But as the scale of the battles between North and South grew, and the field expanded across the U.S., it was tough for military leaders to communicate with troops on the front lines and coordinate the action.
For the first time in American history, President Abraham Lincoln now had access to send direct messages to his generals in the field from a telegraph room built in an office building next door to the White House.
This technology gained Union troops a massive strategic advantage over the Confederate Army who, with its limited telegraph network, failed to capitalize on the nation’s maturing form of communication.
Sending updates to the infantry regiments became a common occurrence with a few taps of Morse code.
Lincoln frequently sent messages to the press, the general public and even to the enemy.
One another positive aspect to this piece of tech was that telegraph machines were equipped with printers that generated a recording of the transmissions and eliminated human error if the incoming message was translated or written down incorrectly.
So, check out these four tips on how to clear a room, straight from a Navy SEAL.
1. Identify the number of troops entering the room
It’s crucial each man communicates and understands what their exact role in the “stack,” or the lineup, will be. The number one man goes in this direction, number two goes this way, and so on down the line. Each troop must be accounted for by everyone.
2. Predict the shape of the room based on what it looks like from the outside.
It’s primarily up to the number one man to clear sector one, also known as the “uncleared sector.” This is the area of the room you won’t see until you’ve entered the room — in the case of a corner-fed room, this is the far corner and corner on the same wall as the entryway.
3. Consider the size of each step taken
When entering in through a narrow doorway, the size of the step taken by the number one man can affect the second man’s progression as the team files into the room. Switching up the size of the step in a compressed environment could result in the second man getting knocked off of their path, which could be deadly.
4. Once you clear or first sector, move on but don’t “flag” your teammates.
In a small room, each member of the team must avoid “flagging,” or pointing your weapon in the direction of fellow teammates. This can be avoided by maintaining your sector of fire at all times and not forgetting the basic principles of room clearing.
Check out Tactical Rifleman‘s video below to watch this Navy SEAL take you through the proper steps of clearing a room.
Secretary of Defense Jim Mattis, who is believed to support sending additional U.S. troops to Afghanistan, will determine if the approximately 9,800 U.S.troops currently deployed there should be reinforced. Trump gave Mattis similar authority over troop levels in Syria and Iraq in April.
A formal announcement on ceding the authority to the Defense Department is expected June 14. The move comes earlier than anticipated; it was expected that any action on changes in U.S. troop strength in Afghanistan would come after mid-July, when the administration’s strategy review is completed.
Giving more authority to the Pentagon allows military leaders more latitude in planning and conducting operations. Options were developed to deploy up to 5,000 more U.S. troops, including hundreds of Special Operations forces, to augment the international coalition force of about 13,000 troops presently in Afghanistan. About 2,000 U.S. troops there are currently assigned to fight al-Qaida and other militant groups.
Mattis told the Senate Armed Service Committee on June 13 to expect the Trump administration to unveil its Afghan strategy within weeks.
“We are not winning in Afghanistan right now, and we will correct this as soon as possible,” Mattis said in testimony.
In the 241 years since the US declared independence from the English in 1776, the uniforms of those serving in the US Army have changed drastically.
Over the years, as the nation grew, uniforms, too, have evolved to fit the times and take advantage of changes in tactics and technology. In some cases, as this paper from US Army History notes, the changes were minor affairs, while in other cases, the look of the US Army was radically changed.
More U.S. troops are headed to Iraq where they will be occupying an airfield that was just recently wrested from ISIS control.
Secretary of Defense Ash Carter announced the new deployment of 560 service members, bringing the total to 4,647, during a surprise visit to Iraq. The Syrian rebels benefitted from a recent troop plus-up as well, climbing from 50 U.S. special operators to 300.
The future arrivals in Iraq will head to Qarayyah Airfield, which sits 25 miles south of Mosul and will serve as the staging area for coalition efforts to retake the important city. Qarayyah was retaken from ISIS during fighting on Jul. 9-10, 2016.
According to reporting in CNN, the U.S. forces will primarily provide logistics support but could also assist with intelligence tasks or provide advice to Iraqi commanders.
Iraqi forces have retaken Fallujah, Ramadi, and Tikrit in just over year and the fall of Mosul would provide another major victory for Iraqi forces. Meanwhile, Syrian rebels and government forces under Bashar al-Assad have squeezed the terror group from the other side.
Retaking all of ISIS’s ground will not end the threat the group poses, but it should degrade it. ISIS relies heavily on income that would be challenging to keep flowing without territory.
