the headquarters for Air Force Global Strike Command, which is essential for U.S. nuclear deterrence and global strikes. The Department of Defense and other national security agencies are located in D.C.

Other analysts add Offutt Air Force Base in Nebraska, where U.S. Strategic Command is located, and Whiteman Air Force Base in Missouri, home to nuclear-capable B-2 stealth bombers, according to WaPo. The North could also potentially threaten Seattle or San Francisco. North Korea revealed a propaganda video featuring a simulated nuclear strike on the latter during a state concert celebrating the 105th anniversary of the birth of North Korean founder Kim Il Sung last month.

An ICBM test is expected this year, according to Director of National Intelligence Dan Coats.

While it cannot yet strike the U.S. mainland, North Korea has the weapons technology to hold Northeast Asia hostage.

Eager to stave off a U.S. invasion, the North, according to the rhetoric in their state media reports, would likely focus on U.S. military bases and high-profile strategic assets, like the Terminal High Altitude Area Defense anti-missile system being installed in South Korea.

North Korea launched a salvo of extended-range Scud missiles early March into the East Sea/Sea of Japan, with North Korean state media claiming the Korean People’s Army was rehearsing for strikes on U.S. bases in Japan. Open source intelligence reports revealed the North was aiming for Iwakuni Marine Corps Air Station, where a squadron of forward-deployed F-35s were stationed. When the USS Ohio made a port call to Busan last year, the North fired a missile into the sea. Open source intelligence, coupled with media reports at the time, revealed that the North was practicing bombing Busan.

The North’s newest missile, the Hwasong-12, has a range that puts Guam, specifically Anderson Air Force Base, within striking distance. The U.S. has a number of strategic bombers stationed in Guam, several of which have flown past the DMZ in a show of force.

“If the US goes reckless, misjudging the trend of the times and the strategic position of the [Democratic People’s Republic of Korea], all the US military bases in the operational theater in the Pacific, including Guam, will face ruin in the face of an all-out and substantial attack mounted by the army of the DPRK,” a North Korean Foreign Ministry spokesperson told the Korean Central News Agency (KCNA) in August last year.

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This colonel-turned-mercenary has been battling terrorism for decades

When most people retire from the military, they look forward to spending more time with family, relaxing, and maybe pursuing their hobbies.


Neall Ellis isn’t most people.

After a successful career in both the Rhodesian and South African militaries, Ellis became bored with civilian life. Rather than sit back and relax, he decided to pursue the only hobby he knew — kicking ass.

With plenty of strife and a need for fighters throughout the African continent, Ellis decided to become a mercenary. He wasn’t going to be just any mercenary though. Ellis recruited a team and procured an Mi-24 Hind helicopter gunship.

 

6 Army Chaplains who made the ultimate sacrifice
Russian Mi-24 Hind.

 

Ellis’ mercenary work eventually brought him to Sierra Leone, which was in the midst of a civil war in the late 1990s. The government of Sierra Leone, backed by the British, was attempting to quell a rebellion by the Revolutionary United Front (RUF).

Working for the Sierra Leone government, Ellis and his crew were seen as the most effective force against the rebels, even though they were a single gunship. As Ellis put it, “the gunship strikes the fear of God into the rebels. They run into the bush as soon as they see it.”

6 Army Chaplains who made the ultimate sacrifice
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As the rebels advanced on the capital, Freetown, the British forces remaining in Sierra Leone evacuated. Freetown looked as if it would fall to the rebels.

Also read: 5 of the most badass snipers of all time

Ellis saw things differently. Though the rebels were attacking at night, and he had no night vision devices, he proposed that he and his crew fly out to meet them and try to drive them off. To his crew, this sounded foolish and none would agree to fly the mission. Unperturbed, Ellis, piloting his helicopter alone, flew against the rebel onslaught.

 

6 Army Chaplains who made the ultimate sacrifice
The city of Freetown, Sierra Leone, was a front for brutal fighting during the Sierra Leone Civil War in the 90s. (Photo via Flickr user David Hond. CC BY 2.0)

In the dead of night, with no crew and no night vision, Ellis fought off the rebel advance. When the rebels came again, Ellis once again flew alone and turned them back from Freetown. Only when his helicopter broke down and he was unable to fly did the rebels finally take the city.

