Iconic World War II 'nurse' Greta Friedman dies at 92 - We Are The Mighty
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Iconic World War II ‘nurse’ Greta Friedman dies at 92

The woman behind one of the most iconic photographs of World War II has died.


Greta Friedman, a woman dressed as a nurse pictured kissing a sailor in New York City as America announced its victory over Japan, passed away Sept. 1. She was 92.

It’s one of the most famous photos of the 20th Century and shows a sailor who celebrates by hugging a nurse (actually a dental assistant, who just happened to be walking by) and giving her a long celebratory kiss.

Good thing a world-famous Life Magazine photographer happened to be standing there.

Iconic World War II ‘nurse’ Greta Friedman dies at 92

Photographer Alfred Eisenstaedt called the photo “V-J Day in Times Square” and captioned it “In New York’s Times Square a white-clad girl clutches her purse and skirt as an uninhibited sailor plants his lips squarely on hers.”

Friedman is widely believed to be the woman in the photo.

“I did not see him approaching, and before I know it I was in this tight grip,” Friedman told CBS News correspondent Michelle Miller in 2012.

A U.S. Navy photojournalist happened to be standing there as well and took a photo of his own from a different angle. He called it “Kissing the War Goodbye.”

Iconic World War II ‘nurse’ Greta Friedman dies at 92
Navy photographer Victor Jorgenson’s photo.

Call it what you like, the photo came to be the symbol of American sentiment as World War II ended. It has since been replicated in American pop culture from The Simpsons to Katy Perry.

Iconic World War II ‘nurse’ Greta Friedman dies at 92
Lance Cpl. Thomas Smith seizes the opportunity to kiss singer, Katy Perry on stage during the opening night block party for Fleet Week New York. (Official Marine Corps photo by Cpl. Jeffrey Drew)

The sailor is widely believed to be George Mendonsa, who was reunited with Friedman in Times Square by CBS News.

“The excitement of the war bein’ over, plus I had a few drinks,” Mendonsa said, “so when I saw the nurse I grabbed her, and I kissed her.”

Then-Petty Officer 1st Class Mendosa is now 93 years old and lives in Rhode Island.

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This Guy Digitally Paints US Presidents Into Totally Badass Situations

If you’ve ever wondered what President Ronald Reagan would look like while riding a velociraptor, San Francisco artist Jason Heuser has you covered.


With creations ranging from Reagan shooting from the saddle of a dinosaur to Nixon fighting a sabertooth tiger, Heuser has built an impressive art collection of U.S. Presidents being, well, total badasses.

The digital artist goes by the name Sharpwriter on the DeviantArt website, where he posts his creations for people to view or print out and enjoy. He also sells full-size prints. We gathered up some of our favorites here, but he has many more at his DA gallery, which you should definitely check out.

Iconic World War II ‘nurse’ Greta Friedman dies at 92
Photo Credit: Jason Heuser (Sharpwriter)/DeviantArt

Iconic World War II ‘nurse’ Greta Friedman dies at 92
Photo Credit: Jason Heuser (Sharpwriter)/DeviantArt

Iconic World War II ‘nurse’ Greta Friedman dies at 92
Photo Credit: Jason Heuser (Sharpwriter)/DeviantArt

Iconic World War II ‘nurse’ Greta Friedman dies at 92
Photo Credit: Jason Heuser (Sharpwriter)/DeviantArt

Iconic World War II ‘nurse’ Greta Friedman dies at 92
Photo Credit: Jason Heuser (Sharpwriter)/DeviantArt

Iconic World War II ‘nurse’ Greta Friedman dies at 92
Photo Credit: Jason Heuser (Sharpwriter)/DeviantArt

Iconic World War II ‘nurse’ Greta Friedman dies at 92
Photo Credit: Jason Heuser (Sharpwriter)/DeviantArt

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5 things military spouses need to know about PTSD

You never invited combat stress or post-traumatic stress disorder to be a part of your marriage. But there it is anyway, making everything harder.


