These 5 World War II jobs were more dangerous than being an infantryman - We Are The Mighty
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These 5 World War II jobs were more dangerous than being an infantryman

If you jumped into a time machine and found yourself at a recruiting office during World War II, what job would be safest to sign up for? While most people hoping to stay alive would just pick “anything but infantry,” there were actually other jobs that proved to be even more dangerous. Here are a few examples:


1. Ball turret gunners

 

These 5 World War II jobs were more dangerous than being an infantryman
Photo: US Army Air Force

Ball turret gunners flying over enemy targets had one of the war’s most dangerous jobs. In addition to the standard fears of being shot down, these gunners had to deal with the fact that they were dangling beneath the aircraft without any armor and were a favored target of enemy fighters.

Worse, their parachute didn’t fit in the ball and so they would have to climb into the plane and don the chute if the crew was forced to bail out. They were also more exposed to the elements than other aircrew members. Turret gunners oxygen lines could freeze from the extremely low temperatures.

2. Everyone else in the airplane

These 5 World War II jobs were more dangerous than being an infantryman
This Boeing B-17F had its left wing blown off by an Me-262 over Crantenburg, Germany. (U.S. Air Force photo)

Of course, all aircrews over enemy territory had it bad. While planes are often thought of us a safe, cush assignment these days, it was one of the most dangerous jobs in World War II. Deadly accurate flak tore through bomber formations while fighters picked apart aircraft on their own.

And crews had limited options when things went wrong. First aid was so limited that severely injured crewmembers were sometimes thrown from the plane with their parachute in the hopes that Nazi soldiers would patch them up and send them to a POW camp. Flying over enemy territory in any aircraft was so dangerous that paratroopers actually counted down until they could jump out and become safer.

3. Merchant mariners

These 5 World War II jobs were more dangerous than being an infantryman
A Merchant Marine ship burns after a torpedo attack in the Atlantic. Photo: US Navy

The military branch that took the worst losses in World War II is barely considered a military branch. The Merchant Marine was tasked with moving all the needed materiel from America to Britain, Russia, and the Pacific. While U.S. papers often announced that two Merchant Marine ships were lost the previous week, the actual losses averaged 33 ships per week.

One out of every 26 mariners died in the war, a loss rate of 3.85 percent. The next closest service is the Marine Corps which lost 3.66 percent of its force to battle and noncombat deaths. If the Air Force had been a separate service in World War II, it would likely have been the only service to suffer as horrible losses as the guys who were delivering the mail.

4. Submariners

These 5 World War II jobs were more dangerous than being an infantryman
The USS Squalus, which sank due to mechanical failure during a test run, breaches the surface during one of the attempts to raise it. Photo: courtesy Boston Public Library

Submariners had to descend beneath the surface of the ocean in overpacked steel tubes, so how could the job be any more dangerous than you would already expect? First of all, torpedoes were prone to what is called a “circle run.” It happens when a torpedo drifts to one side and so goes in a full circle, striking the sub that fired it.

If that didn’t happen, the sailors still had to worry about diesel fumes not venting or the batteries catching fire. Both scenarios would end with the crew asphyxiating. That’s not even counting the numerous mechanical or crew failures that could suddenly sink the vessel, something the crew of the USS Squalus learned the hard way.

5. Field-telephone layers and radio teams

These 5 World War II jobs were more dangerous than being an infantryman
Photo: US Army

Most soldiers know you should aim for the antennas on the battlefield, and that made a common POG job one of the most dangerous on the front lines in World War II. The antennas belonged to forward observers and commanders, so snipers homed in on them.

Similarly, cable was laid so leaders could speak without fear of the enemy listening in. The “cable dogs” tasked with running the telephone wires would frequently be shot by snipers hoping to stop enemy communications. Similarly, both radio carriers and cable dogs were targeted by planes and artillery units.

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Russia Trying To Develop An Aircraft Carrier That Can Hold 100 Planes

Russia’s government-owned Krylov State Research Center is on its way towards developing Russia’s latest aircraft carrier, according to Russian media.


The aircraft carrier is in a very rudimentary stage of its development. It’s still under conceptual testing in Krylov’s laboratory.

Also Read: 37 Awesome Photos Of Life On A US Navy Carrier

But if the tests prove successful and the carrier’s design is deemed plausible, the research center will follow through with a 1:1 scale metal mock-up of the carrier (China may have just constructed its own mock-up of a new carrier).

According to Russia’s TV Vezda, the carrier would be able to stow 100 aircraft onboard. The body of the carrier is also being designed to minimize drag by 20 percent compared to past Russian carriers. If built, the vessel would be Russia’s first carrier to debut since the Admiral Kuznetsov, which launched in 1985. The Kuznetsov is Russia’s only functioning carrier.

TV Vezda also stated that the ship would feature catapults on the ship’s top to launch aircraft during storms. However, this claim is countered by the fact that the carrier’s models feature a ski-ramp style aircraft in the front aircraft takeoff like older Soviet models, which did not have catapults.

The Russian carrier, if constructed, would be slightly larger than the US’s current Nimitz-class aircraft carrier, which can carry around 90 aircraft.

These 5 World War II jobs were more dangerous than being an infantryman
Krylov’s small scale mockup of its future carrier. (Photo: YouTube)

However, any indication of Russian plans should be taken with skepticism. The carrier is still in a conceptual phase and only a scaled mockup has been built so far. Any plans for Russia’s construction of the carrier could also be seriously hampered as Moscow is expected to enter a recession due to current economic sanctions and the falling value of the Russian ruble. It might not have the money for this ambitious of a military project, especially with so many other needs.

Russia’s drive to modernize its navy comes as its force is deteriorating rapidly. The vast majority of Russia’s Navy is a holdover from the country’s Soviet fleet. These ships are older than Moscow would like and suffer from frequent mechanical failures.

Of Russia’s 270 strong navy, only about 125  vessels are functional. Only approximately 45 of those 125 ships and submarines are functional and deployable, according to War Is Boring.

Russia was meant to have received two Mistral-class assault ships from France in 2014 as part of its fleet modernization, but the deal was put on hold over the crisis in Ukraine.

In Oct. 2014, China’s Xinhua reported that Russia would seek to acquire an advanced aircraft carrier by the 2030s. The vessel would be capable of operating in diverse environments and could accommodate both manned and unmanned systems.

More from Business Insider:

This article originally appeared at Business Insider Defense Copyright 2015. Follow BI Defense on Twitter.

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Veterans in Congress call for ban exemptions for Iraqi interpreters

Iraqi nationals who risked their lives to help American troops in wartime should not be subject to a recent executive order halting immigration from Iraq, a bipartisan group of lawmakers wrote in a letter to President Donald Trump on Monday.