But Ellis wasn’t done fighting. Even though the government of Sierra Leone had lost the capital and could no longer pay him or his crew, they kept flying.

In an interview with the Telegraph, Ellis told them, “I have not been paid for 20 months. I do it because I don’t know what else to do. I enjoy the excitement. It’s an adrenaline rush.”

His staunch defense of Freetown had also drawn the ire of the RUF. His actions had so angered the RUF that they sent him a message: “If we ever catch you, we will cut out your heart and eat it.”

Ellis’ response was epic.

Ellis loaded up his bird and flew out to deliver a message of his own.

6 Army Chaplains who made the ultimate sacrifice
Coalition forces release informational leaflets out of a UH-60 Black Hawk helicopter over villages in the Logar province, Afghanistan, July 18, 2014. The leaflets are used to pass along information to the local populous regarding on going operations in the area. (U.S. Army photo by Spc. Steven Hitchcock)

Arriving over the rebel camp they proceeded to drop thousands of leaflets, with a picture of their helicopter and the words “RUF: this time we’ve dropped leaflets. Next time it will be a half-inch Gatling machine gun, or 57mm rockets, or 23mm guns, or 30mm grenades, or ALL OF THEM!”

And he meant it. Although heavily outnumbered, Ellis kept fighting the rebels.

Eventually, his efforts drew the attention of the British, who decided not only to return to Sierra Leone, but also to provide support to Ellis and work in conjunction with him.

His vast knowledge of the country made him a valuable asset to the British and he actively participated in operations.

Need more inspiration? 4 Vietnam War heroes you’ve never heard of

In September 2000, Ellis flew his helicopter in support of Operation Barras, a rescue mission of several soldiers from the Royal Irish Regiment who had been captured. He would also flew missions with the British SAS.

Ellis and his crew would stay in Sierra Leone until the defeat of the RUF in 2002.

Ellis’ reputation earned him a trip to Iraq working with the British during the invasion in 2003.

Later, he would also fly in Afghanistan “where, he reckons, he has had more close shaves than in his entire previous four-decades put together.”

At the age of 67, he is currently rumored to be flying against the Islamic State.

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‘Outside the Wire’ will bring you inside combat of the future

Outside the Wire is a science fiction movie that takes the viewer deep into the world of combat in the future. It’s a world many of us who have served has seen evolve over the last two decades. Starring Anthony Mackie (of Avengers fame) as an android officer who needs a drone pilot played by Damson Idris (Black Mirror), the movie not only delivers amazing action sequences that grimly show a battlefield in the not-so-distant future, but also gives the viewers a chance to examine the blurred lines of what warfare is evolving into. 

View the trailer here. 

Director Mikael Håfström presents us with moral questions on what role our technology plays in conflicts and how to live with the morality of that.

The movie starts with giving us the background of a “peacekeeping” mission in Eastern Europe that the United States is involved in years from now. Peacekeeping in name only, as it’s an extremely hostile war that is made even more deadly by both advanced drones and robotic infantry called “Gumps”.

Drone pilot Thomas Harp, fighting the war from the comfort of Nevada, makes a decision that costs the lives of two Marine grunts on the ground. That decision gets him into trouble, and he is sent to the warzone as punishment. There, he receives a hostile welcome (grunts aren’t going to exactly be nice to the drone operator that killed their guys) and is assigned to Captain Leo.  Leo proceeds to take Harp outside the wire on a mission to locate nuclear codes before insurgent leader Victor Koval (played by Pilou Asbæk) can. We also learn that Leo, is himself an android.

Now this is the part, where the military vet in you says…. “Ok, they are taking a drone pilot and putting his POG ass on a mission that takes him outside the wire? Sure” 

I thought that too, until you see why.  

Outside the Wire then takes on a fantastic action paced journey that both shows why Harp was picked for the mission and also addresses the impact of war by actually being in it.  Harp is immediately confronted with the fact that being outside the wire with boots on the ground is markedly different than dropping bombs from a remote location. The film brilliantly lays out a mosaic of a warzone that goes beyond traditional front lines and shows how modern and post-modern conflicts presents us with situations that are as grey as can be instead of being black and white. 

Harp is also confronted with the aftermath of his handiwork. Several times, he sees the destruction he was wrought by decisions that he made coldly and analytically.  Leo, the android on the other hand, guides Harp through the human toll of war and the moral conflicts that arise deep behind the lines of war. At times, you forget who is the human and who is the robot. 