Sometimes you want to give up. Why does everything have to be so, so hard? Other times, you wish someone would just give you a manual for dealing with the whole thing. Surely there’s a way to know how to handle this disease?

Iconic World War II ‘nurse’ Greta Friedman dies at 92
Understanding PTSD is critical for both members of a military marriage. (U.S. Air Force photo by Tech. Sgt. Nadine Barclay)

Like the rest of marriage, loving someone who suffers from PTSD or who is trying to work through the ghosts of combat doesn’t come with a guidebook. And although the whole thing can feel very isolating (everyone else seems fine! Is my marriage the only one in trouble?) that doesn’t mean you’re alone.

Therapists who specialize in PTSD know that while some couples may put on a good show for the outside world, dealing with trauma is hard work and, no, everything is not perfect.

If you’re dealing with PTSD at home, you are not alone.

Also read: Not all PTSD diagnoses are created equal

Husband and wife team Marc and Sonja Raciti are working to help military couples work through how PTSD can impact their marriages. Marc, a veteran, has written a book on the subject, “I Just Want To See Trees: A Journey Through PTSD.” Sonja is a licensed professional counselor.

The Racitis said there are five things that a spouse dealing with PTSD in marriage should know.

1. It’s normal for PTSD to impact the whole family.

If you feel like your life has changed since PTSD came to your home, you’re probably right. The habits that might help your spouse get through the day, like avoiding crowded spaces, may become your habits too.

“PTSD is a disease of avoidance — so you avoid those triggers that the person with PTSD has — but as the partner you begin to do the same thing,” Sonja Raciti said.

Remember that marriage is a team sport, and it’s OK to tackle together the things that impact it.

2. Get professional help

. The avoidance that comes with PTSD doesn’t just mean avoiding certain activities — it can also mean avoiding dealing with the trauma head on. But trying to handle PTSD alone is a mistake, the Racitis said.

“We both are really big into seeking treatment, getting a professional to really help you and see what treatment you’re going to benefit from,” Sonja said. “Finding a clinician who you meet with, and click with and really specializes in PTSD is so, so important.”

3. No, you’re not the one with PTSD. But you may have symptoms anyway.

The Racitis said it is very common for the spouses of those dealing with PTSD to have trouble sleeping or battle depression, just like their service member. That’s why it’s important for everyone in the family to be on the same page tackling the disease — because it impacts them too.

4. Be there.

As with so many issues in marriage, communication is key, the Racitis said. But also important is being supportive and adapting to whatever life built around living with PTSD looks like for you.

“You have to adapt — the original man you married has changed. The experience has changed him and that’s part of life,” Sonja says. “He has gone through something that has been horrific, and life altering and life changing, and together you’re going to adapt to that and you’re going to help support each other in that.”

5. Don’t give up.

It can seem very tempting to just give up and walk away, they said. After all, the person you married may have changed dramatically. And while splitting may ultimately be the right answer for you, it doesn’t have to be only solution on the table.

“Don’t give up,” Marc said. “It’s so easy to do. It’s the path of least resistance. But people who engage, people who actively engage — these are the marriages that survive.”

— Amy Bushatz can be reached at amy.bushatz@military.com.

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These three women were the first American military casualties of WWI

It was a warm Sunday afternoon on May 20, 1917, as nurses and doctors of Chicago’s Base Hospital Unit No. 12 gathered on deck of the U.S.S. Mongolia to watch Navy gunners conduct target practice.


Laura Huckleberry, one of the nurses standing on deck, had grown up on a farm near North Vernon, Indiana, and graduated from the Illinois Training School for Nurses in 1913. With Huckleberry were her roommates, Emma Matzen and Edith Ayres, also graduates of the Illinois Training School Class of 1913 and Red Cross Reserve Nurses selected for coveted spots in the hospital unit.

