The new uniform most sailors will wear every day was actually developed by SEAL Team 6 - We Are The Mighty
Tactical

The new uniform most sailors will wear every day was actually developed by SEAL Team 6

The Navy just released information to the fleet on the fielding of its new Navy Working Uniform Type III, the pixelated green, black and brown camouflage duds that look an awful lot like the Marine Corps’ MARPAT digital cammies.


This is the second camouflage uniform for the Navy in less than 10 years, and replaces the oft-mocked blue, black and grey “blueberries” deployed to the force in 2008 to the tune of $224 million.

The new Navy Type IIIs look pretty badass and come with all the whistles and bells of previous combat-style uniforms, including shoulder pockets, velcro tabs for all your merit badges and flags and a collar designed to protect against body armor chafing. The camo pattern is a lighter green version of the Marine Corps forest MARPAT and, if you look closely, the have the Navy Anchor, Constitution and Eagle, or “ACE,” embedded in the pattern.

The new uniform most sailors will wear every day was actually developed by SEAL Team 6
Notice the Anchor, Constitution and Eagle logo embedded in the pattern. (Photo from Wikimedia Commons)

There’s also a desert digital version that’ll be only for sailors operating in arid climes abroad. The new Navy Working Uniform Type III is set to be rolled out Navy wide Oct. 1 and will typically be worn by sailors at home stations.

While the new green digital Type IIIs look a darn sight better than the Type I “blueberries,” they trace their lineage to some of America’s most elite warriors. Now all sailors can have a little of the “operator” spring in their step thanks to their brother frogmen.

The new uniform most sailors will wear every day was actually developed by SEAL Team 6
Medal of Honor Senior Chief Special Warfare Operator (SEAL) Edward C. Byers Jr. wearing AOR1 combat duds during a deployment to Afghanistan. (U.S. Navy Photo)

In the mid-2000s, as special operations forces were fighting pitched battles against al Qaeda terrorists worldwide, Naval Special Warfare operators were refining their kit to better suit the environments they were fighting in. About the time Army Special Forces and Rangers cast their gaze at Crye Precision’s MultiCam pattern, sailors in SEAL Team 6 were testing out a modified version of the Corps’ MARPAT.

What came out of the battlefield research were two patterns dubbed AOR1 and AOR2. AOR1 was a slightly darker version of the Corps’ desert digital pattern but ran more vertically than horizontal, and AOR2 was a brighter green-hued woodland MARPAT, perfect for SEAL operations in places like the Philippines where they were hunting al Qaeda affiliates.

The new uniform most sailors will wear every day was actually developed by SEAL Team 6
Navy SEALs assigned to a west coast based SEAL Team debark a hostile vessel off the coast of San Diego. Naval Special Warfare Boat Team (SBT) 12 assisted in the operation by providing small boat insertion and extraction to and from the boarded vessel. (U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 3rd Class Kristopher Kirsop/Released)

The uniform was the exclusive province of Naval Special Warfare operators for several years, who wore tactical duds in those patterns manufactured by outside vendors like Beyond Clothing. They didn’t become standard Navy issue until 2010, when the service opted to field the AOR2-patterned uniforms to “expeditionary” sailors — typically Seabees, EOD technicians, riverine troops and others who operate closely with ground-based forces overseas.

Interestingly, at the time the Navy precluded sailors other than SEALs from wearing the desert AOR1 pattern, opting instead to keep sailors in the desert wearing the old tri-color analog pattern.

Fast forward to 2016 and the service announced it would field the DevGru-approved AOR2/Type III green-camo uniforms across the force, casting the cartoonish blue Type I patterned uniforms to the dustbin of history.

Guess now there’s another reason to buy that SEAL a drink.

Tactical

Could the answer to Army marksmanship woes be found in the Corps?

Evidently, the US Army has a marksmanship problem. The problem being, roughly, soldiers can’t hit the broadside of a barn with their rifles. My good friend Kevin Wilson recently wrote an article and pointed out that just giving soldiers a better rifle isn’t going to get them to shoot better. So, what’s to be done?


There’s really no question the Marine Corps puts an emphasis on marksmanship. And, yeah, a Marine making jokes about shitty Army marksmanship is pretty low-hanging fruit. So, instead of jokes, here are some thoughts my Army friends might want to take to heart when considering how to improve marksmanship.

What sets Marine Corps marksmanship apart is simple, marksmanship is a fundamental part of Marine Corps culture. The other differences between Marine Corps and Army rifle training, and there are some real differences, are a product of that culture.  Things like shooting at greater distances than the Army, shooting from more positions than the Army, and ensuring all Marines (including POGs) go through basic infantry instruction, are all a result of a mindset that every Marine must be ready to face combat, regardless of their MOS. Due to this mentality, good marksmanship is both socially mandated and required by regulation.

The new uniform most sailors will wear every day was actually developed by SEAL Team 6
Staff Sgt. Shawn Coleman, assigned to Combat Logistics Battalion 26, 26th Marine Expeditionary Unit, conducts a Table 3 live-fire exercise. USMC photo by Cpl. Kyle N. Runnels.