As the plot develops, Outside the Wire takes us on plenty of twists and turns as we find out that when the battlefield is blurred, so are friendships. What results is an action packed ending that not only delivers thrills, but also makes the viewer question the humanity that is usually lost and sometimes gained in war.

Outside the Wire will be available for streaming January 15th on Netflix. 

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What is Career Incentive Pay and why do you need it?

6 Army Chaplains who made the ultimate sacrifice
The Seawolf-class fast-attack submarine USS Connecticut (SSN 22) departs Puget Sound Naval Shipyard for sea trials following a maintenance availability.


Career Incentive Pay is another part of the U.S. military’s Special and Incentive pay system and is intended to help the Services address their manning needs by motivating service members to volunteer for specific jobs that otherwise pay them significantly more in the civilian sector.

Each career incentive pay amount is in addition to base pay and other entitlements.

Title 37 U.S. Code, chapter 5, subchapter 1 outlines several types of S&I pay, and sections 301a, 301c, 304, 305a and 320 address incentive pays that are career specific.

Section 301a

1. Aviation Career Incentive

Who: Military pilots

How much: $125 to $840 per month, dependent on number of years serving as an aviator. This lasts the duration of the pilot’s aviation career.

Section 301c

2. Submarine Duty Incentive (SUBPAY)

Who: Navy personnel aboard submarines.

How much: The Secretary of the Navy has the ability to set SUBPAY up to $1,000 per month, but it is currently between $75 and $835 per month.

Section 304

3. Diving Duty

Who: Service member divers.

How much: $340 for enlisted personnel and $240 for officers per month.

Section 305a

4. Career Sea

Who: Naval officers who’ve been assigned duties above and beyond what might be typical for an officer in the same rank and which are critical to operations.

How much: $50 – $150 per month, dependent on rank. There is a limit on payments made to O-3s to O-6s, and only a certain percentage of personnel in each rank can qualify for the pay.

Section 320

5. Career Enlisted Flyer

Who: Enlisted personnel on flight crews for the Air Force and Navy.

How much: $150 – $400 depending on years in the aviation field.

For more information on hazardous duty incentive pay and other S&I pays, check out Military Compensation.

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5 reasons why Ronald Reagan was a great commander-in-chief

The passing of Nancy Reagan gives occasion to think back on the Reagan years and their impact on the warfighting capability of the American military. Here are five things that the Reagan administration gave to the troops that endure today:


6 Army Chaplains who made the ultimate sacrifice
The Reagan presidency began in a dramatic manner on January 20, 1981. As Reagan was giving his inaugural address, 52 U.S. hostages, held by Iran for 444 days, were set free. (National Archives photo)

1. Reagan’s defense spending was the hallmark of his presidency

Reagan believed the Cold War policies of Containment and Détente were both outmoded. He opted for a new way forward with a strategy determined by his National Security Council. This theory was one of a long-term strategic offense and was neither reactive or proactive. The strategy was designed to pressure the Soviets through a massive military buildup, which raised defense spending from $214 billion in 1982 to $258 billion in 1983. The Soviet Union was compelled to raise its defense spending from 22 percent to 27 percent of GDP. The total number of uniformed personnel didn’t change much, but the Bradley Armored Fighting Vehicles, F-117 Stealth Fighters, Apache Helicopters, and M-1 Tanks that rolled over Saddam Hussein’s Iraqi Army in 1991 did so because Ronald Reagan helped put them there.

6 Army Chaplains who made the ultimate sacrifice
A view of an Iraqi T-72 main battle tank destroyed in a Coalition attack during Operation Desert Storm near the Ali Al Salem Air Base (U.S. Air Force photo by Tech. Sgt. Joe Coleman)

While most historians (and former Soviet officials) agree the Soviet Union collapsed under its own weight, Reagan’s defense policies, including providing $1 billion worth of support to Afghan Mujahideen, certainly sped up the process.

2. Reagan began the tradition of presidents saluting U.S. troops

President Obama caught some flak from the U.S. right wing a while back when he saluted U.S. Marines with a Starbucks cup in his hand. Obviously, while rendering a salute holding something in the right hand is a no-go (which is why you’d be hard pressed to find military members in uniform holding briefcases in their right hand on base), the tradition of the President saluting military personnel is just that: tradition.