It’s nearly impossible to sell large quantities of black market oil without oil fields. And while they could still take donations or blackmail individuals, they can only tax entire cities if they control the cities.
Many children grow up with parents in the military. It usually means frequent moves, a parent being gone for long periods of time. And there is the possibility that some day an officer and chaplain might turn up, bearing bad news.
Whether the parent is a Green Beret, constantly deploying to a foreign country on missions they can’t talk about, or someone who pushed papers at a desk in a building at a military installation – they all served, and they all knew that there was some measure of risk. And when the parents pass on, what’s left behind are medals, uniforms, photos, and in some cases, films.
In this clip, Fred Linden discusses the memorabilia left behind by his late father, Navy Lieutenant Commander Frederick “Bud” Linden, of his service during World War II. His dad flew a Consolidated PBY Catalina – one of the famous “Black Cats” that made the life of many Japanese sailors miserable during the fighting in the Pacific.
Linden’s memorabilia included a map showing the route his father took to the theater he served in, as well as medals.
The two rolls of 16mm color film included in the memorabilia collection showed a wide variety of events during his father’s tour, including bombing raids. The film was preserved through the involvement of Film Corps, an outreach organization that seeks to preserve records like Linden’s.
“The stuff – the medals and so forth – is not something he’d care about, but he would love to be able to sit down in front of that movie and point out the names of the guys and what they did and things he remembered about them, what happened at the time with the people he was with,” he says. “That would be the most important thing for him”
In 1874, the Comanche tribe was fighting for its very survival. Though decades past the height of their power on the Great Plains, the Comanches were not going down without a fight. They were long the dominant tribe on the plains and were known to aggressively resist Mexican or American expansion into Comancheria, their homeland.
The U.S. Army was trying to expel not just the Comanche, but also the Kiowa, Cheyenne and Arapaho nations out of the southern Great Plains, forcing them to resettle inside the Indian Territory, in what is today Oklahoma.
The tribes were in violation of the 1867 Medicine Lodge Treaty which called for them to stop their aggression against settlers moving west in exchange for housing, agricultural training and supplies. For a time, the treaty worked but settlers soon began thinning out Buffalo herds to sell hides, threatening the tribes’ way of life.
Comanches stood up to fight the settlers and the U.S. Government in what would become known as the Red River War. Their leader, Kwihnai Tosabitʉ – Comanche for “White Eagle” – was a Comanche medicine man who preached that a great war between the natives and the white men who were killing the buffalo was unavoidable.
Kwihnai Tosabitʉ claimed that he had ascended to the skies, flew above the clouds and spoke with the Great Spirit. He told his fellow tribesmen the Great Spirit had given him incredible powers that would help revive their once-great people and rid them of the white men forever. He claimed he could cure the sick, raise the dead and control the weather.
Most importantly, he claimed he could stop the white man’s bullets from flying and when he couldn’t, he would make the Comanche warriors immune to gunshots. When he correctly predicted both a drought and astronomical events, the people of his tribe believed he was imbued with the powers he claimed, and they were ready to go to war with the U.S.
An overwhelming number of warriors rallied to this cause, prepared to go to war with the bulletproof powers provided by White Eagle. The Kiowa people rallied alongside their Comanche neighbors and prepared for their own attacks.
Their first attack came in the Texas panhandle, at a 28-man strong settlement called Adobe Walls. The complex was just a group of buildings designed to handle the needs of local buffalo hunters and should have been an easy target for bulletproof Comanche warriors. The tiny outpost was a threat to their existence.
Just before dawn on June 27, 1874, 700 native warriors arrived at Adobe Walls and charged the settlement, believing they were impervious to the white man’s weapons and fighting alongside the Great Spirit in a mission to reclaim their homelands.
Unfortunately, the natives’ surprise raid was spoiled by the collapse of a building’s roof inside the settlement. Earlier in the morning, a large crack erupted from one of the buildings, awakening most of its inhabitants. When they realized it was a roof caving in, many of the men awoke to help. So when the natives arrived to the area, the target white men were awake and somewhat ready to move.
The Comanche nearly won. They rode into the encampment and operated at such close quarters that the buffalo hunters’ rifles were nearly useless. For days they harried the hunters, killing four of them.
As the Comanche surveyed the battlefield, legendary frontiersman Billy Dixon – one of only eight civilians to receive a Medal of Honor – took aim at one of the leaders atop his horse from an estimated 1,500 yards with a buffalo hunting rifle. In an admittedly lucky shot, his target went down. The Comanche left the battlefield that day.