Also enjoying the Atlantic breezes while lounging in deck chairs or standing at the ship’s railing, the group included Scottish-born Helen Burnett Wood, a nursing supervisor at Evanston Hospital. Wood’s mother had protested her daughter’s decision to join the unit, but the 28-year-old Wood had written just before the ship sailed to tell them not to worry.

But Wood’s mother’s worst fears soon materialized.

“We watched them load and fire and then Emma said, ‘Somebody’s shot,'” Huckleberry later wrote of the event in her diary. “I turned and saw two girls on the deck and blood all around.”

Related: These 6 women earned the Silver Star for valor in war

Pieces of flying shrapnel struck Ayres in the left temple and her side, while Wood’s heart was pierced. Both were killed instantly. Matzen suffered shrapnel wounds to her leg and arm. As doctors and nurses attended to their fallen comrades, the ship turned around and returned to New York. The wounded Emma Matzen was taken to the Brooklyn Naval Yard Hospital, then transferred to New York Presbyterian Hospital and later to convalesce at Walter Reed Army Hospital in Washington, D.C.

These three women became the first American military casualties of World War I. But it was unclear whether they were entitled to military benefits. Before their bodies were shipped home, Ayers and Wood were honored by the American Red Cross in a memorial service at St. Stephen’s Church. Their coffins, placed side by side, were draped with the Allied flags as New Yorkers paid their respects.

Although technically not buried with full military honors, the two nurses were honored in their local communities in elaborate public services described as “similar to those accorded the sons of Uncle Sam who fall on the field of battle.”

In honor of their martyred patriot, 32 autos in a “slow and solemn march” accompanied the hearse carrying Edith Ayers’ casket from the rail junction to Attica, Ohio. Area schools were closed for two days and most of the community paid their respects as her body lay in state in the Methodist Church. The burial concluded with a 21-gun salute from the 8th Ohio National Guard as a delegation of Red Cross nurses and representatives of the governor and the state of Ohio stood in silence.

Iconic World War II ‘nurse’ Greta Friedman dies at 92
A gun on the U.S.S. Mongolia. | Public Domain photo

Wealthy financier and former Evanston mayor James Patten, whose wife was a friend of Helen Wood, telegraphed his New York representative to have the body shipped to Chicago at his cost. Evanston Hospital, Northwestern University and First Presbyterian Church officials took part in planning the memorial services after obtaining the consent of relatives.

More than 5,000 people lined the streets of Evanston to view her funeral escort, which included a marching band, 50 cadets from Great Lakes Naval Station, Red Cross nurses, hospital and university officials and other dignitaries. Following church services, a contingent of Red Cross nurses accompanied grieving family and friends to the gravesite.

Part of the ambiguity about the military status of these nurses came from the fact that they were enrolled by the American Red Cross before being inducted into the U.S. Army. They also served without rank or commission. Although the Army and Navy had formed nursing corps before the war, this was the first time they had inducted women in large numbers.

The Senate Naval Affairs Committee investigated the incident, determining that it resulted from the malfunctioning of the brass cap on the powder cartridge case and ordering changes to naval guns to prevent recurrence of such mishaps. But as U.S. war casualties mounted, these women were soon forgotten.

Emma Matzen recovered from her injuries and rejoined her unit in France later that year. In 1919, she returned home to Nebraska, where she and a sister, also a nurse, ran a small hospital. Each adopted infant girls who had been abandoned at the hospital; both girls later became nurses as well. Matzen moved to Ft. Wayne, Indiana, in 1949 where she did private duty nursing until she was 87. She was the only female among the 49 residents in her local VA Hospital; she died in 1979 at the age of 100.

Until the mid-1940s, the Edith Work Ayers American Legion Post in Cleveland was an all-women’s group comprised of former WWI Red Cross nurses and volunteers. The Attica Ohio Historical Society has honored her during annual Memorial Day ceremonies. Ayers’ graveside, although also without mention of any military service, has an American Legion marker. An Attica high school student, with the endorsement of the American Legion, has applied to the Ohio History Commission for a plaque to be placed in Attica in honor of its native daughter.