6 Army Chaplains who made the ultimate sacrifice
President Reagan salutes a military cadet (wikimedia commons)

The fact is, military members do not salute while in civilian clothes. The tradition started with President Reagan in 1981 and even then, it was a curious thing. Reagan had served in the Army Air Corps during WWII and likely knew salutes weren’t rendered out of uniform, it also means he knew it was a courtesy, and allowed the airmen and Marines who transported him to drop their salute after he returned it. Plus, the Commander-In-Chief can do what he wants. RHIP.

3. He raised the military’s pay and gave them better gear for the fight

General Edward Meyer, Army chief of staff under President Reagan, warned him that the Army was a “hollow force,” beaten around by the Vietnam War. When Reagan took over, Meyer’s assessment of the Army for the new President found one full of racial conflict, drug and alcohol problems, and full of recruits who were barely qualified to join. He also opened large training centers for the military, such as the Army’s National Training Center in California’s Mojave Desert. Meyer to the President the military needed to be told by the top person that they were honored and appreciated, and President Reagan took the time do just that.

6 Army Chaplains who made the ultimate sacrifice
(White House photo)

Reagan gave the military a much-needed pay raise. He modernized attack aircraft, like the F-14 Tomcat and F-15 Strike Eagle. The Navy grew from 479 combat ships to 525. The military soon rolled out the B-1 Bomber, Trident Attack Submarines, and Peacekeeper Missiles. M-1 Tanks replaced aging M-60 tanks used in Vietnam. Jeeps gave way to Humvees, and money flooded into training centers. He also made sure the right men were in them. It was a military an American would be proud to join.

“Regardless of the political consequences, Reagan bought us what we needed,” Reagan’s Defense Secretary Caspar Weinberger to The Baltimore Sun. “You can see it today.”

4. Reagan improved the morale of the force by shaking off the spectre of Vietnam

The 40th President believed the United States needed a win. Like a college football team in week one, he scheduled an easy start to what could have been a tough season. With the Cold War in full swing, the Gipper gave the troops the warmup they would have needed to fight the Russians, consequences be damned.

6 Army Chaplains who made the ultimate sacrifice
82nd Airborne artillery personnel load and fire M102 105 mm howitzers during Operation Urgent Fury. (U.S. Air Force photo by Tech. Sgt. M.J. Creen)

After ordering 7,000 U.S. troops to storm the beaches of the tiny Caribbean island, President Reagan declared “Our days of weakness are over!” in a speech to the Congressional Medal of Honor Society. “Our military forces are back on their feet and standing tall.” After the United Nations condemned the invasion, the President replied: “It didn’t upset my breakfast at all.”

5. Reagan’s ‘Good Cop, Bad Cop’ routine kept the peace with the Soviets

During his first term, he famously called the Soviet Union an “Evil Empire,” a phrase which worried critics of the U.S. military buildup at the time and earned him the dreaded “warmonger” label. Worried that his hard stance hurt his image, Nancy encouraged the president to have a direct relationship with Mikhail Gorbachev, the Soviet General Secretary. President Reagan reconsidered his strategy.

6 Army Chaplains who made the ultimate sacrifice
Gorbachev and Reagan sign the INF Treaty at the White House in 1987 (National Archives photo)

In his 2004 book Nancy: A Portrait of My Years with Nancy Reagan, senior presidential adviser Michael Deaver wrote that Soviet Foreign Minister Andrei Gromyko once asked her, “Does your husband believe in peace or war?” Nancy told the Russian minister Reagan wanted peace and that she would remind him of that every night.

She also said that she would whisper it in Gromyko’s ear as well.

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This is why landing on an aircraft carrier never gets easy

There’s a reason Navy carrier pilots are so cocky.


Their jobs would be challenging if they were just steering small hunks of metal through the air at high speed in combat, but they also take off and land on huge floating hunks of metal moving at low speed through the waves.

6 Army Chaplains who made the ultimate sacrifice
Most people only see successful carrier landings, but they can go horribly wrong. (GIF: YouTube/Superfly7XAF)

In this video from PBS, the already challenging task of landing on a floating deck gets worse in rough seas. With large waves striking the USS Nimitz, the flight deck pitches dozens of feet up and down, making the pilots’ jobs even harder.