Because of his failed visions and leadership, the medicine man Kwihnai Tosabitʉ, or White Eagle, received a new name from the Comanche people: Isatai’i, or “Coyote Vagina.”
Feature image: Kim Douglas Wiggins/ Wikimedia Commons
U.S. Marine veteran BJ Ganem was injured by a roadside bomb on Thanksgiving night 2004 outside of Mahmoudiya, Iraq. The blast disabled the Humvee he was driving, killing his gunner instantly. Ganem and three other Marines were injured, and while the rest of his team were able to return to duty, Ganem sustained injuries that left him with an amputated left leg, mild brain injury and shrapnel wounds. Worst of all for him, the attack left Ganem with the realization that he would no longer be a Marine Infantryman in the fight for freedom.
He struggled with transitioning out of the military — a life that gave him purpose, a mission and community. His story is not unlike the struggles that so many veterans face.
Today, Ganem attributes what happened next to a very unlikely savior: his dog, Dozer.
Struggling with depression, a painful divorce, bankruptcynand DUI charges, Ganem began to experience suicidal ideations. “I was beginning to plan how I was going to quit my life even though I had a great family and friends and plenty of things going for me, despite now identifying as a ‘disabled vet,’” he told We Are The Mighty. “I justified everything in my mind except for what would happen to Dozer if I was no longer here.”
Dozer gave Ganem the unconditional love that only an animal companion could give — but more than that, he gave Ganem purpose again. Ganem realized he needed to seek help.
“I began to realize that many other veterans were struggling as well and I began to volunteer a lot with Wounded Warrior Project and Semper Fi Fund,” Ganem explained, echoing a common thread in the veteran community: service after service provides healing, connection and purpose.
After five years working in the veteran non-profit space, Ganem realized he could take his activism further and help give veterans the kind of support he’d received from Dozer. He created Sierra Delta, a non-profit organization that empowers every veteran with access to approved dog training that provides purpose, innovation, and community through the love of dogs.
“I had an opportunity to create a new nonprofit focused on the positive effect dogs can have on veterans thanks to the support of Nantucket Island and especially the Bishop Family, who created Blue Buffalo Pet Food Company,” he recalled.
Today, Sierra Delta revolutionizes the “service dogs for veterans” model. Every dog provides a service, and the reasons and purpose for obtaining a dog are individual and unique to every owner. The mission of Sierra Delta is to empower American military veterans by developing a powerful bond with their dog and their community.
A service dog is a professional trained dog that provides service to an individual with a disability like guidance for vision impairment, medical alerts, and more. Service dogs go through extensive training to receive federal qualifications and public access.
Sierra Delta recognizes that dogs don’t necessarily need to be service dogs in order to provide service and support to veterans, so they have stepped in to help vets train their companions to improve their quality of life while building community with other dog lovers.
“The current service dog curriculums are based on the guide dog model that was first introduced over 50 years ago to help blind people better navigate the world,” explained Ganem. “This model has since evolved into helping deaf, mobility challenged, and now mentally and emotionally challenged individuals. It is, however, extremely unsustainable as it requires all dogs who participate to be rated as “public access” and necessitates expensive and timely training for the dog to accompany their person with a medical disability anywhere.”
This is a great thing for the small number of people that need this level of service but the vast majority of veterans do not need or want this level of service.
Sierra Delta believes we can do better. Dozer and so many other dogs have in fact helped so many veterans — what is missing is more a diverse curriculum utilizing existing infrastructure like abundance of dog training facilities and the abundance of dogs in need of a forever home.
Sierra Delta allows any military veteran to join their digital platform which gives them instant access to education about dog care, training, and communication. Veterans can also receive guidance about whether a medical assistance service dog is what they need and, if so, help them decide where to apply for that highly specialized dog.
By providing a community that allows all veterans (whether they are “disabled” or not) and their dogs (whether they are a medical assistance service dog or a Life Buddy service dog or just a well-trained pet) celebrate their accomplishments and share how they are getting better without worry of losing benefits or status, this community could lead to better outcomes for a large portion of our veteran community and for the dog community as well.”
For the first time in 14 years, one of the most iconic planes in American history has earned its wings.
Restorers have reattached the wings to the B-17F Memphis Belle, under restoration at the National Museum of the U.S. Air Force. Wednesday, the museum provided a behind-the-scenes look as aircraft workers reattached more pieces to the bomber’s wings in preparation for a public unveiling next year.