In Northesk Church near Musselburgh, Scotland, Helen Wood’s name is the first listed on a Roll of Honor of the congregation’s WWI deceased. In 2014, the flag which draped her coffin and her Red Cross pin were displayed in a WWI exhibition at the local museum. But Helen Wood is buried thousands of miles away in Chicago’s Rosehill Cemetery. Among the grand tombstones of famous Chicagoans and war veterans, Wood’s simple headstone makes no mention of her military death. Her wartime sacrifice is recognized only by a marker provided long ago by the Gold Star Father’s Association.

On the centennial of the accident aboard the Mongolia, a public wreath laying ceremony will be held at Helen Burnett Wood’s grave site in Rosehill Cemetery May 20. Part of “Northwestern Remembers the First World War”, a series of exhibits, lectures, and commemorations from Northwestern University Libraries will also be part of the remembering of America’s first casualties of WWI.  Support of the event is provided by the Pritzker Military Museum Library.

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Watch the Air Force launch an ICBM in mid-air from the back of a C-5

During the Cold War, the American nuclear deterrent strategy required coming up with ways to guarantee the survival of nuclear weapons if the Soviets managed a surprise first strike. The surviving devices would then be used to destroy Soviet civilization.


Keeping U.S. nukes out of Soviet crosshairs required a lot of imagination. The Americans had to keep the nukes deeply buried or constantly on the move. Then they had to make sure the surviving devices could be used effectively.

One such scheme was outfitting a full-size Minuteman III Inter-continental Ballistic Missile to fit in the back of a U.S. Air Force C-5 Galaxy aircraft, dumping the nuke out the back and triggering the ICBM’s full ignition sequence.

Iconic World War II ‘nurse’ Greta Friedman dies at 92
They’re really serious about nothing stopping the U.S. Air Force.

Minuteman III ICBMs carry multiple warheads bound for separate targets. This makes the Minuteman III the ideal missile for the mobile nuclear weapon strategy. At 60 feet long and 78,000 pounds, the missile is easily carried by the gargantuan aircraft.

The C-5 Galaxy’s maximum payload is an amazing 285,000 pounds and the aircraft itself is just under 248 feet long. With an operational range of 5,250 nautical miles, the C-5 can fly from Dover Air Force Base to the Middle East without having to refuel.

Launching a fully functional ICBM out the back of an aircraft inflight might sound crazy, but the Air Force first tested this concept successfully in 1974.

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7 whacky life lessons we learned from ‘Team America’

In 2004, the creator’s of the animated “South Park” show Matt Stone and Trey Parker made audiences break out in laughter when they produced a satire film about an elite counter-terrorism team of marionettes that was tasked with saving the world from corrupt leader Kim Jong-il.


In the laugh-out-loud comedy “Team America: World Police” With the help of a newly recruited Broadway actor, Gary Johnston, the team will travel the world attempting to stop terrorists from destroying many innocent countries with their WMDs.

Although this film is fiction (believe it or not), it raises many solid points on how our world is run.

Related: 8 life lessons from ‘Major Payne’

Check out our whacky list of valuable lessons we learned from watching those life-like puppets on a string.

1. The best time and place to propose marriage is right after a firefight

There’s nothing more romantic than a couple in love that enjoys killing terrorists together.

The proposal.

Iconic World War II ‘nurse’ Greta Friedman dies at 92
How many karats do you think that diamond weights? (Source: Paramount/Screenshot)

The reaction and acceptance.

Iconic World War II ‘nurse’ Greta Friedman dies at 92
Love is precious, isn’t it? (Source: Paramount/Screenshot)

2. Spying is really acting

This whole time we’ve been fighting the war on terror, the CIA should have just sent a member of SAG-AFTRA behind enemy lines to resolve the entire conflict.