Marksmanship is an essential part of our identity, beginning with Marines’ role acting as marksmen on sailing ships, sniping the enemy from high up in the riggings. Marines like to say every Marine is a rifleman. Obviously, this isn’t entirely true, there are plenty of crappy shots in the Corps. But, unlike in the Army, being a crappy shot is something to be truly embarrassed by. As much as being a fat-body. Or, a sailor not knowing how to swim. Or, an Air Force officer not knowing how to play golf. Being intimately familiar with your rifle starts in bootcamp; in fact, the rifle a Marine recruit is issued at the beginning of bootcamp is the same rifle that recruit uses to qualify on later. And it goes further. We all know that scene in Full Metal Jacket where the recruits march around in their underwear in the squad bay singing, “This is my rifle, this is my gun,” right? Yeah, that (or something similar) actually happens sometimes in bootcamp. My Drill Instructor even encouraged us to name the rifles we were issued at the beginning of bootcamp, life imitating art, perhaps, but an excellent example of the emphasis the Marine Corps places on making handling the rifle second nature.

Every Marine recruit is drilled with the basics of marksmanship. Right from the very beginning of a Marine’s enlistment recruits are taught things like sight alignment/sight picture, proper cheek/stock weld, natural point of aim, breath/trigger control. Now, I’m not saying the Army doesn’t teach the fundamentals, I’m just saying it’s a matter of real study for Marines. A Marine is expected to know how to read the wind strength and be able to adjust the dope on his/her rifle accordingly, no Kentucky windage allowed. Recruits literally spend dozens of hours simply practicing dry firing and practicing their aim on barrels before they even get to the range.

The new uniform most sailors will wear every day was actually developed by SEAL Team 6
A Marine with Company A, 1st Reconnaissance Battalion performs rifle drills during a combat marksmanship program. USMC photo by Lance Cpl. Justin Bowles.

But it isn’t just an issue of not wanting to be embarrassed by having to wear a badge below Expert. Unlike in the other branches, marksmanship matters in terms of professional advancement. A Marine literally can’t get promoted if they don’t have a rifle score in the system every year, and they can’t get a rifle score unless they achieve a minimum qualification on the range. Qualifying Expert isn’t just a matter of bragging rights or having a cooler badge to put on your uniform, not qualifying at all means a Marine could get kicked out of the Marine Corps, same as if they can’t make weight, pass the swim qual, or pass the Physical Fitness Test.

Making being a basic rifleman a part of the Marine Corps culture isn’t limited to just the Known Distance range, though. POG Marines spend an extra month after bootcamp learning basic infantry skills. Patrolling, fire team rushes, squad-level attacks, platoon-level assaults on an objective. MOUT. Learning how to set up fields of fire for a defensive position, proper channeling techniques. All Marines become familiar with basic infantry weapons like the AT-4, the MK-19 grenade launcher, the M2 50 cal, the M-240 Golf medium machine gun, and the SAW.

The new uniform most sailors will wear every day was actually developed by SEAL Team 6
A reconnaissance Marine serving with Alpha Company, 1st Reconnaissance Battalion, fires the AT-4 antitank rocket at an enemy machine gun bunker during a raid exercise. Photo by Lance Cpl. Corey Dabney.

Now, do Marine POGs become experts on any of these systems? Of course not. The training isn’t intended to make admin clerks into infantry, it’s intended to make sure that if the shit really goes down in combat, any and all Marines have real training to fall back on. It’s intended to give every Marine a rifleman’s mentality, regardless of what MOS they’re in. These are the basic standards that ALL Marines are expected to meet.

If the Army wants to improve the marksmanship capability of its soldiers, and thus increase their survivability in combat, it doesn’t need a new rifle. The Army needs to raise the bar. Make the fundamentals of marksmanship a part of Army culture, and watch how the quality of soldier improves across the board.

Tactical

What size crew do these tanks really need?

When main battle tanks like the T-55, M48/M60 Patton, and Leopard 1 emerged, they usually had a crew of four: the tank commander, the gunner, the loader, and the driver. But all of that changed when the Soviet Union introduced the T-64 main battle tank.


The T-64 was designed with a mechanical device to put the shells in the gun — called an auto-loader — that effectively made the role of “loader” obsolete. Since then, every Soviet and Russian tank that has entered service has operated with a crew of three. Their main gun is now one giant semi-automatic – much like a M1911, only it fires a shell roughly five inches in diameter instead of a .45 ACP bullet. So, which crew arrangement works best? Let’s take a look at the pros and cons.

Pros of a four-man crew

For starters, having a four-man crew spreads out basic maintenance tasks. Tanks, like any other piece of complex machinery, need care and attention to continue to operate smoothly. The extra crewman also helps the others get more rest by providing an extra pair of eyes for standing watch – a little extra shuteye can be a lifesaver. Third, a 19-year-old grunt is easier to take care of than a mechanical loading device. Finally, the loader, if needed, can bring an extra machine gun to the fight

 

The new uniform most sailors will wear every day was actually developed by SEAL Team 6
United States Army Abrams tanks on the move during an exercise in South Korea. (DOD)

 

Pros of a three-man crew

The biggest advantage of a three-man crew is that it enables you to build a somewhat smaller tank. A smaller tank is, theoretically, harder to hit. There are also some logistical benefits — the same number of rations can sustain a smaller crew longer. The bean-counters in the rear are also happy — auto-loaders do not need to be paid or equipped.