“It’s amazing,” said Casey Simmons, a restorer who has labored on the project since 2008 . “I don’t know if there’s words that really say it because you’re little and you build this kit as a little model (airplane) and now you’re actually doing the real thing.
“My favorite part about working on it is just the fact that I get to work on it,” added Casey, 36, of Dayton. “It’s the Memphis Belle. It’s one of the most famous planes. Everything about it, it doesn’t seem like a job. It’s what I’d be doing in my free time if I got to do whatever I wanted to do.”
The Army Air Forces plane is set to make its debut among fabled aircraft inside the World War II gallery at the museum on May 17, 2018, the date that marks the 75th anniversary of the 25th and final wartime mission of the storied bomber that battled Nazi Germany.
The final crew and the bomber gained fame on a nationwide wartime bond tour, which stopped in Dayton, and for a 1944 movie “Memphis Belle” that documented its combat exploits over Europe.
“The big significance of the Belle is it’s an icon and it represents those heavy bomber crews that helped win the war against Germany,” said Jeff Duford, a museum curator.
The Memphis Belle will sit as the centerpiece of a large-scale exhibit on strategic bombing. Archival footage of the historic plane’s missions retrieved from the National Archives, crew artifacts flown in combat and interactive screens will tell the tale of thousands of bombers and their crews in the bloody aerial battles that killed more airman than any war American airmen have fought in.
Crews have roughly 13,000 hours of work left, said Greg Hassler, restoration supervisor. The museum was not able to provide a cost estimate or how many hours workers and volunteers labored so far to bring the Belle back to its former end of combat luster.
Restorers have labored to meticulously off and on to scrape paint, bend metal and fabricate parts since the Boeing built-bomber arrived in 2005 hauled in on a truck from near Memphis, Tenn.
“You get lots of parts and boxes and things that aren’t marked and it’s trying to figure out where things go (you) look at the drawings and it’s like a puzzle,” Simmons said.
The plane will be repainted to reflect how it looked at the end of its combat bombing runs and before flying across the nation on the war bond tour, Duford said. The paint on the plane today is not the original markings, he said.
“The skin all over the the fuselage is engraved with the names when it went on its war bond tour so you want to try and keep all that as much as you can because if you replace that, that’s history gone,” Simmons said.
The reborn Belle will have a woman in a red dress on one side of the plane and in a blue dress on the other side of the nose to reflect the original look. A row of swastikas added for the war bond tour will be removed because they weren’t on the bomber immediately after it finished its days in combat, Duford said
The wings were last attached in 2003, officials said.
The Battle of Fort Sumter kicked off one of the bloodiest wars in American history and, for the most part, was itself the opposite of bloody. Actually, in hindsight there were some pretty funny moments.
When South Carolina seceded from the United States on December 20, 1860, all federal forces in the state were put on alert – they were now in unfriendly territory. In Charleston, Union Major Robert Anderson saw the situation deteriorating and moved his small force of 85 soldiers from Fort Moultrie – on the mainland overlooking Charleston Harbor – to Fort Sumter in the middle of the harbor. Fort Sumter was unfinished when Anderson’s men occupied it and by the time of Lincoln’s inauguration a few months later on March 4, 1861, the men were running low on supplies.
Across the water, Confederate Brigadier General Pierre Gustave Toutant (PGT) Beauregard saw the Union men running low on supplies and demanded their surrender on April 11. Anderson refused and the next morning at 4:30am, the Confederate forces took the first shots of the Civil War. What followed was a 34-hour exchange of artillery fire, most of which came from the Confederate side. Guess how many people died. Zero. Actually, according to Mark Collins Jenkins, more animals died than people – one mule.
After 34 hours, Anderson decided he had had enough and agreed to surrender. The first casualty of the war was nearly Roger A. Pryor, an emissary from Virginia who visited Fort Sumter shortly after the battle. Pryor sat with Union officers and got up to pour himself a drink without asking, which would have been a pretty badass move. However, instead of pouring what he thought was whiskey, he actually poured a glass of iodine and drank it all in one gulp. Fortunately for him, Union doctors quickly pumped his stomach and saved his life.