Iconic World War II ‘nurse’ Greta Friedman dies at 92
It’s not the worse idea ever… okay, maybe it is. (Source: Paramount/Screenshot)

3. Tell a woman what she needs to hear

And nothing more if you’re trying to hook up with her.

Iconic World War II ‘nurse’ Greta Friedman dies at 92
(Source: Paramount/Screenshot)

Iconic World War II ‘nurse’ Greta Friedman dies at 92

Iconic World War II ‘nurse’ Greta Friedman dies at 92

And he seals the deal!

We can’t show what happens next, but use your dark military humor to figure it out.

4. Even North Korean dictators get ronery from time to time

Kim Jong-il has some vocal pipes on him.

5. We shouldn’t always rely on computers

After Team America is temporary defeated, the world’s greatest computer “I.N.T.E.L.L.I.G.E.N.C.E.” had one job: decoding and analyzing what the terrorists were going to do next. It failed us when we needed it the most.

Iconic World War II ‘nurse’ Greta Friedman dies at 92
G*ddammit! (Source: Paramount/Screenshot)

Also Read: 6 pearls of wisdom we learned from War Daddy in ‘Fury’

6. When you want someone to take you seriously

Give them this look.

Iconic World War II ‘nurse’ Greta Friedman dies at 92
When people whip out their serious face, they mean business. (Source: Paramount/Screenshot)

7. If you need to become bigger, faster, and stronger in a short amount of time…

We’re going to need a montage.

(zxxz996, YouTube)Can you think of any others? Comment below.
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Here’s how the team behind ‘John Wick: Chapter 2’ made reloading cool

Professional pain-factory John Wick (Keanu Reeves) is back for a sequel. And once again, there’s a whole cadre of well-dressed people who want him dead.


In anticipation of the film’s release on Feb. 10, We Are The Mighty talked to director Chad Stahelski and stunt coordinator and Army vet J.J. Perry about John Wick’s gunplay style, and how they made mag changes cool.

Watch the trailer for “John Wick: Chapter 2” here.

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19 terms only sailors will understand

All sailors, from the “old salts” to the newly initiated are familiar with the following terms:

Chit: A chit in the Navy refers to any piece of paper from a form to a pass and even currency. According to the Navy history museum, the word chit was carried over from the days of Hindu traders when they used slips of paper called “citthi” for money.

Iconic World War II ‘nurse’ Greta Friedman dies at 92
Photo: Kibbe Museum


Scuttlebutt: The Navy term for water fountain. The Navy History Museum describes the term as a combination of “scuttle,” to make a hole in the ship’s side causing her to sink, and “butt,” a cask or hogshead used in the days of wooden ships to hold drinking water; thus the term scuttlebutt means a cask with a hole in it.

Iconic World War II ‘nurse’ Greta Friedman dies at 92
Photo: Wikimedia

Crank: The term used to describe a mess deck worker, typically a new transferee assigned to the mess decks while qualifying for regular watch.

Iconic World War II ‘nurse’ Greta Friedman dies at 92
Photo: U.S. Navy

Cadillac: This is the term used to describe a mop bucket with wheels and a ringer. When sailors are assigned to cleaning duties, they prefer the luxurious Cadillac over the bucket.

Iconic World War II ‘nurse’ Greta Friedman dies at 92

Knee-knockers: A knee-knocker refers to the bottom portion of a watertight door’s frame. They are notorious for causing shin injuries and drunken sailors hate them.

Iconic World War II ‘nurse’ Greta Friedman dies at 92
Photo: Bob Perry

Comshaw: The term used when obtaining something outside of official channels or payment, usually by trading or bartering. For example, sailors on a deployed ship got pizza in exchange for doing the laundry of the C-2 Greyhound crew that flew it in.

*Younger sailors may use the term “drug deal” instead of comshaw.

Iconic World War II ‘nurse’ Greta Friedman dies at 92
Photo: U.S. Navy

Gear adrift: The term used to describe items that are not properly stowed away. The shoes in this picture would be considered gear adrift. Also sometimes phrased as “gear adrift is a gift.”