The letter, a joint effort by Reps. Duncan Hunter, R-California, and Adam Kinzinger, R-Illinois, asks Trump to grant the request of Defense Secretary James Mattis to exempt Iraqi military interpreters, aides and allies from the scope of the order. Both Hunter and Kinzinger are veterans who served in Iraq and Afghanistan, respectively.

The letter was also signed by Reps. Steve Stivers, R-Ohio; Earl Blumenauer, D-Oregon; Seth Moulton, D-Massachusetts; and Peter Welch, D-Vermont. Stivers and Moulton are also veterans. Moulton, a Marine Corps veteran of Iraq, has publicly discussed bringing his own interpreter to the United States on a Special Immigrant Visa.

Related: Time is running out to help thousands of American allies who’ve been left behind

“We made a promise to the men and women who served alongside us on the battlefield, and we must uphold that promise to leave no man behind,” Hunter and Kinzinger said in a joint statement. “We urge the president to honor Secretary Mattis’ requests, and stand up for those who stood by our military and American personnel. For the safety of these courageous individuals and their families, and in the interest of our national security, it’s critical that we make this exception and do so swiftly.”

On his own, Moulton has taken an even stronger stance in full opposition to Trump’s executive order. In a statement, he warned that closing doors to immigration would fuel antipathy against the U.S. and help Islamic State radicals recruit new suicide bombers.

“His policies literally put our troops’ lives at risk — I’ve heard this loud and clear when I have visited them overseas,” he said. “They also prove he has zero understanding of our country’s values and no intention of defending our Constitution.”

Trump’s executive order, published Jan. 27, put an immediate temporary halt to immigration from seven countries, including Iraq. The order caused immigrants currently in transit to be taken into custody, including Hameed Khalid Darweesh, who had reportedly worked for the U.S. government in Iraq for more than a decade. Darweesh, who was granted a Special Immigrant Visa on Jan. 20, was ultimately released into the U.S. a full day later.

These 5 World War II jobs were more dangerous than being an infantryman
Spc. Alaa Jaza, an Arabic linguist, advises Iraqi Army soldiers with the 73rd Brigade, 15th Division, on how to set battle positions to avoid friendly fire during a training event at Camp Taji, Iraq, March 25, 2015. | U.S. Army photo by Sgt. Cody Quinn, CJTF-OIR Public Affairs

A Pentagon spokesman, Navy Capt. Jeff Davis, told reporters Monday that the Defense Department is making a list of Iraqis who had worked to help U.S. troops for submission to the government agencies carrying out the executive order.

Special Immigrant Visas were created in 2008 for the express purpose of providing a special path for people from Iraq and Afghanistan who had assisted American troops to resettle in the United States, a recognition that these individuals and their families often faced greater danger because of their service.

“It is important that a special exception is made for the consideration of individuals who directly supported American personnel overseas,” the lawmakers wrote in their letter. “We respectfully ask that you take this action to ensure these individuals are not put in any further danger. Doing so would send a strong signal to those who show such immense courage to advance U.S. security interests at a risk to their own safety, as well as the many veterans and warfighters who’ve relied on the service of these individuals for their own protection and to accomplish their objectives.”

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Hitler’s last gasp against the Soviets turned into an 8-day butcher fest

The Battle of Kursk in World War II was Adolph Hitler’s last great attempt to take down the Soviet Union. With his army struggling around the world and slowly losing ground to the Russians, the Führer ordered his armies to hold the line at Kursk in the western Soviet Union. Additionally, they were to launch a massive offensive to reverse the tides and serve as a beacon to German forces around the world.


Operation Citadel, as it was named, called for two German Army groups with hundreds of thousands of troops and hundreds of tanks to use a pincer attack to cut off a large Russian salient, a 100-mile deep and 160-mile wide section of Soviet territory that jutted into the German lines. This would give the Germans control of important rail lines and hopefully destroy five Soviet Armies, about 30 divisions worth of soldiers.

These 5 World War II jobs were more dangerous than being an infantryman
A German Tiger tank rolls forward in the Battle of Kursk. (Photo: German Army archives)

The leader of the operation, Field Marshal Erick von Manstein, wanted to launch the offensive as quickly as possible because he believed the Russians would see it coming. Hitler went to the battlefield to personally discuss the plans with Kluge and insisted that the operation be halted until more Tiger tanks were available.

So the calendar crawled forward from February to July of 1943 with no offensive actions from the Germans. Meanwhile, the Soviets turned the lines into some of the most well-defended territories in the war. They planted over 2,200 anti-tank mines and 2,500 anti-personnel mines per mile of the front while citizens and soldiers dug 3,000 miles worth of trenches and positioned 20,000 artillery pieces. Soviet tanks arrived as well, bringing Soviet armor up to 5,000 or so.

These 5 World War II jobs were more dangerous than being an infantryman
Soviet soldiers man an anti-tank rifle in the chaos of the Battle of Kursk. (Photo: RIA Novosti archive)

On July 5, 1943, 38 German divisions with approximately 570,000 soldiers, 3,000 tanks, and thousands of planes finally headed east for the counteroffensive. Soviet planes with inexperienced pilots were on their way to attack German airfields and the two forces stumbled into each hour in the early morning. The Battle of Kursk was on.

Historians debate the exact numbers of troops and vehicles in the battle due to the fact that military leaders on each side exaggerated their numbers, but by almost every count Kursk was the largest tank battle ever fought.

The Germans had much to celebrate in the first four days. They quickly established air superiority and, despite the heavy defenses at Kursk, both the north and south advances in the pincer attack were moving forward slowly but steadily.

Josef Stalin himself was concerned about the air situation at Kursk and became agitated when he learned that the Germans still held the advantage. Both sides used dive bombers and other ground attack planes to hit enemy tanks on the ground as well as help direct artillery and conduct reconnaissance.

It was an air victory on July 9 that allowed the Soviets to first gain the initiative. The Soviets had been picking away at German pilots for the first few days and finally were able to force the Stukas to drop below 500 sorties, half of what they launched on the first day of fighting. Importantly, many of those killed were heroes of the Third Reich like Karl Fitzner and Bernhard Wutka, both Knight’s Cross holders.

These 5 World War II jobs were more dangerous than being an infantryman
Soviet soldiers advance behind a T-34 tank through thick smoke. (Photo: public domain)

On the ground, the fighting was truly hellish. Columns of oily smoke rose from burnt out wrecks as shells and bombs burst among the tanks on both sides. Russian infantrymen were known to launch near-suicidal attacks through the smoke, running up to German tanks with mines in their hands and hurling them under the enemy treads.