 

The new uniform most sailors will wear every day was actually developed by SEAL Team 6
Left front view of a convoy of Soviet T-72 main battle tanks. (DOD)

 

Cons of a four-man setup

As you can imagine, to operate with a crew of four, tanks will have to be larger. Also, as a human being, the loader is in need of food, water, and other necessities. In the unfortunate event that the loader is injured or killed, suddenly, a three-man crew must do a four-man job.

 

The new uniform most sailors will wear every day was actually developed by SEAL Team 6
Lance Cpl. William Laffoon, tank crewman with Tank platoon Alpha Company, Battalion Landing Team 1st Battalion, 9th Marine Regiment, 24th Marine Expeditionary Unit, braces himself after firing a 120mm round from a M1A1 Abrams battle tank during a live-fire range in Djibouti. (U.S. Marine Corps photo by Sgt. Alex C. Sauceda)

Cons of a three-man crew

Let’s lay this out here: If the mechanical loading device breaks, that tank is out of action. To make matters worse, a smaller crew has fewer hands to maintain a lot more stuff – including the auto-loader. If the loader malfunctions, someone with a critically important job is going to have to divert attention.

The tanks being compact also means that the entire thing goes sky-high with a single hit.

The new uniform most sailors will wear every day was actually developed by SEAL Team 6
The T-72 is the tank with an auto-loader that has had the most extensive combat record. (DOD)

There is perhaps one test that can determine which system works best: actual combat experience. The T-72 main battle tank and variants — all operated by a driver, gunner, tank commander, and auto-loader — have seen a lot of action, often against Western, four-man-crew tank designs.

Typically, the T-72s lose out. Perhaps that has something to say about which approach is better.

MIGHTY TRENDING

That time a soldier grappled a suicide-bomber and lived

During Operation Enduring Freedom, American troops weren’t just tackling the Taliban and al-Qaeda. A number of them were part of Provincial Reconstruction Teams. The term was a bit of a misnomer – in some cases, they weren’t reconstructing things, they were building things in one of the poorest countries in the world.


One of those troops in a provincial reconstruction team, or PRT, was Staff Sergeant Jason Fetty of the United States Army Reserve who was a pharmacy technician in West Virginia before he was called up and deployed to Khost province. According to a 2007 American Forces Press Service release, he had spent ten months working to build a new emergency room when he would have a fateful confrontation on Feb. 20 of that year.

The new uniform most sailors will wear every day was actually developed by SEAL Team 6
Staff Sgt Jason Fetty (Defense Video Imagery Distribution System)

“We build roads, build bridges, improve health care. The Afghan government doesn’t really have the means to fix itself by itself,” Fetty explained about the PRT’s mission.

Fetty had gotten to know many of the medical professionals at the time, and while on guard duty that day for the opening of the emergency room, he noticed an unfamiliar face. And that person “definitely didn’t look right,” Fetty later said.

“Every Soldier who has been in combat or been downrange knows when something is not right,” he later explained to reporter Donna Miles. “You can feel it. You can see it. It’s a general sinking feeling that things are not going to go right. You feel it in your gut.”

The new uniform most sailors will wear every day was actually developed by SEAL Team 6
Members of a Provincial Reconstruction Team deliver school supplies. (Photo: U.S. Navy HMC Josh Ives)

Fetty attempted to use verbal commands to force the intruder away, but the man grabbed his rifle by the barrel. At that point, Fetty began to maneuver the would-be murder-suicide bomber away, while others evacuated the assembled VIPs, including the governor of the province.

“It was either going to be me or 20 other people back there. …suicide bombers are next to impossible to stop. All you can do is limit the damage that they can do,” Fetty said. But after he got the would-be killer around the corner, things escalated. Accounts differed as to whether Fetty tackled the bomber or struck him with the end of his rifle, but there was a violent encounter that included Fetty shooting the terrorist in the lower legs.

The new uniform most sailors will wear every day was actually developed by SEAL Team 6
Army Spc. Joseph Sullivan, security force team member assigned to Provincial Reconstruction Team Farah, provides security. Staff Sgt, Fetty was on security duty when he went eyeball-to-eyeball with a murder-suicide bomber. (US Navy photo by Chief Petty Officer Josh Ives)

Other troops soon started firing, and eventually, Fetty took three steps away and then made what he would call “a Hollywood dive” as the bomber’s explosives detonated. Fetty was peppered with shrapnel, as were some other American troops, but the bomber had been kept from his primary target – as well as the doctors who would staff the new emergency room.

For his actions, Fetty became the first Army Reserve soldier serving in Afghanistan to receive the Silver Star.

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7 things you didn’t know about the Marine Jungle Warfare Training Center

Okinawa’s Camp Gonsalves, named after the World War II-era Medal of Honor recipient, Pfc. Harold Gonsalves, is home to the Marine Corps’ Jungle Warfare Training Center.


JWTC is 17,500 acres of dense tropical jungle. The instructors here have established a curriculum and training environment that none forget.

Here’s what you didn’t know.

Related: The origin of the ‘best’ rank in the Marines (Lance Corporal)

1. JWTC is not in America.

You and your unit will travel to lovely Okinawa, Japan where you will proceed to avoid all of its gorgeous beaches, coral reefs, and beautiful culture by traveling 25 kilometers to the Northern Training areas. Then, you’ll move through a crowd of protestors blocking the gate to arrive at a replica of the inner island from the show, Lost.