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During World War 2 Americans thanked the troops by buying them warplanes

During World War II there were numerous ways in which American citizens at home could help the war effort. Victory gardens, rationing, recycling (then known as scrap collection), and most importantly war bonds were all a part of daily life.


But some Americans wanted to do more – a lot more. The employees of the Union Pacific Railroad and the citizens of Sparks, Nevada held war bond drives to buy planes that would fly against the Nazis.

By 1943, the American war effort was in full swing on both fronts. The railroads were busy carrying men and materiel coast to coast to be shipped off to the war abroad. Despite their hard work supporting the cause, the railroad men of the Union Pacific still wanted to do more. So, driven by their patriotism, 65,000 employees voluntarily increased their payroll deductions for war bonds during the months of May and June to the tune of $379,000. For their efforts they were rewarded with being the first railroad group to be honored with a named heavy bomber, a B-17 F called The Spirit of the Union Pacific, in August 1943.

6 Army Chaplains who made the ultimate sacrifice

The following spring, inspired by what the Union Pacific Railroad had done, the city of Sparks, Nevada took up an effort to ‘buy a bomber,’ as their rallying cry became. The 6,200 residents of Sparks raised $600,000 in the effort to purchase a bomber, the equivalent of nearly $8 million today. With their nearly $10,000 per resident effort, the citizens of Sparks were honored with a B-25J Mitchell bomber named The Spirit of Sparks.

The Spirit of the Union Pacific arrived in England for combat on September 9, 1943 and was assigned to the 571st Bomb Squadron, 390th Bomb Group, Eighth Air Force. Between that time and October 10 the plane flew four successful missions before being taken over by Capt. Robert Short and his crew as a replacement for their usual plane Short Stuff. Unfortunately this would be the last mission of the war for The Spirit of the Union Pacific as well as Capt. Short and his crew. On October 10 The Spirit of the Union Pacific and her crew were on a mission to bomb Munster, Germany as part of a larger effort later known as ‘Black Week’ due to the high losses of American bombers. Just short of the target the formation encountered heavy flak and German fighters. The Spirit of the Union Pacific was hit in the #3 engine causing a fire that consumed the plane. Upon realizing the severity of the hit Capt. Short ordered the crew to bail out. Two other crew members bailed out but did not survive and one was likely fatally injured and crashed with the plane. The remaining seven crewmen landed safely but were immediately captured by the Germans and spent the rest of the war as POW’s.

The Spirit of Sparks arrived in Italy in late 1944 and was assigned to the 321st Bomb Squadron located at Fano, Italy. During its tour The Spirit of Sparks flew over 150 successful missions against Axis positions in Italy and Southern Europe. Lt. Jack Kenyon and his crew flew 30 missions in The Spirit of Sparks in early 1945 taking no casualties before rotating out. Command next passed to Capt. McEldery who despite losing two wingmen in one mission also completed his missions without casualties. Capt. McEldery would be the final commander of the plane though as during transition training for the next crew the new pilot came in for a hard landing that crumpled the wings of the plane ending a very successful career. The plane was scrapped in Italy and used to repair other damaged bombers.

6 Army Chaplains who made the ultimate sacrifice

A scale model of The Spirit of Sparks along with a painting done by a crew member who survived 69 missions onboard can be found at the Sparks Heritage Museum in Nevada. Numerous other cities, organizations, companies also purchased planes that served in World War II though little is known about them.

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This is how water purification tablets work in an emergency

Guaranteed access to clean water is not possible for most people around the world. With different methods to neutralize pathogens possibly present in water, every human deserves clean drinking water.

For most consumers, a clean water source with elaborate filtration systems is ideal for killing hazardous organisms’ traces. However, during emergencies or while traveling, more portable water means purifying water is less pragmatic. This is where water purification tablets are a viable and convenient solution.

The realization that you’re out of bottled water is one of the most unanticipated adventure-killers in the wilderness. Even if you had a stream ahead, and the water looks clean, quenching thirst may seem like a quick fix, but can have devastating effects. Or, your home might be hit by a hurricane, and everything is out of order – including drinking water.