While the Soviets were losing more men and material than the Germans, the Germans were running out of fuel and men more quickly. When von Manstein asked for reinforcements, Hitler finally decided that they were losing too many men to reclaim too little territory.

He ordered the Panzer units to withdraw on July 13 and the Soviets resumed their own march west towards Berlin. While the German tanks that survived the battle were able to delay Soviet advances, they were never able to regain the initiative. The Allies invaded Italy the next month, and by the next summer, they were knocking down the doors of Fortress Europe.

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6 countries who are friends with North Korea

Under the rule of Kim Jong Un, North Korea has been a real jerk on the international scene — like, even more than usual. In fact, not too many countries are willing to be friends with North Korea. But there are some countries who are willing to stand by them. Surprisingly, that total reaches six.


Here’s who they are:

1. Russia

This really comes as no surprise. After all, in 1948, the Soviet Union helped put Kim Jong Un’s grandfather, Kim Il-Sung, into power. During the Korean War, Soviet pilots flew missions in support of North Korea and helped with the country’s flight training. Russia also exported a lot of gear to Pyongyang, including MiG-29 Fulcrum fighters.

These 5 World War II jobs were more dangerous than being an infantryman
Russian fighter. (Photo via Public Domain)

2. China

Again, no surprise, given that during the Korean War, Chinese troops intervened on the side of North Korea. China remains North Korea’s biggest trading partner, and the two countries share a 900-mile long border.

These 5 World War II jobs were more dangerous than being an infantryman
Photo: Xinhuanet

3. Iran

This relationship could be surprising, except for the fact that Iran wants to buy a lot of weapons. In fact, Iran has purchased mini-submarines and ballistic missiles from the Hermit Kingdom, and a “scientific” alliance (read: nuclear weapons development) is also going on.

These 5 World War II jobs were more dangerous than being an infantryman
Iranian soldiers on parade. (Photo: Wikimedia Commons)

4. Syria

If there is a dictator who would challenge Kim Jong Un for most hated, it is Syria’s Bashir Assad. Like Iran, Syria sees North Korea as a source of weapons.

These 5 World War II jobs were more dangerous than being an infantryman
Hmeymim airfield in Syria. (Photo via Russian Ministry of Defense)

5. Cuba

Cuba remains one of the few communist regimes in the world. North Korea, also a holdout communist regime, is reaching out to its fellow client of the Soviet Union.

These 5 World War II jobs were more dangerous than being an infantryman
Fidel Castro became a close friend of the Soviet Union, something JFK tried to stop with the Bay of Pigs invasion. (Photo: Keizers)

6. Equatorial Guinea

According to many measures, Equatorial Guinea has one of the worst human rights record. North Korea has reportedly been reaching out to its fellow pariah.

Check out this video rundown on the the countries that are North Korea’s only friends:

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This Marine says ‘bravo’ to an opera about the battle of Fallujah

An opera titled “Fallujah” opened among critical acclaim Nov. 17 in New York City, stunning audiences composed of civilians, veterans, and active duty alike.


One of the active duty service members in attendance was this writer’s husband, Marine 2nd Lt James Foley, now a student naval aviator.

These 5 World War II jobs were more dangerous than being an infantryman
Photo by Tim Kolczak

Foley is a former enlisted infantryman with three deployments to Iraq with 3rd Battalion, 4th Marines and one deployment to Sangin, Afghanistan, with 3rd Battalion, 5th Marines under his belt.

Foley writes:

Let me start off by saying that I am biased. I have spent 14 plus years in the Marine Corps, so naturally I had my reservations about an opera that is about Marines in Fallujah.

These 5 World War II jobs were more dangerous than being an infantryman
Photo by Tim Kolczak

It turned out to not be as much about the battle in the city, but the battle with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder that a Marine had as a result of the war.

I found myself captivated with the message.

Philip (played by LaMarcus Miller) wants to be a good person, but the war has made him numb.

These 5 World War II jobs were more dangerous than being an infantryman
Photo by Tim Kolczak

He keeps reliving the gruesome images he went through in Fallujah and it is tearing him apart. He feels alienated from all those that love him.

I served in four combat deployments, to include a deployment to Fallujah. I can relate to Philip and all the emotions he is dealing with.

It is a moving story that highlights the struggles our veterans go through. They are separated from their families to fight a war, and when they come home, they start fighting new battles.

These 5 World War II jobs were more dangerous than being an infantryman
Photo by Tim Kolczak

None of their friends from before the military understand what they have been through. Their families don’t understand either.

When they finally fulfill their obligation and leave the military, there is no one there that understands their struggles.

These 5 World War II jobs were more dangerous than being an infantryman
Photo by Tim Kolczak

“Fallujah” isn’t just about the military service members struggles, it also addresses the struggle of the Iraqi people in that city.

It explains the impact that this battle had on those that lived there. It shows the frustration of the Iraqi people.

These 5 World War II jobs were more dangerous than being an infantryman
Photo by Tim Kolczak

This opera also shows the struggles that families deal with trying to love and support their veterans when they do not know how to.

War is ugly, and whether or not you agree with the Iraq war, it happened.

Some of these men and women who served may not have agreed with the war, but they went and served. This brilliant production captures the emotions of that war and what those who have experienced it are going through.

I have never been a fan of opera, I can remember telling myself that I would never go to one.

These 5 World War II jobs were more dangerous than being an infantryman
Photo by Tim Kolczak

I went to see “Fallujah” twice and I would go again.

I strongly recommend that everyone see this opera.  It can shed some light on what war can do to military members, their families who support them at home, as well as the innocent civilians caught in the middle.

It is a must see performance.

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Report suggests US has moved nuclear weapons out of Turkey

These 5 World War II jobs were more dangerous than being an infantryman
(Photo: Umit Bektas)


Last month’s failed coup in Turkey has sparked substantial unrest, a crackdown on opposition to the Erdogan regime, and a downward spiral in relations with the United States. With the refusal (to date) of the United States to extradite cleric Fethullah Gulen and interference with operations at Incirlik Air Base (including a halt in air operations against the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria), concern centered around an estimated 50 B61 “special stores.” (Official United States policy is to neither confirm nor deny the presence of nuclear weapons on an installation.)

Now, according to reports from Euractiv.com, those bombs have been evacuated from Incirlik and are now in Romania, where components of an American missile defense system for NATO is being deployed. As might be imagined, it isn’t easy to move up to fifty special stores. It’s also understandable that the security is a big deal – some variants of the B61 have yields of 340 kilotons – over 20 times the power of the device used on Hiroshima 71 years ago.