The new uniform most sailors will wear every day was actually developed by SEAL Team 6
So much beauty… but you aren’t going here.

2. You will not be training in vehicles.

Once you arrive, you will dismount because the roads are very few and most of the locations you will be bivouacking are in the middle of nowhere and can only be reached by foot. To get to camp may require some terrain rope suspension techniques.

span class=”mce_SELRES_start” data-mce-type=”bookmark” style=”display: inline-block; width: 0px; overflow: hidden; line-height: 0;”/span(Image via GIPHY)

3. You will be doing some unique movements.

All of the instructors at JWTC are TRST masters and, before you graduate from the course, you will learn to repel off the side of cliffs, hasty repel into and across a dangerous slope, and safely cross a gorge with the aid of a makeshift cable bridge.

(Image via GIPHY)

4. The ‘E’ course is intense.

The last major evolution after all your classes, supervised evolutions, field craft, and various other skillset development instructions is basically a roided-up mud run through the jungle with your very own JWTC guide. It’s named the ‘E’-course, it involves a lot of endurance, but it can be a lot of fun.

(Image via GIPHY)

5. You don’t want to be a heat casualty.

On top of the health concern is movement. If you can’t get out of this environment under your own power, you are in for the worst ride of your life. Cas-evac (casualty evacuation), party of ten!

(Image via GIPHY)

6. Don’t bring your good cammies.

They will be destroyed. That is all.

(Image via GIPHY)

Also Read: 7 tips on how to get selected by MARSOC instructors

7. The wildlife is deadly.

From poisonous snakes and spiders to eels and unsteady terrain with steep falls onto jagged rocks, Okinawa is not for the faint of heart.

The new uniform most sailors will wear every day was actually developed by SEAL Team 6
Do not pet. (Photo by Shawn Miller)

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How to escape from being tied up, according to a Navy SEAL

According to the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children, more than 2,000 people go missing throughout the U.S. every day. Many of those innocent individuals are taken from the very neighborhoods they grew up in. While 57 percent of all missing-persons cases end on somewhat good notes, 43 percent do not.

We’ve all heard the horror stories of people being tied up with rope or zip ties as captors transport them to some secondary, unknown location. Knowing how to free yourself from those bonds might make all the difference in a pinch.


Well, former Navy SEAL Clint Emerson, author of 100 Deadly Skills: The SEAL Operative’s Guide to Eluding Pursuers, Evading Capture, and Surviving Any Dangerous Situation, wants to teach you how to get free.

The new uniform most sailors will wear every day was actually developed by SEAL Team 6
Author and former Navy SEAL Clint Emerson
(ClintEmerson.com)

In the event that you’re being kidnapped and the captors are tying up your hands, it’s good practice to force your hands open and spread your fingers out as widely as possible. This makes your wrists bulky. That way, when you ball up your hands into fists later, making your wrists narrow, you’ll create a tiny bit of wiggle room.

If the restraints are indeed strapped down onto your wrist, you’ll want to widen out our elbows and, with great force, pull your hands toward your rib cage. In theory, this turns your body into a wedge and the sudden force will, hopefully, free you.

This typically works best if you’re bound together by duct tape or zip ties.

If ripping the bonds apart isn’t an option, look for points of friction within a close proximity. A loose screw or corner of a wall can serve as a useful tool in a pinch. Rub your bonds against these points to wear them down.

The new uniform most sailors will wear every day was actually developed by SEAL Team 6

Also consider taking a deep breath or flexing your muscles as captors tie material around your torso, arms, or legs. This will increase blood flow to the area, causing it to grow in size temporarily. Later on, the fluid build-up will egress, making the bound areas narrower. When those body parts slim down, you’ll gain a little bit of slack to help you wiggle out of restraints.

Most people don’t count of being kidnapped, but it never hurts to be ready. Emerson suggests hiding a razor blade or a handcuff in your sock in the event that the worst happens.

Tactical

These dragons help teach pilots how to dogfight

History has taught that dogfighting is a perishable skill. The United States found that out the hard way during the Vietnam War, when the decision to not preserve that skill in favor of a reliance on missiles like the AIM-7 Sparrow.


It didn’t work out well, and a number of Air Force and Navy pilots paid a dear price for that lack of training.

The new uniform most sailors will wear every day was actually developed by SEAL Team 6
A-4 Skyhawk (Photo: US Navy Lt. j.g. Nelson)

In the late stages of the Vietnam War, the Navy founded what became known as “Top Gun” to teach its pilots the art of the dogfight.

The Air Force set up its own aggressors as well. Planes like the McDonnell-Douglas A-4 Skyhawk, the Northrop F-5E/F Tiger, and the Northrop T-38 Talon were among the first used as adversaries, later joined by the Israeli F-21 Kfir, the Lockheed F-16 Fighting Falcon, and Boeing F/A-18 Hornets.

The new uniform most sailors will wear every day was actually developed by SEAL Team 6
A Spanish Air Force Dassault Mirage F1. (Wikimedia Commons)

But the constant flying can be hard on those airframes. As a result, the Air Force has been turning to contractors to help them train the next generation of aces.

One of the contractors that could get the call is Draken International. The name should sound familiar – the company is named for the Saab J 35 Draken, the first plane the company bought, according to a representative manning the company’s booth at the AirSpaceCyber expo in National Harbor, Maryland.