The first casualty of the war came shortly after Pryor’s incident and occurred during the Union surrender ceremony, which generously included a 100-gun salute. The salute was cut short, however, after the Union soldiers accidentally placed their stockpile of ammunition too close to their cannon. High winds were blamed for carrying sparks from the cannon to the ammunition, which set off a large explosion that killed one Union soldier and mortally wounded another. The ceremony ended and the next day, the Union troops withdrew from the fort.
It would’ve been nice if the rest of the war went the same way, but by the time the war ended four years later, between 700,000 and 900,000 soldiers and civilians were dead on both sides, making it the bloodiest war in American history by some estimates. Bummer.
With the news that the stealth destroyer USS Zumwalt (DDG 1000), under the command of United States Navy Capt. James A. Kirk (we won’t know for another two centuries if he is related to James T. Kirk), is potentially deploying off the North Korean coast.
The question many will ask is: “What can the Zumwalt do against the North Korean Navy?”
The short answer is: “A lot.”
Let’s take a look at the firepower the Zumwalt carries. According to a US Navy fact sheet, the USS Zumwalt packs two 155mm Advanced Gun Systems, two 30mm “Close-In Guns,” 80 Advanced Vertical-Launch System cells, and two M-60R helicopters capable of carrying torpedoes and AGM-114 Hellfire missiles.
The 80 missile cells can carry BGM-109 Tomahawk cruise missiles, RIM-162 Evolved Sea Sparrow Missiles, RIM-66 SM-2 Standard Missiles, and RIM-174 SM-6 Extended Range Active Missiles.
This is a very powerful weapons suite.
To compare, let’s look at the North Korean navy’s most powerful ship, which is known as 823 — the only Soho-class frigate in service. According to the “16th Edition of Combat Fleets of the World,” that ship has four single SS-N-2 launchers; a single 100mm gun; two twin 37mm guns; two twin 30mm guns; and two twin 25mm guns.
“Combat Fleets” notes that the North Korean Navy also has at least one Najin-class light frigate, and 15 missile boats, all armed with at least two SS-N-2A missiles.
How does the Zumwalt fare against this swarm? The good news is that the helicopters on board will likely be able to pick off a number of the missile boats before they can launch their missiles.
Since each MH-60 carries four Hellfires, we can assume that the fifteen missile boats will be cut down some. Zumwalt will probably empty her Tomahawks at North Korean targets as well.
Lil’ Kim ain’t gonna like how that ends up.
The survivors may launch their missiles at the Zumwalt but the SS-N-2A is a much less advanced missile than the Noor anti-ship missiles launched at USS Mason (DDG 87) on multipleoccasions of the coast of Yemen in October. Zumwalt, with the ability to use the same missiles as the Mason did, will likely be able to shoot them down or decoy them using chaff.
At this point, the Zumwalt will use her 155mm guns to take out any North Korean surface vessels that try to approach. What rounds they will fire is up in the air due to the cancellation of the Long-Range Land Attack Projectiles, but there are a number of options that she can use aside from spitballs.
Once she dispatches the surface force, the Zumwalt will then make sail away from the coast to evade North Korea’s sizable force of old electric (and quiet) submarines. Any that are close will likely get a torpedo from a MH-60.
In short, the Zumwalt can trash the North Korean Navy’s surface fleet. Her Tomahawks will trash their bases. Then, she will reload and come back to hit land targets with her weapons.
As cyber attacks on the US become commonplace, disorienting, and potentially damaging to the US’s fundamental infrastructure, the US Army’s Cyber Command reached out to civilian hackers in a language they could understand — hidden hacking puzzles online.
From there, the user can enter rudimentary commands and access a hacking puzzle. Lt. Gen. Paul M. Nakasone told reporters at Defense One’s Tech Summit on July 13 that of the 9.8 million people who viewed the ad online, 800,000 went on to attempt the hacking test. Only 1% passed.
Business Insider attempted the test and failed swiftly.
“We have the world’s adversaries trying to come at our nation,” said Nakasone, who explained that in the next few months qualified hackers could undergo “direct commissioning” and find themselves as “mid-grade officers” in the Army’s Cyber Command. Hackers who can pass the test online will be invited to apply for a role within the Department of Defense.
With Russia’s attempts to hack into voting systems during the 2016 presidential election and its alleged infiltration of US nuclear power plants keeping the US’s cyber vulnerabilities constantly in the news, Nakasone said Cyber Command will put together 133 teams to do battle in the cyber realm.
In light of the recent attacks, Nakasone said he’s seen “more enthusiasm or desire to serve and join the government or military” and that he looks forward to bringing civilians into the battle against foreign cyber crime.