The Euractiv.com report came two days after Ibrahim Karagul, the editor of Yeni Safak, a Turkish newspaper, said that Turkey should seize the nuclear weapons at Incirlik if the United States refused to hand them over in a post on the microblogging site Twitter. Karagul also claimed that the United States was an “internal threat” to Turkey. The tweets came the day after a study by the Stimson Center claimed that the nukes at Incirlik were at risk in the wake of the failed coup.

“From a security point of view, it’s a roll of the dice to continue to have approximately 50 of America’s nuclear weapons stationed at Incirlik Air Base in Turkey,” Laicie Heeley of the Stimson Center told Agence France Presse‘s Thomas Watkins. The Stimson Center’s study recommended the removal of all United States tactical nuclear weapons from Europe.

“We do not discuss the location of strategic assets. The [Department of Defense] has taken appropriate steps to maintain the safety and security of our personnel, their families, and our facilities, and we will continue to do so,” a DoD statement in response to the study said.

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Army veteran and comic favorite of Mercury astronauts Bill Dana dies at 92

Comedy writer and performer Bill Dana, who won stardom in the 1950s and ’60s with his character Jose Jimenez, has died.


Dana died June 15th at his home in Nashville, Tennessee, according to Emerson College, his alma mater. He was 92.

Dana served as an Army infantryman during World War II and earned the Bronze Star.

Early in his career, Dana wrote jokes for Don Adams and Steve Allen, on whose show he served as head writer. It was for a sketch on “The Steve Allen Show” that Dana created Jose Jimenez, which eventually led to his own NBC sitcom, “The Bill Dana Show,” which aired from 1963-1965.

These 5 World War II jobs were more dangerous than being an infantryman
Bill Dana as his famous character, Jose Jimenez (left). Photo from Wikimedia Commons.

The character’s shy, Spanish-accented introduction, “My name … Jose … Jimenez,” became a national catchphrase.

Dana became a favorite of NASA’s Mercury astronauts, eventually being named as the honorary 8th member of the first team of Americans in space.

Dana recorded eight best-selling comedy albums, and made many TV appearances while continuing behind the scenes as a comedy writer.

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The Navy may park its most advanced ship on Kim Jong Un’s doorstep

The U.S. offered to send its “most advanced warship” to the Korean Peninsula to curb threats from North Korea, South Korean defense officials revealed.


These 5 World War II jobs were more dangerous than being an infantryman
USS Zumwalt (DDG 1000) during first at-sea tests and trials in the Atlantic. (U.S. Navy)

Admiral Harry Harris, head of the U.S. Pacific Command, suggested stationing the stealth destroyer USS Zumwalt at a South Korean naval base at either Jeju Island or Jinhae to deter North Korea, Ministry of Defense spokesman Moon Sang-gyun said at a press conference Monday.

The $4 billion multipurpose destroyer is armed with SM-6 ship-to-air missiles, Tomahawk long-range cruise missiles, and anti-submarine weapons.

Responding to North Korean provocations, South Korea has been calling on the U.S. to deploy strategic assets to the peninsula on a permanent basis. Pyongyang conducted two nuclear tests and around two dozen ballistic missile tests last year, and 2017 began with multiple threats of an impending intercontinental ballistic missile test.

“A deployment of strategic assets is something that we can certainly consider as a deterrence against North Korea’s nuclear and military threats,” Moon explained, “We haven’t received any official offer in regard to the deployment of the Zumwalt, but if the U.S. officially makes such a suggestion, we will give serious consideration.”

“If the U.S. officially makes such a suggestion, we will give serious consideration,” he further said.

Some observers believe Harris’ proposal should not be taken literally and should, instead, be treated as a sign that the U.S. is committed to defending South Korea.

Given some of the Zumwalt’s issues, it is questionable whether the U.S. would actually deploy the Zumwalt to the Korean Peninsula.

Secretary of Defense James Mattis assured South Korea this weekend that the U.S. will stand by it against North Korea. “The United States stands by its commitments, and we stand with our allies, the South Korean people,” he explained.

“We stand with our peace-loving Republic of Korea ally to maintain stability on the peninsula and in the region, Mattis added, “America’s commitments to defending our allies and to upholding our extended deterrence guarantees remain ironclad. Any attack on the United States, or our allies, will be defeated, and any use of nuclear weapons would be met with a response that would be effective and overwhelming.”

Mattis reportedly agreed to send strategic assets to the peninsula.

The U.S. is expected to send the Nimitz-class supercarrier USS Carl Vinson and its accompanying carrier strike group, as well as strategic bombers, to South Korea to take part in the Key Resolve military exercise.

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Here are the best US military photos of 2016

The military has very talented photographers in the ranks, and they constantly attempt to capture what life as a service member is like during training and at war. Here are the best military photos of 2016:


Air Force:

A U.S. Army crew chief assigned to 16th Combat Aviation Brigade, 7th Infantry Division, scans his sector as the sun sets near Joint Base Lewis-McChord, Wash., June 21, 2016. Aircraft with the 16th CAB were supporting day and night air assault training.

These 5 World War II jobs were more dangerous than being an infantryman
U.S. Army photo by Capt. Brian H. Harris

U.S. Army paratroopers with the 82nd Airborne Division, prepare to jump from a C-130 Hercules assigned to the 934th Airlift Wing during the Central Accord exercise in Libreville, Gabon on June 22, 2016.

These 5 World War II jobs were more dangerous than being an infantryman
U.S. Air Force photo by Tech. Sgt. Brian Kimball

A member of the 100th Logistics Readiness Squadron refuels a 74th Expeditionary Fighter Squadron A-10C Thunderbolt II aircraft during forward area refueling point training at Plovdiv, Bulgaria, Feb. 11, 2016.

These 5 World War II jobs were more dangerous than being an infantryman
U.S. Air Force photo by Airman 1st Class Luke Kitterman

watm-best-photos-2016

A U.S. Air Force aircrew assigned to the 1st Helicopter Squadron prepares for take-off in a UH-1N Iroquois at Joint Base Andrews, Md., April 6, 2016. The flight was part of the Turkish Air Force Chief of Staff’s visit to the U.S.

These 5 World War II jobs were more dangerous than being an infantryman
U.S. Air Force photo by Senior Airman Ryan J. Sonnier

A U.S. Air Force F-16 Fighting Falcon from the 18th Aggressor Squadron at Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska, flies in support of Forceful Tiger Jan. 28, 2016, near Okinawa, Japan.