Drinking water with pathogens can lead to various illnesses ranging from gastrointestinal symptoms, meningitis, hepatitis and death. The US, for instance, experienced a water-associated disease breakout from 2013 through 2014, which resulted in over 1000 cases of illnesses and 13 deaths.

Water purifying chemicals can treat pathogens and kill harmful bacteria to make them safe to drink. They can often be used following a natural disaster that affects drinkable water supply or for people going to camp, hiking or traveling to remote areas. Such chemicals are available in tablets, liquid droplets and packaged powder, all of which contain either Iodine or chlorine.

Water Purification Steps

6 Army Chaplains who made the ultimate sacrifice
Tech. Sgt. Ryan Robart, 36th Civil Engineer Squadron power production craftsman, uses a chlorine tablet to test the water made by a reverse osmosis water purification unit in the village of San Antonio, Saipan. (U.S. Air Force Photo by Tech. Sgt. Joshua J. Garcia)

Water purification tablets are typically a combination of chlorine, Iodine and chlorine dioxide. When added to water, the compounds create a medium in which bacteria, protozoans and viruses cannot thrive. In effect, they kill the microorganisms and render the water safe for drinking.

Common harmful contaminants that might cause serious health complications include Campylobacter Jejuni and Giardini Lumblia. For these tablets to work, there are certain things you should get right, however. The tablets’ efficacy depends on the chemical concentration of the active ingredient.

Depending on the water purification tablet, make sure to add the correct number. This goes hand in hand with the manufacturer’s specifications. While small amounts might not kill the bacteria, excessive amounts might turn the water acidic.

Shake the bottle thoroughly to break down the tablets comprehensively to mix with the water. The most recommended wait time after mixing with water is at least half an hour. That’s when you can be confident all bacterias, viruses and parasitic protozoans are eliminated.

Note that some emergency water purification tablets leave behind an unpleasant taste. If Iodine is its active component, you may need to carry along an iodine neutralizer. Chlorine-based water purifiers require you leave the container uncovered to let off the gases.

Tablets over machines

Mechanical water filters are fantastic, but many people prefer using incredibly light water treatment solutions. Most tablets are good at correcting Ph levels, hardness, turbidity and common pathogens.

Being in a trail out of the woods with dwindling water supplies might not feel like a significant danger but could be fatal. As you don’t need to carry specialized equipment, water treatment tablets are incredibly useful in emergency water treatment.

You never know when a disaster occurs, and to survive, you may need to drink any available water. While international travelers carry these tablets for emergencies, it’s not recommended to routinely use them to purify water. Continuous use can build up the chemicals to toxic levels, which is not suitable for health. Read and follow all instructions/warnings before using water purification products.

MIGHTY HISTORY

That time Ohio and Michigan sparked an angry border war

Forget Texas and Oklahoma, Alabama’s internal division, or even the rivalry between the Army and the Navy academies. There’s only one state rivalry that ever erupted into armed conflict: the Ohio State-Michigan rivalry.


The reason? Toledo.

6 Army Chaplains who made the ultimate sacrifice
Go Rockets? (photo by Maryam Abdulghaffar)

Admittedly, the war wasn’t over football. 

The spike in tensions was about not just the city of Toledo, but the entire area covered by a portion known as the Toledo Strip. In 1835, Michigan wanted to become a state but it had to settle ownership of Toledo first.

It may not be the city it once was (and the video below acknowledges that) but the strategic importance of the city meant control of the Lake Erie coastline and complete control of the Maumee River, a critical trade and transportation hub.

The Toledo War (as it came to be called) sparked more than just a long-lasting rivalry. Ohio’s importance as a swing state for Andrew Jackson’s Democrats led to political corruption that put the Toledo area in Ohio’s borders, even though Michigan was (technically) right.

At this point, it’s important to tell the reader that this author and the narrator of the video below are both Ohioans.

6 Army Chaplains who made the ultimate sacrifice
President Biden, get ready to pose. (White House photo)

 

The “war” did turn into armed conflict, firing a total of 50 bullets and injuring one militiaman in the leg. And Jackson removed the governor of Michigan. At the time Michigan was a U.S. territory, so its governor was a Presidential appointee, which is how Jackson was able to sack him.

But while Ohio won the war for Toledo, Michigan gained its statehood AND its resource-rich upper peninsula as an extra point.

The record remained 1-1 for another 60 years when the states began to settle their scores through college football.