The new uniform most sailors will wear every day was actually developed by SEAL Team 6
Aermacchi MB-339 (Wikimedia Commons)

Today, the company has a large fleet of planes. Some are familiar ones that have done aggressor duty, like the A-4 Skyhawk, of which Draken has 13 on hand. The company also has 27 MiG-21 Fishbed fighters – meaning an old adversary is now used as an aggressor.

According to handout obtained by WATM, the company also has at least 20 Dassault Mirage F1s, 21 L-159 Honey Badger advanced trainers, nine Aermacchi MB-339CB trainers, and five L-39 Albatros trainers.

The new uniform most sailors will wear every day was actually developed by SEAL Team 6
A civilian-owned L-39 Albatros (Wikimedia Commons)

The company currently provides support the Marine Corps, Navy, Air Force, Lockheed’s F-35 test program, the French Navy, and the Air National Guard, among other entities. It not only provides dogfighting training, they also help training the crews of surface ships, including simulating missiles.

The new uniform most sailors will wear every day was actually developed by SEAL Team 6
The Aero L-159, known as the Honey Badger. (Wikimedia Commons)

In short, these flying dragons are helping military personnel be ready for a dogfight. While not many of those have happened lately, one can never tell when those skills will be needed.

MIGHTY FIT

How to navigate the 3 phases of special ops recruit preparation

In a recent, article discussing the Three Phases of Tactical Fitness, many recruits find themselves stuck in phase 1 of tactical fitness (Testing Phase) for far too long. To achieve exceptional PT scores, it may take a recruit 6-12 months or more depending upon your athletic background and training history. Typically, if you join the military unprepared for this test, this period of time has the added pressure of Spec Ops Mentors and Recruiters with the time crunch of the Delayed Entry Program (DEP).

Here are two scenarios the recruit can choose to be a part of:


1. Turned 18 – time to enlist

If your goal is to turn 18 and enlist, great! Thanks for considering military service for a future career – we need more Americans like you. However, are you “really ready” to go from high school kid to special ops recruit / candidate? If you have not taken the physical screen test (PST) yet (on your own) and are crushing the events, then NO you are not ready to start this process. If you continue on this journey you will likely either not ever pass the PST prior to your ship date or just barely pass the competitive standards, get selected for Special Ops (SO rating in the Navy), and soon ship to boot camp. Great right? Well, you prepared well enough to get TO BUD/S but have you prepared at all to get THROUGH BUD/S? Have you turned 1.5 mile runs into fast 4 mile timed runs? Have you turned 500yd swims without fins into 2 mile swims with fins? Have you continued your PT but added strength workouts to prepare for log PT, boat carries, rucking, and other load bearing events? If you have not spent a significant amount of your time in this THROUGH cycle (Phase 2 Tactical Fitness), then you will likely successfully make it into BUD/S for about two weeks on average. Quitting and injury typically follow – statistically speaking.

2. Crushed PST many times — ready to enlist

If you have taken the PST countless amount of times, have worked on a strategy for optimal performance and are hitting the advanced competitive scores, it is time. Take the PST and crush it the first time. Now you have a standard of above average passing standard that you can maintain while you focus more on getting THROUGH BUD/S with faster / longer runs, longer swims, rucking, strength training for the load bearing activities at BUDS. You may even have time to practice some land navigation, knot tying, water confidence, or even take a SCUBA course. The goal of the time you have in DEP now is to focus on your weaknesses and turn them into strengths. And when you start to enjoy your prior weaknesses, you are ready. You will still have to ace the PST regularly so make your warmups be calisthenics / testing focused and the added longer runs / swims / rucks and lifts to follow. See Tactical Fitness or Tactical Strength for ideas.

To ALL recruits: exercise patience

The new uniform most sailors will wear every day was actually developed by SEAL Team 6
Marine Corps Sgt. Joshua Morris executes a Romanian deadlift during a High Intensity Tactical Training Level 1 instructor course.
(U.S. Marine Corps photo by George Melendez)

If a recruit would take 6-12 months before talking to a recruiter and joining the DEP, the recruit could be fully prepared to crush the PST on day one. Because if you do not get competitive PST scores to be put into the system, you will be in test taking mode until you pass. When you pass the first time, you can start preparing for phase 2 of tactical fitness (getting THROUGH the training). However, making sure you can crush the PST even on a bad day is a requirement as you will be taking the test at both boot camp and Pre-BUD/S, and BUD/S Orientation. If you fail the PST at Boot camp, Pre-BUDS, or BUD/S Orientation, you go home.

Tactical Fitness Phase 2 requires you to focus on the specifics of your future spec ops selection. This is what you need to be spending most of your time prior to boot camp doing. Longer runs, rucks, longer swims with fins, and high rep PT, weight training to prepare for the load bearing of boat carries and log PT and grinder PT.

When you think about tactical fitness you cannot confuse the three phases of the journey (To, Through, and Active Duty Operator).

Phase 1: recruit

Focus your training on testing to get into the training program you seek but also worked on any weaknesses you may have (strength, endurance, stamina, run, swim, ruck, etc…). This may take 6-12 months at least, make sure you place this phase in front of your recruiter visit.Tactical Fitness Phase 2 requires you to focus on the specifics of your future spec ops selection. This is what you need to be spending most of your time prior to boot camp doing. Longer runs, rucks, longer swims with fins, and high rep PT, weight training to prepare for the load bearing of boat carries and log PT and grinder PT.