These 5 World War II jobs were more dangerous than being an infantryman
U.S. Air Force photo by Staff Sgt. Maeson L. Elleman

U.S. Air Force members assigned to the 56th Rescue Squadron conduct post-flight inspections on an HH-60G Pave Hawk during exercise Voijek Valour at Hullavington Airfield, England, March 4, 2016.

These 5 World War II jobs were more dangerous than being an infantryman
U.S. Air Force photo by Staff Sgt. Emerson Nuñez

A French Dassault Rafale receives fuel from a KC-10 near Iraq, Oct. 26, 2016. The Dassault Rafale is a twin-engine, multi-role fighter equipped with diverse weapons to ensure its success as a omnirole aircraft.

These 5 World War II jobs were more dangerous than being an infantryman
U.S. Air Force photo by Senior Airman Tyler Woodward

An F-16 Fighting Falcon flies over Aviano Air Base, Italy on Oct. 20, 2016. The 555th and 510th Fighter Squadrons deter aggression, defend U.S. and NATO interests, and develop Aviano through superior combat air power, support and training.

These 5 World War II jobs were more dangerous than being an infantryman
U.S. Air Force photo by Staff Sgt. Krystal Ardrey

U.S. Army Spc. Christopher Machello, a paratrooper assigned to 1st Battalion, 501st Parachute Infantry Regiment, 4th Infantry Brigade Combat Team (Airborne), 25th Infantry Division, U.S. Army Alaska, places his weapon into operation during a joint forcible entry exercise at Malemute Drop Zone on Joint Base Elmendorf-Richardson, Alaska, Aug. 23, 2016, as part of Exercise Spartan Agoge.

These 5 World War II jobs were more dangerous than being an infantryman
U.S. Air Force photo by Airman 1st Class Javier Alvarez

An Afghan air force A-29 Super Tucano aircraft flies over Afghanistan during a training mission April 6, 2016.

These 5 World War II jobs were more dangerous than being an infantryman
U.S. Air Force photo by Capt. Eydie Sakura

ARMY:

U.S. Army Pfc. Dylan Scott, a combat medic with Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 3rd Battalion, 116th Cavalry Brigade Combat Team out of Pendleton, Oregon, watches the night sky on top of an M113 Medical Evacuation Vehicle during Exercise Saber Guardian 16 at the Romanian Land Forces Combat Training Center in Cincu, Romania.

These 5 World War II jobs were more dangerous than being an infantryman
U.S. Army photo by Spc. Timothy Jackson, 115th Mobile Public Affairs Detachment, Oregon Army National Guard

U.S. Army paratroopers assigned to the 54th Engineer Battalion, 173rd Airborne Brigade, conduct an airborne operation from a U.S. Air Force C-130 Hercules aircraft at Frida Drop Zone in Pordenone, Italy, June 29, 2016.

These 5 World War II jobs were more dangerous than being an infantryman
U.S. Army photo by Visual Information Specialist Paolo Bovo

A U.S. Army jump master assigned to Special Operations Command South commands his chalk to “check equipment!” Jan. 12, 2016, during an Airborne Operation over Homestead Air Reserve Base, Fla.

These 5 World War II jobs were more dangerous than being an infantryman
U.S. Army photo by Staff Sgt. Osvaldo Equite

U.S. Army Spc. Lucas Johnson, left, an infantryman with Eagle Troop, 2nd Squadron, 2nd Cavalry Regiment, stationed at Vilseck, Germany, suppresses a simulated enemy with an M240B machine gun during Exercise Spring Storm in Voru, Estonia, May 14, 2016.

These 5 World War II jobs were more dangerous than being an infantryman
U.S. Army photo by Staff Sgt. Steven M. Colvin

U.S. Army Spc. Benjamin Kelley, infantryman, Company D, 2nd Battalion, 503rd Infantry Regiment, 173rd Airborne Brigade clears a BGM-71 Anti-Tank Tow Missile launch tube during a weapons range day at Mielno range (north), Drawsko Pomorskie, Poland, Oct. 22, 2016.

These 5 World War II jobs were more dangerous than being an infantryman
U.S. Army photo by Sgt. William A. Tanner

U.S. Soldiers assigned to Charlie Battery, 1st Battalion, 320th Field Artillery Regiment, 2nd Brigade Combat Team, 101st Airborne Division fire a M777 A2 Howitzer in support of Iraqi security forces at Platoon Assembly Area 14, Iraq, Dec. 7, 2016.

These 5 World War II jobs were more dangerous than being an infantryman
U.S. Army photo by Spc. Christopher Brecht

Ukrainian Soldiers assigned to 1st Battalion, 80th Airmobile Brigade fire a ZU-23-2 towed antiaircraft weapon before conducting an air assault mission in conjunction with a situational training exercise led by Soldiers from 6th Squadron, 8th Cavalry Regiment, 2nd Infantry Brigade Combat Team, 3rd Infantry Division, Nov. 28, 2016 at the International Peacekeeping and Security Center.

These 5 World War II jobs were more dangerous than being an infantryman
U.S. Army photo by Staff Sgt. Elizabeth Tarr

A South Carolina Army National Guard CH-47 Chinook heavy-lift cargo helicopter assigned to Detachment 1, Company B, 2-238th General Support Aviation Battalion and crew based in Greenville, South Carolina support the South Carolina Forestry Commission to contain a remote fire near the top of Pinnacle Mountain in Pickens County, South Carolina, Nov. 17, 2016.

These 5 World War II jobs were more dangerous than being an infantryman
U.S. Army National Guard photo by Staff Sgt. Roberto Di Giovine

U.S. Soldiers assigned to the 1st Battalion, 5th Infantry Regiment, 1st Stryker Brigade Combat Team, 25th Infantry Division, U.S. Army Alaska, manuever their Stryker Combat Vehicle in the Yukon Training Area near Fort Wainwright, Alaska, during the Arctic Anvil 2016 exercise July 23, 2016.

These 5 World War II jobs were more dangerous than being an infantryman
U.S. Air Force photo by Justin Connaher

FORT IRWIN, CALIF. – A vehicle from Killer Troop, 2nd Squadron, 11th Armored Cavalry Regiment, defends their position while firing a simulated Tube-launched, Optically Tracked, Wire Guided missile at a 1st Armored Brigade Combat Team, 1st Infantry Division, M1A1 Abrams Main Battle Tank in the distance at the National Training Center, Aug. 3, 2016.

These 5 World War II jobs were more dangerous than being an infantryman
U.S. Army Photo by Pvt. Austin Anyzeski, 11th ACR

NAVY:

A U.S. Navy Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) technician assigned to the Explosive Ordnance Disposal Mobile Unit (EODMU) 5 participates in a Very Shallow Water (VSW) scenario during Exercise Tricrab on Naval Base Guam, May 17, 2016.