Iconic World War II ‘nurse’ Greta Friedman dies at 92
Photo: U.S. Navy

Geedunk: The term sailors use for vending machine and junk food.

Iconic World War II ‘nurse’ Greta Friedman dies at 92
Photo: Exostratics

Snipe: The term used to describe sailors that work below decks, usually those that are assigned to engineering rates, such as Machinists Mates, Boilermen, Enginemen, Hull Technicians, and more.

Iconic World War II ‘nurse’ Greta Friedman dies at 92
Photo: U.S. Navy

Airdale: These are sailors assigned to the air wing — everyone from pilots down to the airplane maintenance crew.

Iconic World War II ‘nurse’ Greta Friedman dies at 92
Photo: Howard Jefferson

Bubble head: The term sailors use to describe submariners.

Iconic World War II ‘nurse’ Greta Friedman dies at 92
Photo: U.S. Navy

Gun decking: Filling out a log or form with imaginary data, usually done out of laziness or to satisfy an inspection.

Iconic World War II ‘nurse’ Greta Friedman dies at 92
Photo: U.S. Navy

Muster: The term sailors use interchangeably for meeting and roll call.

Iconic World War II ‘nurse’ Greta Friedman dies at 92
Photo: U.S. Navy

Turco: The chemical used for washing airplanes.

Iconic World War II ‘nurse’ Greta Friedman dies at 92
Photo: U.S. Navy

Pad eye: These are the hook points on a ship’s surface used to tie down airplanes with chains.

Iconic World War II ‘nurse’ Greta Friedman dies at 92
Photo: U.S. Navy

Mid-rats: Short for mid rations. The food line open from midnight to 6:00 a.m. that usually consists of leftovers and easy-to-make food like hamburgers, sandwich fixings, and weenies.

Iconic World War II ‘nurse’ Greta Friedman dies at 92
Photo: U.S. Navy

Roach coach: The snack or lunch truck that stops by the pier.

Iconic World War II ‘nurse’ Greta Friedman dies at 92
Photo: U.S. Navy

Bomb farm: Areas on the ship where aviation ordnancemen men store their bombs.

Iconic World War II ‘nurse’ Greta Friedman dies at 92
Photo: Wikimedia

Nuke it: The term used when a sailor is overthinking a simple task. Here’s how the Navy publication, All Hands describes the term:

“The phrase is often used by sailors as a way to say stop over thinking things in the way a nuclear officer might. Don’t dissect everything down to its nuts and bolts. Just stop thinking. But that’s the thing; sailors who are part of the nuclear Navy can’t stop. They have no choice but to nuke it.”

Iconic World War II ‘nurse’ Greta Friedman dies at 92

Photo: U.S. Navy

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This is the little-known combat career of John Glenn

Everyone knows about John Glenn, either as an astronaut (the last survivor of the “Mercury Seven”) or politician (he was a United States Senator from 1975 to 1999).


Few know, however, that John Glenn had a lengthy combat career as a Marine aviator in both World War II and the Korean War. His decorations include the Distinguished Flying Cross with three gold stars and two oak leaf clusters and 18 Air Medals.

After Pearl Harbor, Glenn first tried to sign up with the Army Air Force – but instead ended up as a Naval Aviation Cadet. He transitioned to the Marine Corps, though, and was sent to the South Pacific.

The first plane he flew after graduating training, though, was a far cry from a fighter or a rocket – it was the R4D, the Navy’s version of the classic C-47 Skytrain, accoridng to Paul Kuppenberg’s 2003 biography of Glenn.

Iconic World War II ‘nurse’ Greta Friedman dies at 92
A Douglas R4D, the Navy’s version of the D-47 Skytrain during World War II. (Photo from Wikimedia Commons)

Glenn wouldn’t be a trash-hauler forever, though.

Soon, he was flying the F4U Corsair, and took part in combat missions around the Marshall Islands — notably attacking anti-aircraft batteries on Maloelap Atoll.