When you think about tactical fitness you cannot confuse the three phases of the journey (To, Through, and Active Duty Operator).

Phase 2: student

Preparing to become a student in a challenging selection, Boot Camp, academy type program requires specific training for those challenges. Focus on weaknesses as a week within your selection training will expose them.

Phase 3: operator

You will not even get here if you are not adequately prepared for Phases 1 and 2. Do not rush it – get ready first THEN charge forward fully prepared.

This article originally appeared on Military.com. Follow @military.com on Twitter.

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What happens when you cover an enemy grenade with your kevlar

In April 2004, a convoy of Marines came under small arms and RPG fire near Karabilah, Iraq. Marines from Camp Husaybah were dispatched to go in search of the attackers. While searching vehicles for weapons at a checkpoint, one Marine was assaulted by an unknown Iraqi holding a grenade. That Marine was Cpl. Jason Dunham.


The two fell to the ground. From the Iraqi’s hand came a live grenade. Dunham threw himself on top of it, covering the grenade with his kevlar helmet and his body. When it exploded, the grenade shredded his helmet and mortally wounded the 22-year-old Dunham. He died a few days later, on Apr. 22, 2004.

The new uniform most sailors will wear every day was actually developed by SEAL Team 6
On the table is what remained of Cpl. Dunham’s kevlar helmet after taking a full grenade blast.

Jason Dunham did what he thought was the right thing to do: heroically throwing himself on a grenade to save others. The selfless act rightfully earned him the Medal of Honor, which was presented to his family by President George W. Bush in January 2007. A U.S. Navy guided-missile destroyer now bears his name (and his dress uniform, complete with Medal of Honor, on its quarterdeck).

The new uniform most sailors will wear every day was actually developed by SEAL Team 6
Dunham (left) posthumously received the Medal of Honor three years later. An Arleigh Burke-class guided-missile destroyer was named USS Jason Dunham in his honor. He was the first Marine awarded the Medal of Honor for Operation Iraqi Freedom. (U.S. Navy courtesy photo)

Using the kevlar helmet did blunt the explosion, according to a Wall Street Journal reporter who followed Dunham’s story very closely. But the shrapnel pierced Dunham’s skull and he suffered heavy brain damage. No one else in the area received life-threatening injuries.

What makes the story even more remarkable is that Cpl. Dunham and his fellow Marines had been talking about the very same eventuality just a few days prior — what to do in case you have to respond to a grenade attack. One Marine advised kicking it away. Another said to drop and make yourself a small target for the fragments with your feet facing the grenade. Dunham’s response to the real-life situation was exactly what he said it should be: He covered it with his helmet.

Is that the best way to handle a grenade? No, but in the opinion of other infantry veterans, Dunham did the right thing. Anyone who covers a grenade with their kevlar is going to be severely wounded. And, chances are, Dunham would probably have been killed by the grenade regardless due to his proximity. But his helmet likely absorbed all of the grenade’s shrapnel and allowed his fellow Marines to come out relatively unscathed.

But what do you do if you don’t have a hero like a Jason Dunham to throw himself on a grenade and save you? Dan Rosenthal, an infantry veteran and three-time top Quora writer, has some advice for those who face a grenade without any cover to hide behind. First and foremost, don’t try to throw it back. You have about three to five seconds of reaction time, so running isn’t an option. Basically, expect to get hit – but minimize where and how much you’re hit to maximize your chances of survival.

If you didn’t dig your defensive fighting position with a grenade sump, the best thing you can do is get down on the ground with your kevlar pointed toward the blast. Helmets (and modern shoulder pads) were designed to protect from fragmentation.

The new uniform most sailors will wear every day was actually developed by SEAL Team 6
Might be worth the effort.

Your second best bet is to put your feet toward the blast. This technique is most notable for civilians falling victim to a terrorist attack that uses grenades. Minimize exposure to the blast and make yourself a small target for the fragmentation.

Tactical

5 things you need to know to become a Marine HRST master

Recruiting videos and Hollywood blockbusters often feature the thrilling image of a helicopter hovering over a building as soldiers or Marines quickly dismount via ropes into an austere environment. If you’ve ever wondered who is behind this ingress, you are not alone.


Marine Helicopter Rope Suspension Techniques (HRST) masters are the ones responsible for all aspects of these maneuvers. They shoulder a serious burden in that the Marines who fast rope or repel from their lines very literally entrust them with their lives.

Here are a few tips from a former HRST master instructor on how to live the dream showcased in those high-speed commercials.

Related: 7 tips on how to get selected by MARSOC instructors

1. Attention to detail

This may seem to be a little obvious but it cannot be emphasized enough: Do it right every time. Your Marines’ lives are literally on the line.

The new uniform most sailors will wear every day was actually developed by SEAL Team 6
Now lean back, let it happen. (Image via Cpl. Jodson Graves)

2. Order of operations matters

There are many knots to know and, when anchors are tied inside helicopters, the order in which they are tied is just as important as how they were tied. Distribution of the load is paramount and can only be achieved if done in order.