These 5 World War II jobs were more dangerous than being an infantryman
U.S. Navy Combat Camera photo by Mass Communication Specialist 3rd Class Alfred A. Coffield

HOMESTEAD, Fla. (Feb. 26, 2016) – Special Warfare Operator 1st Class Trevor Thompson, member of the U.S. Navy Parachute Team “The Leap Frogs,” presents the American flag during a training demonstration at Homestead Air Reserve Base. The Leap Frogs are in Florida preparing for the 2016 show season.

These 5 World War II jobs were more dangerous than being an infantryman
U.S. Navy photo by Jim Woods

PEARL HARBOR (Jan. 12, 2016) – Hospital Corpsman 1st Class James Aldridge, assigned to Underwater Construction Team (UCT) 2, installs a bracket to support a new cathodic protection system on a pile.

These 5 World War II jobs were more dangerous than being an infantryman
U.S. Navy photo by Construction Mechanic 3rd Class Ben McCallum

MEDITERRANEAN SEA (Dec. 21, 2016) Distinguished visitors from Spain observe operations on the flight deck of the aircraft carrier USS Dwight D. Eisenhower (CVN 69) (Ike).

These 5 World War II jobs were more dangerous than being an infantryman
U.S. Navy photo by Petty Officer 3rd Class Nathan T. Beard

U.S. Navy Petty Officer 2nd Class (AW) Jimmy Louangsyyotha, from Seattle, uses a feeler gauge to measure disc-break clearance on the landing gear of an F/A-18F Super Hornet, assigned to the “Diamondbacks” of Strike Fighter Squadron (VFA) 102, in the hangar bay of the Navy’s only forward-deployed aircraft carrier, USS Ronald Reagan (CVN 76), during Exercise Invincible Spirit in the waters surrounding the Korean Peninsula, Oct. 13, 2016.

These 5 World War II jobs were more dangerous than being an infantryman
U.S. Navy photo by Petty Officer 3rd Class (SW/AW) Nathan Burke

A U.S. Navy Landing Craft Air Cushion (LCAC) assigned to Assault Craft Unit 5 leaves shore during a loading exercise at Landing Zone Westfield aboard Marine Corps Air Station, Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii, July 12th, 2016.

These 5 World War II jobs were more dangerous than being an infantryman
U.S. Marine Corps Photo by Cpl. Aaron S. Patterson

The crew of USS Michael Monsoor (DDG 1001) pays respects to Monsoor in San Diego, Sept. 29, 2016.

These 5 World War II jobs were more dangerous than being an infantryman
U.S. Navy photo by Petty Officer 2nd Class Abe McNatt

Seaman Brice Scraper, top, from Dallas, and Petty Officer 2nd Class Alex Miller, from Monroe, Mich., verify the serial number of a Captive Air Training Missile (CATM) 9M, attached to an F/A-18E Super Hornet assigned to the “Royal Maces” of Strike Fighter Squadron (VFA) 27 on the flight deck of the Navy’s only forward-deployed aircraft carrier, USS Ronald Reagan (CVN 76) in the Philippine Sea, Oct. 5, 2016.

These 5 World War II jobs were more dangerous than being an infantryman
U.S. Navy photo by Petty Officer 3rd Class Nathan Burke

U.S. Navy divers assigned to Explosive Ordnance Disposal Mobile Unit (EODMU) 5 swim with Sri Lankan navy divers during a joint diving exercise in the Apra Harbor off the coast of Guam, April 13, 2016.

These 5 World War II jobs were more dangerous than being an infantryman
U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 3rd Class Alfred A. Coffield

NORFOLK (Dec. 24, 2016) A Sailor greets his daughter after returning home aboard the amphibious assault ship USS Wasp (LHD 1) as part of the Wasp Amphibious Ready Group (WSP ARG) homecoming from a six-month deployment in support of maritime security operations and theater security cooperation efforts in Europe and Middle East.

These 5 World War II jobs were more dangerous than being an infantryman
U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 2nd Class Andrew Schneider

MARINE CORPS:

U.S. Marines work together with the Norwegian Army to conduct offensive and defensive operations at the battalion and brigade-level during Exercise Reindeer II in Blåtind, Norway, Nov. 22, 2016.

These 5 World War II jobs were more dangerous than being an infantryman
U.S. Marine Corps photo by Lance Cpl. Timothy J. Lutz

Marines, assigned to the 31st Marine Expeditionary Unit (MEU), depart the well deck of the amphibious transport dock ship USS Green Bay (LPD 20) in combat rubber raiding crafts (CRRC) to participate in a boat raid during Valiant Shield 2016 in the Philippine Sea, Sept 19, 2016.

These 5 World War II jobs were more dangerous than being an infantryman
(U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 1st Class Chris Williamson

Cpl. Ryan Dills communicates with other assault amphibious vehicles while traveling from amphibious assault ship USS San Diego to Royal Australian Navy Canberra class amphibious ship HMAS Canberra (L02) in the Pacific Ocean, July, 18 2016.

These 5 World War II jobs were more dangerous than being an infantryman
U.S. Marine Corps photo by Staff Sgt. Christopher Giannetti

U.S. Navy Corpsmen assigned to Field Medical Training Battalion East (FMTB-E), simulate a mass casualty scenario during a final exercise (FINEX) at Camp Johnson, N.C., March 2, 2016. FINEX is a culminating event at FMTB-E which transitions Sailors into the Fleet Marine Force.

These 5 World War II jobs were more dangerous than being an infantryman
U.S. Marine Corps photo by Sgt. James R. Skelton

U.S. Marines with 3rd Battalion, 5th Marines Regiment prepare a newly developed system, the Multi Utility Tactical Transport (MUTT), for testing at Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, Calif., July 8, 2016.

These 5 World War II jobs were more dangerous than being an infantryman
U.S. Marine Corps photo by Lance Cpl. Julien Rodarte

Marines assigned to 3rd Battalion, 2nd Marine Regiment (3/2) and Royal Cambodian Navy sailors rush to provide casualty care as part of a triage exercise in Sihanoukville, Cambodia, Nov. 3, 2016, during Cooperation Afloat Readiness and Training (CARAT) Cambodia 2016.

These 5 World War II jobs were more dangerous than being an infantryman
U.S. Navy Combat Camera photo by Petty Officer 1st Class Benjamin A. Lewis

A Sailor on the USS Mesa Verde (LPD 19) directs a landing craft air cushioned vehicle aboard the USS Mesa Verde (LPD 19) during a ship to shore for the Amphibious Ready Group Marine Expeditionary Unit Exercise Dec. 3, 2016.