After a stateside assignment, he was later assigned to VMF-218 in China, where he flew some patrols.

Between World War II and Korea, Glenn was both a flight instructor and a student at the Amphibious Warfare School. When the Korean War broke out, Glenn sought a combat assignment.

According to AcePilots.com, he would serve two tours in Korea — the first with VMF-311, flying the F9F Panther. One famous squadron mate – and wingman – was Boston Red Sox legend Ted Williams.

Glenn often had his plane shot up, on one occasion bringing it back with 250 holes in it. He’d been hit five times in World War II, each time nursing his damaged plane home, according to Light This Candle, a 2005 biography of Alan Shepard.

Glenn’s second tour was with the Air Force’s 51st Fighter Wing. Glenn would get his only three confirmed kills, MiG-15s, in a grand total of 27 missions.

Iconic World War II ‘nurse’ Greta Friedman dies at 92
The F-86F flown by John Glenn during his exchange tour with the 51st Tactical Fighter Wing. (USAF photo)

After the Korean War, Glenn became a test pilot, making a mark in Project Bullet, using a F8U-1P Crusader (the Navy’s pre-1962 designation for the RF-8A version of the Crusader) to cross the United States faster than the speed of sound – despite the fact he had to slow three times to refuel.

In 1959, Glenn was assigned to NASA, and from there, he went into space – and history. But his combat career is something that also deserves to be remembered.

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This is one of the oldest Middle East deployments of American troops you’ve never heard of

One of America’s longest Middle East deployments has been taking place since 1981. This is part of the Multinational Force and Observers in the Sinai Peninsula, which helps implement the 1979 Camp David Accords – the peace treaty negotiated by then-President Jimmy Carter between Egypt and Israel.


According to the State Department, the U.S. brokered the historic accords in 1978, with the peace treaty taking effect the following year. While that treaty is best known for the billions of dollars in military aid it has provided Egypt and Israel over the years, what is not as well known is the fact that a peacekeeping force was also established to keep the two sides at bay.

Iconic World War II ‘nurse’ Greta Friedman dies at 92
A Texas Guard soldier shoots during the Task Force Sinai quarterly competition. (National Guard photo)

According to the MFO’s web site, the peacekeeping force was supposed to come from the United Nations, but that organization couldn’t get a Security Council Resolution approved. Israel and Egypt had to get together in 1981 to work out an alternative arrangement. The MFO was born out of those negotiations.

Iconic World War II ‘nurse’ Greta Friedman dies at 92
MFO Battalion South Fijian and U.S. Soldiers conducting security drills during a mass casualty exercise on MFO-South Camp June 28, 2016. (Photo by U.S. Army 1st. Lt. Sondra Setterington, Task Force Sinai Public Affairs)

The United States provides the largest contingent of troops to this 1,365-person force. The American contingent usually includes an infantry battalion (either National Guard or active component) that serves a 9-month tour. The United States also provides a support battalion to back up not only its infantry battalion, but the troops from 11 other countries as well, including Australia, Canada, and Uruguay.

Colombia and Fiji provide the second- and third-largest contingents, respectively.

Iconic World War II ‘nurse’ Greta Friedman dies at 92
MFO Battalion South Fijian Soldiers conducting security drills during a mass casualty exercise on MFO-South Camp June 28, 2016. Fiji provides the third-largest contingent to the MFO. (Photo by U.S. Army 1st. Lt. Sondra Setterington, Task Force Sinai Public Affairs)

There have been fatalities during this mission. In 2007, according to a report by the Canadian Broadcasting Company, a DHC-6 Twin Otter crashed while trying to make an emergency landing. All eight personnel on board were killed.

In 1985, 250 personnel from the 101st Airborne Division were killed while returning from their tour, according to a Montreal Gazette report.