The new uniform most sailors will wear every day was actually developed by SEAL Team 6
Primary, secondary, and tertiary, we’re trying to go home soon. (Image via Cpl. Jodson Graves)

3. Speed and accuracy

Get it done faster! When you take your knots test, instructors will give you times as short as 15 seconds to to put together perfect knots with pigtails (rope left over at the end of a knot) no longer than 2-4 inches.

The new uniform most sailors will wear every day was actually developed by SEAL Team 6
Bro, hurry up. (Image via Sean Dodds)

4. Hatch-side manner

Not everyone you send down is cool with heights. Maintain a certain level of confidence as the HRST master and it’ll bleed over onto an individual, terrified of heights, who may be living their nightmare right now.

The new uniform most sailors will wear every day was actually developed by SEAL Team 6
Oh sh*t… I told him not to grip with his guide hand, right? (Image via Cpl. Jodson Graves)

Also Read: They started at the bottom, now they are billionaire veterans

5. Complacency kills

No matter how dynamic or exciting, eventually everything becomes routine. Believe it or not, even flying around and repelling out of helicopters can become just another Tuesday and, thus, become a breeding ground for complacency. Fight that sh*t. Do your job right and get the mission accomplished with zero casualties.

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The Navy’s amphibious assault ships can be emergency carriers

How many carriers does the United States Navy have? Well, between the ten Nimitz-class nuclear-powered aircraft carriers and the freshly commissioned USS Gerald R. Ford (CVN 78), the first of her class, you might think the answer is 11 — but you’d be underestimating. There are nine other ships in the fleet that can serve as carriers in a pinch.


The new uniform most sailors will wear every day was actually developed by SEAL Team 6
While USS Carl Vinson (CVN 70) may be what people imagine when they think of aircraft carriers, USS America (LHA 6) would be no slouch in an emergency. (U.S. Navy Photo by Mass Communication Specialist 2nd Class Sean M. Castellano)

Those are the eight Wasp-class amphibious assault ships and the single America-class vessel in service. Their primary role, currently, is to carry about a battalion’s worth of Marines and attachments, usually in conjunction with an amphibious transport dock, like USS San Antonio (LPD 17), and a landing ship dock, like USS Whidbey Island (LSD 41). But these massive ships are actually much more versatile.

The new uniform most sailors will wear every day was actually developed by SEAL Team 6
Take a look at the United States Navy’s greatest warship of World War II, USS Enterprise (CV 6). What modern ship does she look like? (US Navy photo)

Just look at a ship like USS America. What does she look like? Well, there’s a flat deck all the way down the ship and an island on the right. In fact, if you were to take a look at perhaps the greatest U.S. Navy ship of World War II, the aircraft carrier USS Enterprise (CV 6), you may notice a striking similarity.

The new uniform most sailors will wear every day was actually developed by SEAL Team 6
The AV-8B Harrier is a key part of the Air Combat Element of a Marine Expeditionary Unit, but never forget it is a V/STOL multi-role fighter. (U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 3rd Class Vance Hand)

Today, USS America, as well as her Wasp-class predecessors, haul around the Air Combat Element of a Marine Expeditionary Unit. In Tom Clancy’s 1996 book, Marine: A Guided Tour of a Marine Expeditionary Unit, the 26th Marine Expeditionary Unit was equipped with six AV-8B Harriers, twelve CH-46 Sea Knight helicopters, eight CH-53E Sea Stallion helicopters, eight AH-1W Cobras, and three UH-1N Hueys for a deployment. That is a total of 37 aircraft.

The new uniform most sailors will wear every day was actually developed by SEAL Team 6
Looking at USS Essex (LHD 2) from behind, her resemblance to World War II aircraft carriers is undeniable. (U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 3rd Class Ryan M. Breeden)

But imagine for a moment that you were able to mess around with the numbers a little. First, let’s offload all of the helicopters. Instead, let’s put an entire squadron of 15 Harriers on board, or offload the six Harriers in favor of a squadron of 16 F-35B Lightnings. Next, let’s add about a dozen of the Navy’s MH-60R Seahawk helicopters. And presto, you now have an air group on board that is outclassed only by the air groups on the French Charles de Gaulle and the U.S. Navy’s Nimitz- and Ford-classes of carriers.

The new uniform most sailors will wear every day was actually developed by SEAL Team 6
The F-35Bs lined up for takeoff on USS Wasp (LHD 1) are potent. Imagine if Wasp was hauling a full squadron of them. (U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 1st Class Daniel Barker)

Because the America and the Wasp were designed to haul Marines around, they’re not going to perform as well as a full-scale carrier. They’ll also have a much more limited capacity than their larger counterparts. But they could fill in somewhere in a pinch. In essence, they are “backup carriers” and you never know when having those backups might save America’s butt.

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This is how a guitar pick can keep you warm out in the field

A crackling fire, some good music, and a heap of roasted marshmallows are just a few of the classics that campers enjoy when spending a day or two out under the stars.

However, in some cases, things don’t go as planned and disaster strikes at the worst times. That’s why it’s important to always be prepared for when the weather gets nasty. If you’re not ready to face Mother Nature’s wrath, you might pay the ultimate price.


In the event that you need to spend an extra night outside for some reason, you’re going to need to stay warm. For the unprepared, there’s one small piece of unassumingly useful gear that the musician of the group might have brought along with them — a guitar pick.