For more awesome, informative videos, check out KnowledgeHub’s YouTube page.

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MIGHTY HISTORY

This soldier waited 150 years to receive the Medal of Honor

During the Civil War, the Medal of Honor didn’t carry the same weight it does among US troops these days. When it was first conceived in 1861, American troops getting medals for any reason was a new thing, even if it was for “personal valor.” More than 1,500 were awarded throughout the war. By 1917, however, the Medal of Honor achieved the status it was intended to carry in the first place, and 910 of those were rescinded to officially elevate the award. Since then, individual medals have been awarded, often long after the action for which they were won.

That’s how Alonzo Cushing was awarded his Medal of Honor for bravery before the enemy at the 1863 Battle of Gettysburg. It was presented to him by President Obama in 2014.


6 Army Chaplains who made the ultimate sacrifice

Every photo of Cushing looks like he is ready to personally end some Confederate lives.

Major Alonzo Cushing was a Union artillery officer who graduated from the U.S. Military Academy at West Point just a few short weeks after the Confederate attack on Fort Sumter. By the 1863 Battle of Gettysburg, Cushing was still a lieutenant in experience, but earned the rank of brevet major for his role at the recent Battle of Chancellorsville, in Virginia. The heavy toll the Union took during that battle must have weighed heavily on Cushing because he gave no ground to the enemy as long as he could still stand. He was also a veteran of Bull Run, Antietam, and Fredericksburg. By then, he knew how important his role was.

On the last day of the three-day Battle of Gettysburg, the artillery battery commander was wounded three separate times. First, shrapnel from an exploding shell tore through his shoulder. This was not enough to deter Cushing. Even after his second wound, which cut through his lower abdomen and literally spilled his guts, he stayed at his post, holding them in. It was the third injury that would silence him forever. He was ordered to fall to the rear. Instead, he ordered his guns to move closer and moved with them.

6 Army Chaplains who made the ultimate sacrifice

The Gettysburg Cyclorama, 1883.

(Paul Dominique Philippoteaux)

Cushing defied orders to abandon his position on Cemetery Ridge at the critical point in the battle. The massive bombardment of Cemetery Ridge that cut into Alonzo Cushing preceded a full frontal infantry assault that came to be known as “Pickett’s Charge.” The Confederate attack on the Union position at Cemetery Ridge was as close as the Confederate Army would ever get to defeating the Union, losing more than half the men who made the charge.

Also killed was Brevet Maj. Cushing. Because of his previous wounds, Cushing could no longer yell loud enough to be heard by the men under his command. His First Sergeant literally picked him up and repeated his orders to the men. As he gave orders, the 22-year-old Cushing was hit in the mouth by an enemy bullet and was killed. His gallantry in combat earned him the permanent rank of Lt. Col. and a burial at his beloved West Point’s cemetery.

6 Army Chaplains who made the ultimate sacrifice

If looks could kill, Cushing’s is an 1841 Howitzer.

Just as Cushing’s First Sergeant wrote to his family about his bravery in battle, the Wisconsin native became the subject of a letter-writing campaign more than 100-plus years later. Residents of Wisconsin were more concerned with recognizing one of their favorite sons for his valor. It wasn’t until 2014 that Congress was finally able to act and the President was able to concur.

“His part of our larger American story — one that continues today,” the President said. “The spirit, the courage, the determination that he demonstrated lives on in our brave men and women in uniform who this very day are serving and making sure that they are defending the freedoms that Alonzo helped to preserve. And it’s incumbent on all of us as Americans to uphold the values that they fight for, and to continue to honor their service long after they leave the battlefield – for decades, even centuries to come.”

6 Army Chaplains who made the ultimate sacrifice

President Barack Obama awards the Medal of Honor to 1st Lt. Alonzo H. Cushing for his gallantry during combat at Gettysburg July 3, 1863. Receiving the medal at the White House ceremony, Nov. 6, 2014, is Helen Loring Ensign, Cushing’s first cousin, twice removed.

Accepting Cushing’s Medal of Honor was a distant first cousin of the young officer. Also present was Secretary of the Army John M. McHugh and 94-year-old historian Margaret Zerwekh. It was Zerwekh’s constant lobbying that made Cushing’s award a reality.

At 151 years, it was the longest wait of any Medal of Honor Recipient to receive the award.

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