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India joins “boomer club” with new nuclear submarine

Iconic World War II ‘nurse’ Greta Friedman dies at 92
INS Arihant. (YouTube screenshot)


India’s Navy has become a major global player. Arguably, it has the second-strongest carrier aviation force in the world. Its navy is on the upswing as well, with powerful new destroyers and frigates entering service. Now, it has taken a new step forward – joining the “boomer club.”

India commissioned INS Arihant on the down low this past August. This is India’s first nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine (SSBN) – and it means that India becomes the sixth country in the world to operate such a vessel. The other five are the United States, Russia, United Kingdom, France, and the People’s Republic of China.

The Arihant is a derivative of the Akula-class nuclear-powered attack submarine, one of which was leased by India in 2012 as INS Chakra, two decades after India returned a Charlie I-class nuclear-powered guided missile submarine (SSGN) with the same name. The big difference between the Arihant and the leased Akula is the addition of four launch tubes, which can carry either a single IRBM known as the K-4, with a range of just under 1900 nautical miles carrying a warhead with a yield of up to 250 kilotons (about 12.5 times more powerful than the nuke used on Hiroshima), or three K-15 missiles with a range of 405 nautical miles.

India’s nuclear deterrent is run by the Strategic Forces Command, which will not only handle the Arihant, but which also handles India’s land-based ballistic missiles (the Prithvi and Agni series), and India’s aircraft-delivered nukes (usually from tactical aircraft like the SEPECAT Jaguar, the MiG-27 Flogger, and the Mirage 2000).

INS Arihant gives India a technical nuclear triad. According to TheDiplomat.com, India’s first boomer is seen as a testbed and training asset. India’s future boomers (follow-ons to the lead ship) will carry twice as many tubes, making them more akin to operational assets.

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These are the elite soldiers who go in way ahead of everybody else

The Army’s pathfinders are elite airborne infantrymen capable of slipping into enemy territory to prepare drop zones and landing zones, conduct reconnaissance, place navigational aids, provide air traffic control, and recover wounded personnel. Basically, they have more applications than an iPhone, and they can do all it at night, on their own, without reinforcements or resupply while under fire.


Iconic World War II ‘nurse’ Greta Friedman dies at 92
Photo: US Army Sgt. 1st Class Sadie Bleistein

The units got their start in World War II after parachute drops into North Africa in 1942 and Sicily in 1943 resulted in troops dispersed across the target areas instead of massed into effective fighting formations. To fix this, the Army borrowed tactics and techniques from British scout companies to create their own pathfinder platoons and companies.

As World War II continued, pathfinders led the way into Normandy on D-Day and southern France in Operation Dragoon as well as aided the aerial resupply of troops pinned down in the Battle of the Bulge. They used signal fires, special radios, and lights to create paths for aircraft to follow, ensuring pilots could navigate to their target.

In the Korean and Vietnam wars, pathfinders continued their missions leading airborne forces but the expansion of helicopter operations gave them another job.

They began moving in ahead of air assaults to plan and prepare landing zones for the helicopters. The Army expanded existing pathfinder units and added new ones. Even the National Guard and Army Reserve got pathfinders in the ’70s and ’80s.

Today, pathfinders are primarily used for recovering wounded and isolated personnel, conducting reconnaissance, and assisting in helicopter assaults. They’re also experts in sling-load operations, the movement of heavy equipment by slinging it under a chopper.

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Photo: US Army Staff Sgt. Andrew H. Owen

The Army has cut the pathfinders to two companies, one in the 101st Combat Aviation Brigade and one with 82nd’s CAB. These companies rarely fight as a single unit. Instead, commanders kick out small teams of pathfinders to support operations across a large geographical area where they conduct all their missions. These teams of about six men have seen heavy combat in Iraq and Afghanistan.

With the shortage of dedicated pathfinder companies, infantry units send soldiers to the Army’s Pathfinder School at Fort Benning, Georgia. These soldiers become experts in linking Army ground and aviation elements, assisting their units when pathfinder companies aren’t available.