The new uniform most sailors will wear every day was actually developed by SEAL Team 6
A normal guitar pick.
(Black Scout Survival)

This small strumming tool might be exactly what you need to start a fire and stay toasty.

Guitar picks are made out of a very flammable material called celluloid — the same stuff used in film. This makes picks extremely handy tools for starting fires.

First, find yourself some wood and carve out a small divot. Next, cut a slit down the centerline, starting about an inch or so from the top.

The new uniform most sailors will wear every day was actually developed by SEAL Team 6
Slice the wood down the centerline
(Black Scout Survival)

Scratch the flammable celluloid off the surface of the pick and collect the shavings in the freshly carved divot. Don’t be cheap with the shavings; you’ll want to slice off around a quarter of the guitar pick’s surface. We’ll use the rest later.

Now, place the rest of the guitar pick in the slit you cut down the wood’s centerline, above the divot.Now, add heat to the small pile of collected celluloid shavings by either rubbing a sturdy stick against the wood like Tom Hanks did in Castaway — or you can use a ferrocerium rod if you have one.

The new uniform most sailors will wear every day was actually developed by SEAL Team 6
Fire!
(Black Scout Survival)

Once you get the shavings lit, add a small amount of kindling (the drier the better) and let the flame breathe and grow.

Note: All fires should be built safely and cared for responsibly. We wouldn’t want an already sh*tty situation to get worse.

Check out Black Scout Survival‘s video below to see how this little tool can start the perfect fire in mere seconds.

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Why Marines wanted to practice amphibious warfare in Djibouti

Recently, Marines and Sailors with the 26th Marine Expeditionary Unit based on the amphibious assault ship USS Iwo Jima (LHD 7) began a major exercise in Djibouti known as Alligator Dagger. Unfortunately, it was quickly cancelled after a pair of crashes.

If you’re like a lot of people, you may be wondering, “why bother having the exercise in Djibouti, of all places?” Well, believe it or not, there are some very good reasons.


The new uniform most sailors will wear every day was actually developed by SEAL Team 6

U.S. Marines assigned to the Maritime Raid Force (MRF), 26th Marine Expeditionary Unit (MEU), offload gear from an MV-22B Osprey, assigned to Marine Medium Tiltrotor Squadron (VMM) 162 (Reinforced), 26th MEU, in Arta Range, Djibouti

(USMC photo by Cpl. Jered Stone)

The 26th Marine Expeditionary Unit is currently deployed to the Central Command (CENTCOM) area of operations. These Marines are, in essence, a floating reserve for the current commander of CENTCOM, General Joseph L. Votel. But, as is the case with all Marines, it’s important to keep readiness high. To do so, you need practice.

The new uniform most sailors will wear every day was actually developed by SEAL Team 6

A U.S. Marine MV-22B Osprey, assigned to Marine Medium Tiltrotor Squadron (VMM) 162 (Reinforced), 26th Marine Expeditionary Unit, prepares to land on the flight deck of USS Lewis B. Puller (ESB 3) during Alligator Dagger,

(USMC photo by Cpl. Jered Stone)

In a release, the Marines stated they planned to conduct “amphibious training; live-fire; visit, board, search, and seizure; tactical recovery of aircraft and personnel as well as air assault evolutions.” Tanks, artillery, and mortar crews would also get a chance to practice during the two weeks of training at the Arta Range Complex in Djibouti.

The new uniform most sailors will wear every day was actually developed by SEAL Team 6

U.S. Marines assigned to the Maritime Raid Force (MRF), 26th Marine Expeditionary Unit (MEU), ride in an MV-22B Osprey, assigned to Marine Medium Tiltrotor Squadron (VMM) 162 (Reinforced), 26th MEU during Alligator Dagger

(USMC photo by Cpl. Jered Stone)

All of this training needs to happen somewhere, and Djibouti was a very good place for it. Given that it’s in the Horn of Africa, it’s not exactly high on the list of places people want to visit. This means it provides a place for the Marines to practice their signature operations in an austere, potentially realistic setting.

The new uniform most sailors will wear every day was actually developed by SEAL Team 6

A U.S. Marine Corps MV-22B assigned to Marine Medium Tiltrotor Squadron (VMM) 162 (Reinforced), 26th Marine Expeditionary Unit, is parked in Arta Range, Djibouti, during Alligator Dagger

(USMC photo by Cpl. Jered Stone)

In the real world, when Marines deploy, it’s not always going to be staged from a place like Kuwait, where a lot of modern conveniences are readily available. Similarly, training in the United States doesn’t prepare you for when you need a CH-53 to deliver fuel for your Humvees.

The new uniform most sailors will wear every day was actually developed by SEAL Team 6

U.S. Marines assigned to the Maritime Raid Force (MRF), 26th Marine Expeditionary Unit (MEU), board an MV-22B Osprey, assigned to Marine Medium Tiltrotor Squadron (VMM) 162 (Reinforced), 26th MEU, on the flight deck of the Wasp-class amphibious assault ship USS Iwo Jima (LHD 7).

(USMC photo by Cpl, Jered Stone)

That is why the Marines wanted to train in Djibouti for two weeks. Losing this opportunity will sting pretty badly, but after those two crashes, the Marines had no choice but to stand down.