These 5 World War II jobs were more dangerous than being an infantryman
U.S. Marine Corps photo by Gunnery Sgt. Adaecus G. Brooks

U.S. Marine Corps Cpl. Tanner Casares, a production specialist with the Combat Camera section, Marine Corps Combat Service Support Schools, navigates through a water obstacle while conducting an obstacle course on Camp Johnson, N.C., December 12, 2016.

These 5 World War II jobs were more dangerous than being an infantryman
U.S. Marine Corps photo by Cpl. Andrew Kuppers

OKINAWA, Japan (Jan. 12, 2016) Construction Electrician Constructionman Jacob H. Raines, assigned to Naval Mobile Construction Battalion (NMCB) 3, fights through knee-high mud and water while running a six-hour endurance course at the Marine Corps Jungle Warfare Training Center (JWTC).

These 5 World War II jobs were more dangerous than being an infantryman
U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 1st Class Michael Gomez

Lance Cpl. Nick J. Padia, a gunner, writes the words “War Pig” on a window of his humvee after reaching one of their objective points at Cultana Training Area, South Australia, Australia, July 1, 2016.

These 5 World War II jobs were more dangerous than being an infantryman
U.S. Marine Corps photo by Lance Cpl. Osvaldo L. Ortega III

A Marine drinks from his canteen before participating in a mechanized raid drill on Landing Zone Swallow at Camp Davis Airfield, North Carolina, August 16, 2016.

These 5 World War II jobs were more dangerous than being an infantryman
U.S. Marine Corps photo by Lance Cpl. Melanye E. Martinez

Lance Cpl. Ryley Sweet drives an assault amphibious vehicle onto amphibious assault ship USS San Diego, off the coast of Hawaii. The Marines are participating in the Rim of the Pacific 2016, a multinational military exercise, from June 29 to Aug. 8 in and around the Hawaiian Islands.

These 5 World War II jobs were more dangerous than being an infantryman
U.S. Marine Corps photo by Staff Sgt. Christopher Giannetti

Infantry squad leaders assigned to School of Infantry West, Detachment Hawaii, provide security during the Advanced Infantry Course aboard Kahuku Training Area, September 21, 2016.

These 5 World War II jobs were more dangerous than being an infantryman
U.S. Marine Corps Photo by Cpl. Aaron S. Patterson

MV-22B Osprey tiltrotor aircraft return after a long-range raid from Combined Arms Training Center, Camp Fuji, Japan to Marine Corps Air Station Futenma, Okinawa as part of Blue Chromite 2017, Nov. 4, 2016.

These 5 World War II jobs were more dangerous than being an infantryman
U.S. Marine Corps photo by Sergeant Major Michael Cato

Marines and sailors with Battalion Landing Team, 3rd Battalion, 6th Marine Regiment, participated in a Teufel Hunden, or Devil Dog, challenge August 12, 2016, on Camp Lejeune North Carolina.

These 5 World War II jobs were more dangerous than being an infantryman
U.S. Marine Corps photo by Lance Cpl. Melanye Martinez

COAST GUARD:

HAMPTON BAYS, NY – Airmen with 101st Rescue Squadron and 103rd Rescue Squadron conduct hoist training with United States Coastguardsmen from US Coast Guard Station Shinnecock December 22, 2016.

These 5 World War II jobs were more dangerous than being an infantryman
US Air National Guard / Staff Sergeant Christopher S. Muncy

Petty Officer 3rd Class Michael Tate, an aviation maintenance technician at Coast Guard Air Station Astoria, hooks up a net full of beach debris and trash to the bottom of an MH-60 Jayhawk helicopter at a beach near Neah Bay, Wash.

These 5 World War II jobs were more dangerous than being an infantryman
U.S. Coast Guard Photo by Petty Officer 3rd Class Jonathan Klingenberg

A U.S. Coast Guardsman assigned to Air Station Houston looks out from an MH-65 Dolphin helicopter while conducting an overflight assessment and search for anyone in distress after recent flooding in Southeast Texas, April 19, 2016.

These 5 World War II jobs were more dangerous than being an infantryman
U.S. Coast Guard photo by Petty Officer 3rd Class Jennifer Nease

Passengers aboard the 561-foot Caribbean Fantasy ferry vessel use the marine escape system to awaiting lift rafts as they abandon the vessel a mile from San Juan Harbor, San Juan, Puerto Rico, Wednesday, Aug. 17, 2016.

These 5 World War II jobs were more dangerous than being an infantryman
U.S. Coast Guard photo courtesy of Station San Juan, Puerto Rico.

Coast Guard Maritime Safety and Security Team Los Angeles conducts vessel manuever training near Santa Barbara on Monday, October 24, 2016.

These 5 World War II jobs were more dangerous than being an infantryman
U.S. Coast Guard photo by Public Affairs Specialist Third Class Andrea L. Anderson

Coast Guard crew members from Air Station Clearwater, Florida, prepare an HC-130 Hercules airplane Saturday, Oct. 8, 2016, for an overflight.

These 5 World War II jobs were more dangerous than being an infantryman
U.S. Coast Guard photo by Petty Officer 1st Class Michael De Nyse

Justin Daulman, a parking assistant, took this photo of CG-2301 painted in retro colors in celebration of 100 years in Coast Guard aviation. Photo taken at EAA AirVenture Oshkosh on July 30, 2016.

These 5 World War II jobs were more dangerous than being an infantryman
U.S. Coast Guard photo

A boatcrew from Coast Guard Station Port Canaveral, Florida, enforces a safety and security zone during a rocket launch off the coast of Cape Canaveral, June 24, 2016. The Coast Guard helps provide safety and security services for launches out of the Kennedy Space Center.

These 5 World War II jobs were more dangerous than being an infantryman
U.S. Coast Guard photo by Petty Officer 2nd Class Anthony L. Soto

Crewmembers from Coast Guard Station Honolulu transport members of the Honolulu Police Department Specialized Services Division aboard a 45-foot Response Boat-Medium offshore of Honolulu, Sept. 26, 2016.

These 5 World War II jobs were more dangerous than being an infantryman
U.S. Coast Guard photos by Petty Officer 2nd Class Tara Molle

Coast Guardsmen, from units across the Pacific Northwest, carry a large American flag down Fourth Avenue during Seattle’s 67th Seafair Torchlight Parade, July 30, 2016.

These 5 World War II jobs were more dangerous than being an infantryman
U.S. Coast Guard photo by Petty Officer 2nd Class Ali Flockerzi.

Articles

Do these civilians have what it takes to pass spec ops training?

It’s been tried before.


Get a group of people off the street, throw them in some cammies, make them do a ton of pushups, put TV cameras in front of them and see if they have what it takes to become Delta Team 6 Air Commandos.

Does anyone ever win those?

But the HISTORY network is trying it again, and this time they may just have gotten it right.

With a roster of no-joke pipe hitters serving as instructors, it’s as if HISTORY took BUD/S, Ranger School, Special Forces Qualification and SERE school, baked them in a cake and fed it to 30 wannabes with extreme prejudice.

That, combined with the fact that the show dubbed “The Selection: Special Operations Experiment” is backed by Peter Berg — the dude who directed “Lone Survivor” — and how can you go wrong?

“Throughout the history of our nation, Special Operations training tactics has played an integral part in our military endeavors and this series gives viewers a rare glimpse into what it takes to be selected among the elite,” said Paul Cabana, Executive Vice President and Head of Programming for HISTORY. “‘The Selection’ will offer civilians the unique opportunity to take part in an immersive, authentic course instructed by different branches leading together, while giving viewers insight into the origins of these challenges.”

With the instructors challenging them both mentally and physically, including tear gas, interrogation simulation, and psychological warfare among other tests, the participants are driven to the point of breaking and are able to remove themselves from the program at any stage. This is not a competition series – no cash rewards – only a test against oneself to see if the mind has the will and strength to push the body to complete the challenges.

“The Selection” will run for eight episodes and premieres December 8. Check out the trailer below and see full episodes on the HISTORY website.

Articles

These Japanese men went from captives to war heroes

Approximately two months after the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor, President Roosevelt signed Executive Order 9066, which authorized the war department to relocate thousands of Japanese and force them to live in internment camps — reportedly one-half were already U.S. citizens.


In Hawaii (which wouldn’t become an American state until 1959), more than one-third of the island’s population were first and second generation Japanese. They faced similar scrutiny as those living in the continental United States.

High ranking military advisors expressed concern with the Japanese currently serving in the armed forces because they believed their allegiance was with the enemy. This ideology caused many Japanese men and women to be relieved of their military duties.

Back in the States, many second-generation Japanese men, known as Nesei, detained in the internment camps wanted to show their devotion to the U.S. and decided to volunteer for military service.

Related: How the WW2 bomber Memphis Belle got its wings back

These 5 World War II jobs were more dangerous than being an infantryman
Nisei men swearing in for military service.

Impressed with the Japanese volunteers, the war department created an all-Nisei combat unit — the 100th infantry battalion. After a year of intense infantry training, they first deployed to North Africa and then took part in attacks on enemy forces in Monte Cassino, Italy.

In 1943, the 100th was reorganized and became part of the 442nd Regimental Combat Team, which included Nisei volunteers from Hawaii. The next year, they moved to the battlefields of France where they fought in eight major campaigns, and played a pivotal role the rescue the Texas 36th infantry division known as the  “Lost Battalion.”

The following year, the proud unit helped liberate the Jews from the first established Nazi concentration camp in Dachau, Germany.

In the Pacific, several Nisei troops worked as Japanese translators and were frequently mistaken for enemy combatants.

These 5 World War II jobs were more dangerous than being an infantryman
A Nisei troop discusses terms of surrender with a Japanese officer.

Also Read: This is how the first Asian-American Marine officer saved 8,000 men

Sadly, in the two years of their combat effectiveness, 700 members of the original 13,000 were killed or labeled as missing in action.

After their war had ended, the proud men returned home and were celebrated by President Harry Truman for their devoted service.

“You fought not only the enemy but you fought prejudice, and you won,” Truman addressed to the Nisei during a ceremony. “Keep up that fight, and we will continue to win.”

Altogether, the men received 9,486 Purple Hearts, 4,000 Bronze Stars, and 21 Medals of Honor.

Articles

This is the biggest predictor of success in military special ops

Creating a fool-proof selection program as well as finding the right entry requirements to test candidates is something the military, police, special ops, and fire fighter worlds constantly seek to perfect. I recently was asked the following question by a few friends who are either active duty or former Tactical Professionals (aka military, special ops, police, swat, and fire fighters):


Do you think there will ever be a measurable test or metric to predict the success of a candidate in Special Ops programs?

My unqualified short answer is… maybe? I think there are far too many variables to test to create a measurable metric to predict success in selection programs or advanced special operations training. Now, this does not mean we should stop looking and creating statistical analyses of those who succeed and fail, or testing out new ideas to improve student success. There is no doubt that finding better prepared students will save money, time, and effort, and it’s worth remembering that much of the entry standards are based on those studies. The ability to measure someone’s mental toughness (aka heart or passion) may be impossible, but there are groups making great strides with quantifying such intangibles.

These 5 World War II jobs were more dangerous than being an infantryman
U.S. Navy SEALs exit a C-130 Hercules aircraft during a training exercise near Fort Pickett, Va.

Recently, Naval Special Warfare Center (BUD/S) did a three-year study on their SEAL candidates attending Basic Underwater Demolition / SEAL Training. If you are looking for the physical predictors to success, this is about as thorough of a study as I have ever seen to date.

The CSORT — Computerized Special Operations Resiliency Test is another method of pre-testing candidates prior to SEAL Training — while still in the recruiting phase. The CSORT is part of the entry process and has become a decent predictor of success and failure with a candidate’s future training. Together with the combined run and swim times of the BUD/S PST (500yd swim, pushups, situps, pullups, and 1.5 mile run), a candidate is compared to previous statistics of candidates who successfully graduated.

Can You Even Measure Mental Toughness?

This is a debate that those in the business of creating Special Operators still have. In my opinion, the “test” is BUD/S, SFAS, Selection, SWAT Training, or whatever training that makes a student endure daily challenges for a long period of time. The body’s stamina and endurance is equally tested for several days and weeks, as is one’s mental stamina and endurance (toughness) in these schools. The school IS the test. Finding the best student — now that is the challenge.

Related Articles/ Studies:

Here is a study on general “Hardness” with respect to Army SF graduates.

Some other intangible qualities of successful special operators.

Some Science of Mental Toughness.

Building Blocks of Mental Toughness.

Training to Think While Stressed. Thinking under pressure is a common trait of successful operators.

Stew Smith works as a presenter and editorial board member with the Tactical Strength and Conditioning program of the National Strength and Conditioning Association and is a Certified Strength and Conditioning Specialist (CSCS). He has also written hundreds of articles on Military.com’s Fitness Center that focus on a variety of fitness, nutritional, and tactical issues military members face throughout their career.

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